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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Calvinist theologian, born at Middelburg in 1642. He
became professor of theology at Utrecht in 1678, and
published (in Latin) several esteemed works, among
which are a "History of the African Church," (1690,)
"On the Hebrew Republic," (1704,) and a treatise
against the philosophy of Descartes, called "The Torch
of Truth," ("Fax Veritatis.") Died in 1721.

Ley den, li'den, (JOHN,) M.D., a Scottish poet and
antiquary, eminent as an Oriental scholar, was born at
Denholm, on the Teviot, in 1775. At a college of Edin-
burgh he studied the principal ancient and modern
languages. He afterwards studied medicine, and in
1802 went to Madras as an assistant surgeon in the
service of the East India Company. There he learned
Sanscrit, Persian, Hindostanee, and other Asiatic lan-
guages. About 1806 he was appointed professor of
Hindostanee at Calcutta. He became assay-master of
the Calcutta Mint in 1810. He contributed to Scott's
" Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border," wrote other poetical
pieces, and published a treatise "On the Languages and
Literature of the Indo-Chinese Nations." Died in Java
j in 1811.

Leyden, (JOHN OF.) See JOHN OF LEYDEN.
Leyden, van, vfn li'den, (LUCAS,) |Fr. LUCAS L>H
LEYDE, lu'kas' deh ljd,| or LUCAS Dammesz, a cele-
brated Dutch painter and engraver, born at Leyden in
1494. He received his first lessons in design from his
father, Hugh Jacobs or Jacobze, and at the age of twelve
painted in distemper a picture of Saint Hubert, which
was gieatly admired. He painted, with equal success,
landscapes and portraits. As an engraver he excelled
in aerial perspective and chiaroscuro, and, according to
Vasari, surpassed Albert Durer in composition. " As a
painter," says the " Biographic Universelle," "he passes
j for the greatest artist of the Flemish school in his time."
j Among his master-pieces are a painting of the " Last
Judgment," an "Ecce Homo," dated 1510, an engraving



" Mary Magdalene Dancing," and another called " Eu-
lenspiegel," of which, it is said, only five or six proofs
are extant. He was an intimate friend of Albert Durer.
Died in 1533.

Leys, lis or li, JEAN AUGUSTE HENRI,) an eminent
Belgian historical painter, born at Antwerp in 1815. He
obtained one of the grand medals at the Exposition of
Paris in 1855, when he exhibited "The New Year in
Flanders," and other pictures. Died August 25, 1869.

Leyser, vou, fon li'zer, (AUGUSTIN,) an eminent



as k; c as j; | hard; g as /'; G, H, K, guttural '; N, nasal; R, trilled; as z: th as in this.



iee Explanations, p. 23.)



LEYSER



1544



L'HOPITAL



German jurist, born at Wittenberg in 1683. He pub-
lished many legal works, the most important of which
Is "Thoughts on the Pandects," (" Meditationes ad Pan-
dectas," II vols., 1717-47.) Died in 1752.

Leyser, vcm, written also Lyser, [LaL LYSE'RUS,]
(PoLYCARP,) a German Lutheran divine, was born in
Wiirteniberg in 1552. He was appointed professor of
theology at Wittenberg in 1576. From 1594 until his
death he was the first preacher at the court of Dresden.
He published, besides other works, a continuation of
Chemnitz's "Harmonia Evangelica." Died in 1610.

Leyssena, lls'sens, (NICOLAAS,) a Flemish painter,
born at Antwerp about 1660, worked with success in his
native city. Died in 1720.

Leyva, de, di laVva, or Leva, la'va, (ANTONIO,)
one of the ablest generals of the emperor Charles V.,
was born in Navarre about 1480. He fought at Ravenna
in 1512, and distinguished himself at Rebec in 1524.
He commanded in Pavla when it was besieged by Francis
I. His obstinate defence occasioned the battle of Pavia,
(1525,) during which he made a sortie, and, falling upon
the rear of the French, decided the fate of the day. In
1532 he was chosen generalissimo of the Italian league
against Francis I. He accompanied Charles V. in his
expedition against Tunis in 1535, and had the chief
direction of the army which invaded Provence in 1536.
He died of an epidemic in the same year.

See ROBERTSON, " History of Charles V."

Leyva, de, ()AGO,) a Spanish painter, born about
1580. He studied at Rome, and worked at Burgos.
Died in 1637.

Lezardiere, de, deh la'zSR'dejiiR', (MARIE CHAR-
LOTTE PAULINE ROBERT,) a French female publicist,
born in La Vendee in 1754. She produced in 1791 a
work of some merit, entitled "Theory of the Political
Laws of the French Monarchy," reprinted in 4 vols.,
1844. Died in 1835.

Lezay-Marnesia, de, deh leh-zji' mjRn'ze^' , (Ar>
RIEN,) COUNT, a French publicist, born near Orgelet
in 1770. He published a tract against the Constitution
of 1795, a work "On the Causes of the Revolution,"
(1797,) and other political treatises. He was prefect of
Strasbourg when he died, in 1814.

Lezay-Marnesia, de, (CLAUDE FRANCOIS ADRIEN,)
MARQUIS, the father of the preceding, was born at
Metz in 1735. He was a liberal member of the States-
General in 1789. He published, besides several prose
works, a poem of some merit, called "Essays on Rural
Nature," ("Essais sur la Nature champetre," 1787.)
Died in 1800.

L'Heritier de Brutelle, ll're'tg-i' deh bRu'tel',
(CHARLES Louis,) a French botanist, was born in Paris
in 1746. He was admitted into the court of aids in 1775.
After the Revolution he was twice appointed a judge
of the civil tribunal of Paris. His principal works are
" New or Rare Plants," (" Stirpes novae aut minus cog-
nitae," 1784,) and " Sertum Anglicum," (1788,) a descrip-
tion of plants in the royal garden of Kew, in England.
"His works," says Cuvier, "are prized throughout
Europe for the exactitude of the descriptions and the
finish of the plates." He left in manuscript a "Flora of
Peru," which he compiled from the notes and herbal of
Dombey. He was assassinated near bis house in 1800.
Neither the author nor the motive of this crime was tvei
discovered.

See CUVIER, " filoge de L'He'rilier," in the " Mimoires de Pins-
titut;" " Nouvelle Biographic G^ne'rale."

L'Heritier de Villandon, la're'te-i' deh ve'lftN -
d6N', (MARIE JEANNE,) a French authoress, born in
Paris in 1664, wrote in prose and verse. Died in 1734.

L'Heritier de Villandon, ( NICOLAS, ) a French
dramatic poet, father of the preceding, was born in Paris
about 1613; died in 1680.

L'Hermite, l^R'met', (FRANCOIS,) a popular French
poet and dramatist, known under the name of TRISTAN,
was born in La Marche in 1601. He was admitted into
the French Academy in 1649. Died in 1655.

L'Homoud or Lhomond, lo'rnoN', (CHARLES FRAN-
COIS,) a French teacher, born at Chaulnes in 1727, was
a professor in the University of Paris. He was a friend
of the eminent Haiiy, whose first scientific efforts he



directed. He published two elementary works which
are used in many schools of France, England, and
America, viz., "Viri Romae," and "Epitome of Sacred
History," ("Epitome Historiae Sacrae.") Died in 1794.

See QUERARD, " La France Litteraire,"

L'Hdpital, de, deh lo'pe'tfl', (FRANCOIS,) Comte ae
Rosnay, a marshal of France, born in 1583, was a brothel
of Marshal de Vitry. As lieutenant-general, he com-
manded in Lorraine, where he gained several victories
between 1638 and 1642. He received a marshal's baton
in 1643, and was selected to advise the young Prince of
Conde, who had just taken command of the army in
Flanders. Against the orders of the ministry and the
advice of L'Hopital, Conde risked a battle at Rocroy
in 1643, and gained a victory over the Spaniards. Died
in 1660.

See DE COURCELLES, " Dictionnaire des Gc'ne'raux Francais."

L'Hdpital or L'Hospital, de, (GuiLLAUME FRANCOIS
ANTOINE,) Marquis de Saint-Mesme and Count d'En-
tremont, a distinguished French geometer, was born in
Paris in 1661. At the age of fifteen he is said to have
been a profound mathematician. In early life he was
forced to renounce the military profession by the weak-
ness of his sight. In 1692 he learned from John Ber-
noulli the new geometry which Leibnitz had discovered.
He was admitted into the Academy of Sciences about
1694. In 1696 Bernoulli challenged the geometers of
Europe to a trial of skill in the problem of the brachys-
tochron, i.e. line or curve of quickest descent. At the
expiration of the stated time (ten months) solutions were
furnished by only four persons, Newton, Leibnitz




being the first work adapted to initiate students in the
mysteries of the infinitesimal calculus of Leibnitz, was
received with great eagerness and marked the epoch of
a revolution in the science. Hedied in 1704. His post-
humous work, " Analytic Treatise on Conic Sections,"
(1707,) had a high reputation.

See FONTENELLB, " filoge du Marquis de L'Hopital ;" MON-
T-UCLA, "Histoiredes Math^matiques ;" "Acta Eruditorum," 1721.

L'Hdpital or L'Hospital, de, (MICHEL,) Chancellor
of France, an illustrious legislator and statesman, was
born at Aigueperse, in Auvergne, in 1505. His father,
Jean, was physician to Constable Bourbon, to whom he
adhered in his defection from the service of Francis I.
to that of Charles V. He studied law at Padua for six
years, and about 1534 settled in Paris. Three years later,
Morin, lieutenant-criminel, gave him his daughter, and the
office of counsellor to the Parliament as her dowry. His
promotion was hindered by the connection of his father
with the defection of Bourbon, and by his own modesty ;
but he at last found a patron in Chancellor Olivier, and
was appointed ambassador to the Council of Trent in
1547. About 1554 he was chosen by Henry II. superin-
tendent of the finances, in the management of which he
made important reforms. In 1560 the regent Catherine
de Media's appointed him chancellor of France. On his
arrival at court he found that the chiefs of the house of
Guise had resolved to establish the Inquisition and to
ruin the Protestants. He defeated the first project, and
opposed the other with partial success. He caused tha
States-General to be convoked at Orleans in December,
1560, and obtained edicts favourable to liberty or tolera-
tion. But, in spite of his mediatorial efforts, the war
between Catholics and Protestants began in 1562. His
advice was no longer listened to at court, and he was
removed from office in 1568. He was at his country-
seat at Vignay during the Massacre of Saint Bartholo-
mew, and his life was spared through the mediation of a
lady at court. He died in 1573, leaving a name greatly
venerated for wisdom and integrity. As a statesman
and legislator he holds a high rank. His political prin-
ciples are announced in a Latin poem, (composed on
occasion of the coronation of Francis II.,) which was
much admired. He wrote other elegant Latin poems
and discourses, which have been published.

See M. VILLEMAIN, "Vie de L'Hopital," in his " Etudes d'His-
\oire moderne ;" LHVESQUE DK POUILLV, "Vie de Michel de L'Hospi-
tal," 1764; CHARLKS BUTUER, " Essay on ilie Life of M. de L'Hopi



a. e, T, o, f:, y,loug; a., e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 5, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fall, fat; nift; not; good; moon:



L'HOPITAL



1545



LIBERTAS



tal," 1814: BAVLH, " Historical and Critical Dictionary;" DE THOU,
" Historia sui Temporis;" M. CRESSON, " filoge historique de M.
de L'Hopital," 1850; TAILLANDIBR'S article in the " Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Ge'ne'rale."

L'Hflpital, de, (MICHEL HURAULT,) Seigneur de
Belesbat, was a grandson of the preceding. He was
chancellor of Henry of Navarre before the latter became
King of France, (1589.) He was also employed by Henry
as ambassador to Holland and Germany, and wrote two
able political treatises "On the State of France," (1588-
93.) Died in 1592.

L'Hote or Lhdte, 15t, (NESTOR,) an artist and anti-
quary, born of French parents at Cologne in 1804. He
was a member of the commission sent in 1828 to ex-
plore Egypt under the direction of Champollion, who
employed him as draughtsman. In 1838 he made fur-
ther explorations and illustrations of Egypt, for the
purpose of rendering more complete Champollion's
posthumous work on the monuments of that country.
Died in Paris in 1842.

Lhoyd, loid, written also Lhuyd and Llwyd,
(HUMPHRY,) a learned British antiquary, was born at
Denbigh, in Wales. He wrote a " History of Cambria
from Caradoc," " On Mona, the Island of the Druids,"
(" De Mona Druidum Insult,") and other works. Died
about 1570.

See WOOD. " Athens Oxoniensea."

Iihuyd, commonly pronounced loid, (EDWARD,) an
eminent Welsh antiquary, born in Carmarthenshire
about 1665. He became keeper of the Ashmolean Mu-
seum in 1690. He published a catalogue of the figured
fossils of the Ashmolean Museum, called " Lythophylacii
Britannici Iconographia," (1699,) and a treatise on
British antiquities, " Archsologia Britannica," (1707.)
Died in 1709.

iiadieres, Ie'i'de-a,iR', (PIERRE CHARLES,) a French
litttrateur, born at Pan in 1792. He composed several
dramas, and other mediocre works in prose and verse.
Died in 1858.

Liais, le'', (EMMANUEL,) a French astronomer, born
at Cherbourg in 1826. He was appointed an assistant
in the Observatory of Paris in 1852, but removed to
Brazil, where he was appointed director of the Imperial
Observatory. Besides valuable reports and papers on
mathematics and astronomy, he published several vol-
umes on Brazil and its resources.

Liancourt, de, deh le'ON'kooR', (JEANNE DE SCHOM-
BERG,) DUCHESS, a French lady, distinguished for her
talents and piety, born in 1600, was the daughter of
Henri de Schomberg, marshal of France. She became
the wife of the Due de Liancourt. Her house was
frequented by Pascal, Arnauld, and other recluses of
Port-Royal. Died in 1674.

See J. J. BOILEAU, " Vie de Madame de Liancourt," 1698.

Liano, da, da le-a'no, (TEODORO FELIPE.) a Spanish
painter, born at Madrid in 1575, excelled in miniatures,
and was surnamed THE LITTLE TITIAN. He was a
friend of Lope de Vega. Died in 1625.

Liard, le'SR', an eminent French engineer, born in
Lorraine in 1747. His principal work is the important
canal which connects the Rhine with the Rhone. It was
commenced about 1805 and completed in 1832. Died
in 1832.

Liban, lee'ban, [Lat. LIJA'NIUS,] (GEORGE,) a Polish
classical scholar, born at Liegnitz in 1490. He taught
Greek at Cracow. Died in 1550.

Liban in - . See LIBAN.

Li-ba'nI-us, [ Gr. AiSovioc, J a celebrated heathen
sophist and rhetorician, born at Antioch in 314 A.D. He
studied with Diophantes of Athens and others. After
ae had taught rhetoric for several years at Constanti-
nople and Athens with success, he settled in 354 at An-
tioch, where he opened a school, which became very
celebrated. Among his pupils were Saint Basil and
Saint Chrysostom. He accepted the office of quaestor
from the emperor Julian, who was his friend and ad-
mirer. He died probably about 390 A.D., leaving many
works, which are still extant, and display a brilliant
imagination. They consist chiefly of declamations on
events of Greek history, and have been designated b)



Giboon as " the vain and idle compositions of an orator
who cultivated the science of words." But this is re-
garded by other eminent critics as too harsh a judgment

See his Autobiography, entitled Bios q Ao-yos jrepi TTJS eaurok
rvx*J? EuNAPlt'S, "Vitae Sophistarum ;" FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca
Graeca:" J. G. BERGHR, " De Libanio Disputationes sex," 1696:
C. PETHRSEN, " Commentatio de Libanio Sophista," 1827 ; " Nou-
velle Biographic G^ne>ale."

Libavius, le-ba've-us, (ANDREAS,) a German physi-
cian and chemist, born at Halle. He was chosen rector
of the gymnasium of Coburg in 1605. He gained repu-
tation by works on chemistry, in \vhich he endeavoured
to refute the reveries of Paracelsus. His "Alchymia
recognita emendata et aucta" (1597) was the best manual
of chemistry which had appeared at that time. Died
in 1616.

See FRHHER, "Theatrum Eruditorum ;" "-INDEN, "De Scriptori-
bus Medicis."

Libelt, lee'belt, (KAROL,) an able Polish writer on
philosophy and politics, was born at Posen in 1806. He
fought with distinction against the Russians in the Polish
insurrection which began in 1830. For his share in a
democratic conspiracy he was imprisoned at Berlin in
1846, but was leleased by the revolution of 1848. Soon
after his release he was chosen a member of the Slavonic
congress of Prague. While a prisoner in Berlin in 1847
he wrote "The Maid of Orleans." Among his works
are excellent philosophical and critical essays, "Filo-
zofia i Krytyka," (1845-50.) Died June 9, 1875.

See BROCKHAUS, "Conversations-Lexikoii."

Libber, a name applied by the Romans to the b
chus or Dionysus of the Greek mythology. Liber was
an ancient Italian divinity. See BACCHUS.

Lib'e-ra, in the Roman mythology, was the wife of
Liber, and' was supposed to preside over the culti-
vation of the vine. She was sometimes identified with
Proserpine.

Liberate da Verona, le-ba-ra'li da va-ro'na, a
painter of the Venetian school, born at Verona in 1451.
He was one of the most excellent artists of his country
at that time. His painting of the " Epiphany" is said
to be still visible at Verona. Died in 1536.

Lib-er-a'tus, a deacon of the Church of Carthage.
He was sent to Rome about 535 by a council of African
bishops.

Libere. See LIHERIUS.

Liberi, lee'ba-ree, (PlETRo,) CAVALIERE, an eminent
Italian painter, surnamed LIBERTINO, (le-bfR-tee'no,)
born at Padua in 1605, was a pupil of Padovanino. He
pursued his studies in Rome, Parma, Venice, etc., and
formed a style in which the characteristics of several
schools were' united. " He was regarded," says the " Bio-
graphic Universelle," "as the most skilful draftsman of
the Venetian school." Among his master-pieces are
the " Massacre of the Innocents," at Venice, " The Gene-
ral Deluge," " Noah coming out of the Ark," " The Judg-
ment of Paris," and several pictures of Venus nude. His
style was sometimes grand and sometimes graceful. It
is said that when he worked for connoisseurs his manner
was bold and free, but for other patrons he finished his
work with much care and precision. Died in 1687.

See GUALDO PRIORATO, "Vita dl Cavaliere P. Liberi," 1818,
RIDOLFI, "Vite dei Pittori Veneti ;" WINCKBLMANN, " Neuei
M abler- Lexikon."

Iil-be'rI-us, [Fr. LIBERE, leTjaiR' ; It LIBERIO, 1e-
ba're-o,] a native of Rome, was elected pope in 352
or 353 A.D., and succeeded Julius I. He favoured the
orthodox in the controversy with the Arians ; and, the
Council of Milan having condemned Athanasius in 355,
he refused \ sanction that act. For this cause he was
banished by the emperor Constantius to Beroea. After
an exile of two years, he recovered his see in 358,
by signing the formula of Sirmium, a modification of
Arianism. He refused to subscribe the confession of
the Council of Rimini, (359,) where the Arians again
prevailed. He died in 366 A.D., and was succeeded
by Damasus I.

See BARONIUS, "Annales;" LARROQUK, " Dissertatio de Liberio
Romano," 1670.

Lib'er-tas, [Fr. LIBERTE, le'beR'ti',] the goddess of
liberty worshipped by the ancient Romans. She was



< as k; c as s; g hard: g as^; G, H, ^guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled: s as z; th as in this. (S^=See Explanations, p. 23.;



LIBERTE



1546



LICINIANUS



represented as a matron, holding in one hand a broken
sceptre and in the other a pike surmounted by a cap,
(pilau.)

Liberte. See LIBERTAS.

Libertine. See LIBERT.

Libes. leb, (ANTOINE,) a French savant, born at
Beziers in 1752. For many years he taught the physi-
cal sciences in the College Charlemagne, Paris. He
discovered that pressure is one of the elements of the
intensity of electric tension developed by contact, and
published, besides other works, "The Physical and
the Moral World," (1815.) Died in 1832.

Li-beth'rf-dea, [Gr. Afi6r/8pifa(;,] a name of the Muses,
which they derived from Mount Libethrius, or from a
well called Libethra, in Thrace. (See Mus^.)

Lib-I-ti'na, [Fr. LIBITINE, leTje'ten',] a Roman god-
dess, supposed to preside over funerals. All things
needful for funerals were kept for sale in her temple.
The business of an undertaker was also called libitina.

Libitine. See LIBITINA.

Li'bon or Li'bo, |Gr. AiSuv,] a Greek architect, a
native of Elis, flourished about 450 B.C. He built near
Pisa or Olympia, in the Doric style, the magnificent
temple of Olympian Jove, 245 feet long by 100 wide. In
the vicinity of this the Olympic games were celebrated,
and the master-pieces of art were accumulated for many
ages. It contained a celebrated statue of Jupiter by
Phidias.

See QUATREMBRE DE QuiNcv, " Jupiter Olympien."

Libri, dai, da-e lee'bRee, (GlROLAMO,) a Venetian
painter and illuminator, born at Verona in 1472, was one
of the mnst skilful artists of his time. Among his works
are a " Deposition from the Cross," and " The Expulsion
of Adam and F,ve from Eden." He painted many books
for the Church, and excelled in miniature. Died in 1555.

His son FRANCESCO was a promising painter, who
died young.

Libri-Carrucci, lee'bRee kar-root'chee, (GuiLLAUME
BRUTUS ICILIUS TIMOLEON,) COUNT, an Italian mathe-
matician, born at Florence in 1803. He became a pro-
fessor of mathematics at Pisa in 1823, and emigrated to
France in 1830. Having been naturalized as a French
citizen, he was admitted into the Institute in 1833, and
was appointed inspector-general of the libraries of
France. On a false charge of purloining books of great
value from the public libraries, he was condemned in
1850 to imprisonment for ten years ; but he had pre-
viously escaped to London. His principal work is a
" History of Mathematical Sciences in Italy," (4 vols.,
1838-41,) which is highly commended. Died in 1869.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Liburnio. le-book'ne-o, (Niccoi.6,) an Italian gram-
marian, born at Venice in 1474, became a canon of San
Marco, in that city. Died in 1557.

Liceti, le-cha'tee, or Liceto, le-cha'to, (FORTUNIO,)
an Italian physician and professor, famous in his time
as a Peripatetic philosopher, was born at Rapallo, near
G:noa, in 1577. He became professor of philosophy at
Padua in 1609, and professor of medicine in 1645. He
published a treatise on the nature of monsters, (1616,)
and other works, the majority of which are now justly
neglected. lie had more erudition than judgment.
Died in 1657.

See BAVLE, " Historical and Critical Dictionary ;" NlciRON,
"Memoires."

Lichnowsky, von, fon liK-nov'skee, (EDUARD MA-
RIA,) PRINCE, a German historian, born in 1789. He
wrote a "History of the House of Hapsburg," (4 vols.,
1835-44,) which is commended. Died in 1845.

Lichnowsky, von. (FELIX,) PRINCE, a Prussian
general, son of the preceding, was born in 1814. He
fought for Don Carlos in Spain about 1839. In German
politics he was a conservative or absolutist. He was
killed by a mob at Frankfort in 1848.

See KOSTLIN, " Auersuald und Lichnowsky,'* 1853.

Lichtenau, von, fon liK'teh-now', ( WILHELMINE
ENKE,) COUNTESS, born at Potsdam in 1754, was the
daughter of a poor musician. She became the mistress
of the crown -prince of Prussia, Frederick William.
After his accession to the throne, in 1786, she was a



powerful and influential person until the death of the
king. Died in 1820.

Sec her "Autobiographic Memoirs," 1808.

Lichteuberg, liK'ten-be'Rc', (GEORG CHRisrorH,) a
German savant atid witty author, born near Darmstadt
in July, 1742. He studied at Gottingen, and made great
progress in nearly all departments of knowledge. In
1 770 he was appointed professor of philosophy and exact
sciences at Gottingen. He visited England, where he
associated with the most eminent literati. He wrote
excellent scientific articles for two periodicals of Gottin-
gen, "The Magazine of Science and Literature," (1780-
85,) and "The Almanac," (1778-99,) which owed their
great success chiefly to him. The charms of his style
contributed greatly to the diffusion of a taste for the
sciences. He particularly excelled in what in English
is called "humour." Among his most popular works is
his "Ample Commentary on the Engravings of Hogarth,"
which he began to publish in 1794, and left unfinished
at his death. It abounds in wit and satire, and displays
much insight into human nature. His autobiography is
said to be the most candid and piquant ever written.
Died at Gottingen in 1799. " He is," says Stapfer, "gay
without the least trace of levity, versatile and profound
without ceasing to be solid and clear." (" Biographic
Universelle.")

See his Autobiography, in an edition of his works, Gottingen, 9
vols., 1800-1806: " Elogjum Lichtenbergii," by KASTNHR, 1799:
" Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale ;" HEINRICH DURING, " Lebeos-
umrisse von Karl August von Sachsen-Weimar, J. D. Falk, Lich-
tenberg," etc., 1840: "Edinburgh Review" for January, 1804;


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 90 of 425)