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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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physician and astronomer, born in Calabria. He is
remembered only for the part he had in the reform of
the calendar under the auspices of Gregory XIII. He
applied the epacts to' the cycle of nineteen years, and,
by adding one day to the end of each cycle, he arrived
at an approximative equation of the solar and lunar
years. He died in 1576, just after he had finished the
work. His method was approved by the pope in m82

Lilio Giraldi. See GIRALDI.

Liliuokalani, (LYDIA KAMEKEHA,) ex-Queen of
Hawaii, born at Honolulu, December 2, 1838. She
was proclaimed queen January 29, 1891, on the death
of King Kalakaua. Her attempts to abolish consti-
tutional government and rule as an absolute monarch
led to a revolt of the American inhabitants and her
dethronement in 1892. An attempt to regain her
power failed and she sought the United States, but
returned to Hawaii in August, 1898, after its annex-
ation by the United States government.

Lilius. See LILIO.

Liljenblad. See LILIEBLAD.

Liljenkrantz. See LILIENKRANTZ.

Lillie, (LuCY CECIL,) an American author, born
(\Vhite) at New York city in 1855. She wrote " Mil-
dred's Bargain," "The Colonel's Money," "The
Story of English Literature," etc.

Lil'lo, (GEORGE,) a successful English dramatist, born
in 1693, became a jeweller of London. He holds a high
rank among English dramatists of the second order.
"The Fatal Curiosity," a tragedy, (1737,) is called his
master-piece, and is constructed with remarkable skill.
His "George Barnwell" and "Arden of Feversham"
were also popular. Died in 1739.

Lil'ly, written also Lily and Lyly, (JoHN,) an English
dramatic writer, born in Kent about 1553. He wrote
several dramas, which were performed with success, and
flourished as a wit at the court of Elizabeth. About 1580
he published " Euphues : the Anatomy of Wit," which
became very popular with that pedantic generation for
its affected and dainty style, called " Euphuism." " It
deserves notice," says Hallam, "on account of the influ-
ence it is recorded to have had upon the court of Eliza-
beth and over the public taste." He was the author of
a famous satirical pamphlet against Martin Mar-Prelate,
called " Pap with a Hatchet." Died about 1600.

See "The Dramatic Works of John Lyly, with some Account
of his Life," etc., by T. W. FAIRHOLT, 1858; "Quarterly Review"
for April, 1861.



as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (E^=See Explanations, p. 23.)



LILLY



155



LINCOLN



Lilly, (WILLIAM,) a famous English astrologer, born
in Leicestershire in 1602. In early life he was employed
as a servant in London. He began to study astrology
in 1632, and acquired fame as a fortune-teller. He pro-
fited by the credulity of Charles I., who consulted him
on political affairs in the civil war. Some agents of the
popular party also patronized him. He published an-
nually an almanac, called "Merlinus Anglicus Junior,"
(1644-81.) His character is represented by Butler under
the name of "Sidrophel." Died in 1681.

Lilly, (WILLIAM SAMUEL,) an English author,
born at Fifehead in 1840. He graduated at Cam-
bridge in 1861, was in the India service till 1870, be-
came a London barrister in 1873, anc ' secretary of the
Catholic Union of Great Britain in 1874. He pub-
lished "Ancient Religion and Modern Thought,"
(1884,) "A Century of Revolution," (1889,) "Claims
of Christianity," (1894,) etc.

Lil'y or Lil'ljF, (WILLIAM,) a distinguished English
schoolmaster, born at tjdiham, in Hampshire, about
1468. After studying languages in Greece and Rome,
he settled in London in 1509, and opened a grammar-
school. He appears to have been the first who taught
Greek in London. In 1512 he became master of Saint
Paul's School, just founded by Colet. He published,
besides Latin poems, " Brevissima Institutio seu Ratio
Grammatices cognoscendae," (1513,) commonly called
"Lily's Grammar," which was for a long time more
used in English schools than any other Latin grammar.
He was intimate with Erasmus. Died in 1523.

Limayrac, le'mJ'rSk', (HAULIN,) a French littfrateur,
Dorn at Caussade in 1817. He became chief editor of
" La Patrie," a daily paper of Paris, in 1858. Died 1868.

Limborch, van, vin lim'boR^', written also Lim-
borg, (HENDRIK,) a Dutch painter, born at the Hague
m 1680, was one of the best pupils of Adrian van der
Werf, of whose works he made fine copies. Died in 1758

Limborch, van, ( PHILIPPUS,) a learned Dutch theolo-
gian, was born in Amsterdam the igth of June, 1633. He
was one of the principal supporters of the Remonstrant
or Arminian doctrines, which were condemned by the
Synod of Doit in 1619. After preaching for ten years
at Gouda, he became in 1668 pastor and professor of
theology at Amsterdam. He corresponded for a long
time with John Locke. His most important work is

Iheologia Christiana," (1686,) "a system of divinity
and morals which," says Hallam, "is the fullest delinea-
tion of the Arminian scheme." He wrote a " History
of the Inquisition," (1692.) Died in 1712.

Limbourg, van, vin lim'bdoRG', (JAN PHILIPPUS,)
a Flemish medical writer, born near Spa in 1726. He
practised at Spa with great success. Died in 1811.

Limburg-Brouwer, van, vjn lim'buRH bRow'er.
(PlEThk,) a Dutch poet, born in 1795; died in 1847.

Limerick, KARL OF. See DONGAN.

Liruuaeus or LimnSus, lim-na'us, (JoHANN,) a Ger-
man publicist, born at Jena in 1592. He was preceptor
of the Margrave of Anspach and of Albert of Branden-
burg, who afterwards employed him as chancellor and
privy councillor. He wrote an esteemed work on " The
Public Law of the Romano-Germanic Empire," (3 vols.,
l45-57.) and an "Account of the French Monarchy and
Constitution," (" Notitia Regni Gallis," 2 vols., 1655.)
Died in 1663.

See STRKBKL, " Lcben und Schriften des Staatslchrers I Lim-
DZUS, 1741.

Limousin or Limosin. See LEONARD DE LIMOUSIN.

Lin. See LINUS.

Lin, van, vin Hn, (HANS,) a Dutch painter of genre,
who flourished about 1650, was surnamed STILHEID. He
excelled in battle-pieces, and painted horses better than
any other Dutch artist except Wouwerman.

Linacre, lin'a-ker, written also Linacer (or Lina-
ker) and Lynacer, (THOMAS,) an eminent English
physician and scholar, bom at Canterbury about 1460.
He learned Greek of Demetrius Chalcondylas at Flor-
ence, and studied medicine at Rome. After his return to
England he lectured on medicine, and taught Greek at
Oxford for several years, until Henry VIII. employed



him as physician and preceptor of Prince Arthur. He
was the principal founder and first president of the Col-
lege of Physicians, London. At an advanced age he took
orders, and obtained the rectory of Mersham, a prebend
in York Cathedral, and other benefices. He was an ex-
cellent classical scholar, and a correspondent of Erasmus.
He translated several of Galen's works into Latin, and
wrote "On the Correct Structure of Latin Prose," (" De
Emendata Structura Latini Sermonis,") which Hallam
calls "the first-fruits of English erudition," and which
must, he says, have been highly valuable. Died in 1524.
See "Lives of British Physicians," London, 1857; BAVLH, " Hi*
torical and Critical Dictionary;" NiciRON, " Mimoires."

Linant, le'n&x', (MICHEL,) a French litterateur, born
at Louviers in 1708. Voltaire, who was his friend, spoke
highly of his taste and imagination. Linant lived in
Paris, and was employed as tutor to the sons of M.
Hebert. He wrote odes, epistles, and other short poems,
which gained several prizes of the French Academy. He
also published an edition of Voltaire's works, (1738.)
Died in 1749.

Linck, link, (JoHANN HEINRICH,) a German natu
ralist, born at Leipsic in 1674; died in 1734.

Lincke, link'eh, (JOSEPH,) a Prussian violoncellist and
composer, born June 8, 1783, at Trachenberg, in Silesia.
Died March 26, 1837.

Lincoln, link'on, (ABRAHAM,) the sixteenth President
of the United States, was born in Hardin county, Ken-
tucky, (in a part now included in Larue county,) the
I2th of February, 1809. His ancestors were of English
descent ; they are supposed to have originally emigrated
to America with the followers of William Penn. A
little before the middle of last century they resided in
Berks county, Pennsylvania, whence a part of the family
removed in 1750 to Virginia. About the year 1780
Abraham Lincoln, the grandfather of the subject of this
notice, settled in Kentucky, where not long after he was
stealthily shot by an Indian. He left three sons, of wh.jrn
the eldest, Thomas Lincoln, married and settled in Har-
din county in 1806. Abraham Lincoln was his second
child and oldest son. His childhood was passed in the
midst of hardship and toil. When he was scarcely
eight years old, his parents removed to Spencer county,
Indiana. It was a difficult and wearisome journey, and
he ever afterwards retained a vivid recollection of the
trials and hardships which he passed through on that
occasion. Before he was eleven years of age, he ex-
perienced a bitter and irreparable loss in the death of
his mother. Under her guidance he had learned to
read and prize the Bible, and to her influence, there is
reason to believe, he was largely indebted for the develop-
ment of those rare and noble moral traits which have
conferred upon him, if not a brilliant, at least a spotless
and ever-enduring fame. Among the books which, as a
boy, he particularly valued, was a Life of Washington ;
and it is not improbable that the contemplation of such a
character, which united to plain and practical common
sense moral qualities of the highest order, may have
contributed not a little to that combination of straight-
forward simplicity and moral grandeur for which Lin-
coln was afterwards distinguished. The " Pilgrim's
Progress" was also one of his favourite books ; and its
influence upon his style may perhaps be traced not
merely in his preference for forcible and racy Saxon
words, but also in that homely directness of expression
by which all his speeches and writings are characterized.

On the breaking out of the Black Hawk war, in the
early part of 1832, Lincoln promptly volunteered for the
defence of the frontier settlements, and was chosen captain
of his company. The war, however, having been speedily
brought to a close before he had an opportunity of meet-
ing the enemy, he returned to the pursuits of peace. In
the political contest which took place between General
Jackson and Henry Clay in the autumn of 1832, he zeal-
ously espoused the cause of the latter, for whom he
had felt an enthusiastic admiration from his boyhood.
He himself was a candidate for the State legislature;
and, although unsuccessful, he received in his own pre-
cinct two hundred and seventy-seven votes out of the
two hundred and eighty-four which had been cast; that



t, e, i, 6, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, leas prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fit; met; not; good; moon:




ABRAHAM LINCOLN.



LINCOLN



LINCOLN



is, thirty-nine fortieths of the whole number. In 1834
he was again a candidate for the legislature, and was
elected. He was re-elected in 1836. In March, 1837,
he gave proof of the uprightness as well as independ-
ence of his character by recording his protest on the
journal of the House against some extreme pro-slavery
resolutions which had been passed by the Democratic
majority in the legislature. At that time the expression
of any anti-slavery sentiments was extremely unpopular
in every part of the United States, but perhaps nowhere
north of Mason and Dixon's line was it more so than in
Illinois. Lincoln and another member who shared his
iriews declared in their protest that "they believe that
the institution of slavery is founded in injustice and bad
policy." Having been again elected to the legislature
in 1838, he became the acknowledged leader of the
Whigs in the House, and received the entire vote of his
party for the speakership, which he lost by only one vote.
He had been admitted to the bar in 1836, and in April,
1837, he established himself permanently in Springfield
and commenced the practice of law in earnest, with John
T. Stuart as his partner. In November, 1842, he mar-
ried Miss Mary Todd, daughter of Robert S. Todd, Esq.,
of Lexington, Kentucky. Having accepted the nomi-
nation for Congress in 1846, he was triumphantly elected,
being the only Whig out of the seven representatives
sent by Illinois to the national legislature. During the
time that he was in Congress he uniformly gave his voice
in favour of freedom, voting against laying on the table
without consideration the petitions for the abolition of
slavery, and always supporting the doctrines of the
Wilmot Proviso whenever any measure of this kind
was before the House. The passage of the Nebraska
bill in May, 1854, involving the repeal of the Missouri
Compromise, gave everywhere fresh interest and ar-
dour to the contest between freedom and slavery. A
United States Senator was to be chosen by the Illinois
legislature. Lincoln had been nominated by the Repub-
lican party as their candidate for the Senate of the United
States. Judge Douglas, confessedly the ablest politician
and best debater among all the Democratic leaders of
the West, was the opposing candidate. Lincoln chal-
lenged his opponent to a series of public discussions
respecting the views and policy of the two contending
parties. That political contest first fully revealed the
versatility, depth, and comprehensiveness of Mr. Lin-
coln's mind. Even some of those belonging to the party
of Judge Douglas admitted that the latter was inferior
to his opponent both in learning and in argument, in
short, in every essential qualification for the discussion
of those great principles which were then agitating the
country from one extremity to the other. As the elec-
tion of United States Senator depended on the legisla-
ture, and not on a direct vote by the people, Douglas
was the successful competitor ; but the extraordinary
ability displayed by Lincoln in the discussion above re-
ferred to, led to his nomination by the Republican party
in 1860 as their candidate for the Presidency. No Presi-
dential contest involving issues so momentous had ever
before occurred. The general election then about to
take place was to decide the all-important question
whether the blighting influence of slavery should be
allowed to extend to every part of the republic, or should
thenceforward be restricted to the territory which it
already possessed. Never before had any Presidential
election so strongly excited all the hopes and fears of the
patriot, all the affections and passions of the people.
It took place on the 6th of November, 1860. Lincoln
received the electoral votes of all the free States except
New Jersey, which was divided, giving him four votes
and Douglas three. Breckinridge received the votes
of all the slave States except Virginia, Kentucky, Ten-
nessee, and Missouri ; the three former voted for Bell,
the last for Douglas. Lincoln received in all one hun-
dred and eighty electoral votes, Breckinridge seventy-two,
Bell thirty-nine, and Douglas twelve.

No sooner was the result of the election known than
several of the Southern States made preparations for
formally separating themselves from the Federal Union.
South Carolina took the lead in the secession movement.
The legislature convened in November and passed an



act calling a State convention to meet on the lyth of
December. It met accordingly, and on the 2Oth an
ordinance was passed unanimously dissolving the union
till then "subsisting between South Carolina and other
States under the name of the United States of America."
It was evident, from the language of the leading men in
that convention, that the ordinance of secession was not
the result of any sudden excitement or hastily-adopted
resolution, but was the deliberate fulfilment of a settled
and long-cherished purpose. "The secession of South
Carolina," said Mr. Rhett, "was not the event of a day."
It was "a matter which had been gathering head for
thirty years." Mr. Inglis said that most of them had
had it "under consideration for the last twenty years."
"So far," says Raymond, "as South Carolina was con-
cerned, there can be no doubt that her action was de-
cided by men who had been plotting disunion for thirty
years, not on account of any wrongs her people had sus-
tained at the hands of the Federal government, but from
motives of persona] and sectional ambition, and for the
purpose of establishing a government which should be
permanently and completely in the interest of slavery."
(" Lincoln's Administration," chap, i.) Following the
example of South Carolina, Mississippi passed an ordi-
nance of secession on the gth of January, 1861,* Florida
January 10, Alabama January II, Georgia January 18,
Louisiana January 26, Texas February I. Thus, more
than a month previous to the expiration of Mr. Buch-
anan's term of office, seven States had done all that
lay in their power to dissolve their connection with the
Union. Delegates appointed by the conventions of the
seceding States met at Montgomery early in February,
and formed a new Confederacy, of which Jefferson Davis,
of Mississippi, was elected President, and Alexander H.
Stephens, of Georgia, Vice-President. Not long after,
Mr. Stephens, in an elaborate speech addressed to the
people of Savannah, attempted to vindicate the course
of the seceders in setting up a new government in oppo-
sition to .hat of the United States. On that occasion he
said that the prevailing ideas of Jefferson and "most
of the leading statesmen at the time of the formation of
the old Constitution were that the enslavement of the
African was a violation of the laws of nature, that it was
wrong in principle, socially, morally, politically. . . .
These ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They
rested upon the assumption of the equality of races.
This was an error. . . . Our new government was
founded upon exactly the opposite ideas ; its foundations
are laid, its corner-stone rests, upon the great truth that
the negro is not equal to the white man ; that slavery,
subordination to the superior race, is his natural and
normal condition. This, our new government, is the
first in the history of the world based upon this great
physical, philosophical, and moral truth."

While President Buchanan took the ground that the
Federal government had no right to coerce the seceding
States, several members of the cabinet had not neglected
the opportunities which their official position afforded, of
promoting the interests of the Southern Confederacy.
The secretary of war, John B. Floyd, took care to make
such a disposition of the Federal arms and ammunition
that in case the new administration should be disposed
to adopt a more decisive policy it would find its energies
paralyzed by a total want of the material o f war, while
the revolted States, in case of necessity, nvght readily
possess themselves of that verv material whi> h had been
thus adroitly placed beyond the reach of the Federal
government. An official report from the ordnance
department, dated January 16, 1861, shows that during
the year 1860 115,000 muskets had been removed from
Northern armories and sent to Southern arsenals by a
single order of the secretary of war ; and it was claimed
for him, by one of his eulogists in Virginia, that, while
a member of President Buchanan's cabinet, Mr. Floyd
"thwarted, resisted, and forbade" certain measures
which, if carried into effect, would have rendered the
formation of the Southern Confederacy impossible.

It was under such circumstances as these with seven

These dates, and most of the others in this article connected
with the events of Ihe rebellion, are taken from Greeley's "American
Conflict."



as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, n, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. ( jJtp=See Explanations, p. 23. >



LINCOLN



LINCOLN



ot the most influential of the United States in open re-
volt, and several others on the eve of secession, with
timorous indecision at the head of the government, and
secret treason lurking not only among the members
of the cabinet, but also among the officers of the army
and navy that Abraham Lincoln, on the nth of Feb-
ruary, 1861, left his Western home and proceeded to
Washington to take into his hands the reins of govern-
ment. His brief parting words to his friends at Spring-
field reveal at one view the simple, manly earnestness
of his character, and that humble but unfaltering trust
in God by which he was sustained through all the perils
and darkness which surrounded his administration. " My
Friends : No one not in my position can appreciate the
sadness I feel at this parting. To this people I owe all
that I am. Here I have lived more than a quarter of a
century ; here my children were born, and here one of
them lies buried. I know not how soon I shall see you
again. A duty devolves upon me which is, perhaps,
greater than that which has devolved upon any other
man since the days of Washington. He never would
have succeeded except for the aid of divine Providence,
upon which he at all times relied. I feel that I cannot
succeed without the same divine aid which sustained
him ; and on the same almighty Being I place my reli-
ance for support ; and I hope you, ray friends, will all
pray that I may receive that divine assistance, without
which I cannot succeed, but with which success is
certain. Again I bid you all an affectionate farewell."

A rumour was current some time before the President-
elect left his home in Illinois, that he would never reach
the national capital alive. An attempt was made (Feb-
ruary ii) on the Toledo and Western Railroad to throw
from the track the train on which he was ; and after-
wards, just as he was leaving Cincinnati, a hand-grenade
was found to have been secreted on the car. A plot had
likewise been formed to take his life during his passage
through Baltimore on his way to Washington. Mr.
Seward and General Scott, having been informed of
that fact, arranged it that Lincoln should pass through
Baltimore several hours earlier than had at first been
proposed. The plans of the conspirators were thus
frustrated, and the President-elect reached Washington
in safety on the morning of the 2jd of February.

Mr. Lincoln was inaugurated as President of the
United States on the 4th of March, 1861. In his ad-
dress on that occasion he mildly but distinctly and
firmly announced his purpose to " take care that the
laws of the Union be faithfully executed in all the States."
" I trust," he adds, " this will not be regarded as a
menace. . . . There need be no bloodshed or violence ;
and there shall be none, unless it be forced upon the
national authority. The power confided to me will be
used to hold, occupy, and possess the property and places
belonging to the government, and to collect the duties
nd imposts; but, beyond what may be necessary for
these objects, there will be no invasion, no using of force
against or among the people, anywhere. . . . The mails,
unless repelled, will continue to be furnished in all parts
of the Union. So far as possible, the people everywhere
shall have that sense of perfect security which is most
favourable to calm thought and reflection. . . . Physically
speaking, we cannot separate. \Ve cannot remove our
respective sections from each other, nor build an impass-
able wall between them. A husband and wife may be
divorced and go out of the presence and beyond the
reach of each other; but the different parts of our coun-
try cannot do this. They cannot but remain face to face ;
and intercourse, either amicable or hostile, must continue
between them. Is it possible, then, to make the inter-
course more advantageous or more satisfactory after
separation than before? . . . THE CHIEF MAGISTRATE

DERIVES ALL HIS AUTHORITY FROM THE PEOPLE; AND
THEY HAVE CONFERRED NONE UPON HIM TO FIX TERMS
FOR THE SEPARATION OF THE STATES. . . . H IS DUTY IS
TO ADMINISTER THE PRESENT GOVKRNMENT AS IT CAME
INTO HIS HANDS, AND TO TRANSMIT IT UNIMPAIRED BY
HIM TO HIS SUCCESSOR.

"My countrymen, one and all, think calmly and well
upon this whole subject. Nothing valuable can be lost
by taking time. If there be an object to hurry any of



you in hot haste to a step which you would never take
deliberately, that object will be frustrated by taking
time ; but no good object can be frustrated by it. ...

" In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen,
and not in mine, is the momentous issue ot civil war


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 92 of 425)