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a Dutch painter, born at Oldenburg in 1570. He worked
in Rome and Venice, taking for his models Titian and
Paul Veronese. Some critics find in his works the good
colouring of the former with the grace of the latter.
Among his productions are "Adam and Eve Mourning for
Abel," and " The Prodigal Son." Died at Venice in 1629.

Lis or Lys, van der, (JAN,) a Dutch painter, born
at Breda about 1600. A picture of " Diana Bathing" is
called his best work.

Lisboa, de, di les-bo'a, (MARCOS,) a Portuguese his-
torian and Franciscan friar, born at Lisbon in 1511.
He wrote a "Chronicle of the Order of Friars of Saint
Francis," (3 vols., 1556, 1570, 1660,) and is ranked among
the classic authors of Portugal. Died in 1591.

Liscov, lis'kof, (CHRISTIAN LUDWIG,) the most ex-
cellent satirist and prose writer of Germany before Les-
sing, was born at Wittenberg in 1701. He lived at
Lubeck, Dresden, etc., and about 1741 became secretary
to Bruhl, the Saxon minister. In 1745 he obtained the
title of KriegsrcUh, (councillor of war,) but a few years
later he was removed from office. He published in 1739
a "Collection of Satirical and Serious Writings." His
style was remarkable for purity. His works are per-
vaded by a sound philosophical spirit, and have been
more highly appreciated since his death than before.
He was a complete master of the weapons of irony.
One of his treatises is entitled "The Excellence and
Utility of Bad Writers." Died in 1760.

See LISCH, "Liscovs Leben," 1845; KARL GUSTAV HHLBIG,
"C. L. Liscow: Beitrag zur Literatur- und Cultur-Geschichte, " etc.

Lisgar, LORD. See YOUNG, (Sir JOHN.)
Lisle, 111, (Lady ALICE,) was the widow of an English
lawyer who took an active part against Charles I. She
was condemned to death by Judge Jeffreys, and executed
in 1685.

See MACAULAY, " History of England," vol. i. chap. v.

Lisle, (Sir GEORGE,) an English royalist officer, dis-
tinguished himself at the battle of Newbury. Having
been taken prisoner at Colchester in 1648, he was shot.


Lisle, de. See DELISLE.

Lisle, de, deh lei, (JEAN BAPTISTE ISOARD,) a prolific
French writer, called also DELISLE DE SALES, was born
at Lyons in 1743. He was condemned to exile for the

alleged immorality of his " Philosophy of Nature,"
which consequently attracted attention; but his sentence
was annulled or remitted. He wrote many other works.
Died in 1816.

msmanin, lis-ml-neen', (FRANCIS,) a Socinian theo-
; logian, born at Corfu, became confessor to the Queen of
Poland about 1546. Died about 1563.

Lisola, de, deh le'zo'li', (FRANCOIS PAUL,) BARON,
an able diplomatist, born at Salins, France, in 1613. He
was successively employed by the Emperor of Germany
as minister to England, (1743,) to Poland, and to Spain.
He wrote several successful political treatises, one of
which, called "Shield of the State and of Justice,"
(1667,) was directed against the ambition of Louis XIV.
Died about 1675.

List, Ust, (FRIEDRICH,) a German political economist,
was born at Reutlingen in 1789. In 1825 he emigrated
to Pennsylvania, where he was extensively engaged in
coal-mining, and published, in English, "Outlines of a
New System of Political Economy," (Philadelphia, 1827.)
Having been appointed United States consul at Leipsic,
he returned to Europe in 1832, and in several publica-
tions efficiently advocated the construction of railroads
in Germany. He published "A National System of Po-
litical Economy," (Stuttgart, 1841,) in which he favours
the protection of native industry. He committed suicide
in 1846. Since his death his merit has been more fully
recognized throughout Germany.

Lista y Aragon, les'tS e 5-ra-gon', (Don ALBERTO,)
i an eminent Spanish poet, critic, and mathematician, born
at Triana, a suburb of Seville, in 1775. At the age of
twenty he became professor of mathematics in the nau-
tical college of Seville. He obtained the chair of rhetoric
and poetry in the university of that city in 1807, but lost
it in consequence of the French invasion of 1808. He
passed about four years as an exile in France, from 1813
to 1817. In 1820 he began to edit "The Censor," at
Madrid. After various removals and adverse fortunes,
he became about 1833 editor of the "Gaceta de Madrid,"
which in his hands was an able and successful political
journal. In 1822 he published a volume of poems, which
are greatly admired. His superior critical ability is dis-
played in his " Lectures on the Dramatic Literature of
Spain," (1839.) He also published a "Treatise on Pure
and Mixed Mathematics," which is a standard work.
As a lyric poet he united the fervour and splendid colour
of the old Spanish school with the purer taste and depth
of reflection of the moderns. His imitations of Horace,
in his "Philosophic Poems," are admirable. Died in 1848.

Lis'ter, (JOSEPH,) LORD, an eminent English
physician, was born at Upton, Essex, April 5, 1827.
He graduated in medicine at London University in
1852, and was successively lecturer on surgery at
Edinburgh, and professor at Glasgow, Edinburgh, and
King's College Hospital, London. His great achieve-
ment was the introduction, in 1860 and after, of the
antiseptic system of treatment known as Listerism,
which has revolutionized surgery. He received nu-
merous honours, was president of the British Associa-
! tion in 1896, and was made a baronet in 1883 and a
peer in 1897.

Lister, (JOSEPH JACKSON,) father of the preceding,
attained distinction by his improvement of the micro-
scope, producing about 1828 a perfectly achromatic
combination of lenses, thus overcoming what had
been the chief defect in the microscope.

Lister, (MARTIN,) M.D., F.R.S., an English naturalist,
born at Radcliffe (Bucks) about 1638. In 1670 he settled
at York, where he practised medicine. He removed to
London in 1684, and published "Synopsis Conchylio-
rum," (1685-93,) a valuable work on conchology, which
was highly commended byLinnseus. In 1709 he became
physician to Queen Anne. He wrote three excellent
treatises on English Spiders, Fluviatile Shells, and
Marine Shells, (1678,) and other works. "Lister may
be reckoned," says Hallam, "one of those who have
done most to found the science of conchology." (" In-
troduction to the Literature of Europe.") Died in 1711.

See THOMPSON, " History of the Royal Society."

,- cas.r; gAard; gasj; G, H,K., guttural; y, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasinMw. (JJ|p=See Explanations, p. 23.)



Lister, (Sir MATTHEW,) an English phj'sician, born
y\ Yorkshire about 1565. He became president of the
College of Physicians, London, and physician to Charles
I. Died in 1657.

Lister, (THOMAS HENRY,) an English author and
gentleman, born about 1800, was the son of Thomas
Lister, Esq., of Armitage Park. He obtained the office
of registrar-general of births. He published two novels,
entitled "Granby," (1826,) and "Herbert Lacy," and a
" Life of Lord Clarendon the Historian." He married
the sister of the Earl of Clarendon, known as the au-
thoress of "Sketches of the Contemporaries of Lord
Chancellor Clarendon." Died in 1842. In 1844 his
widow became the wife of Sir George Cornewall Lewis.
He was a brother-in-law of Lord John Russell.

Lis'ton, JOHN,) a popular English comedian, born
in London in I7y6, appeared on the London s,tage about
1805. He excelled in low comedy, and acted many years
at the Haymarket, Covent Garden, and Drury Lane
Theatres. Died in 1846.

Lis'ton, (ROBERT,) F.R.S., an eminent Scottish phy-
sician, born in 1794. About 1817 he began to practise
in Edinburgh, where he attained great eminence as a
surgeon. In 1833 he published his " Principles of Sur-
gery." He removed to London in 1834, practised with
success, and became professor of clinical surgery in
University College. Died in 1848.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen,"

Liszinski, le-shen'skee, (C.isiMlR,) a Polish philoso- j
pher, who was beheaded in 1689 on a false charge of
heresy or atheism.

Liszt, list, (FRANZ,) a Hungarian musician, and the
most celebrated pianist of recent times, was born at Rai-
ding in 1811. He was instructed by Czerny and Salieri
at Vienna, and afterwards repaired to Pans, where his
performance made a great sensation. About 1823 ht
visited England, and was received with equal enthusiasm.
Having, after his return to Paris, heard Paganini, he re-
solved to obtain the same mastery over the piano which
that great musician had gained over the violin ; and it is
generally allowed that he succeeded. He visited the
principal cities of Europe, and everywhere excited the
warmest admiration. Though he produced many com-
positions, he chiefly excelled as a performer. Liszt
was distinguished for generosity, and gave largely to
charitable and useful institutions. In 1848 he was ap-
pointed leader of the orchestra in the imperial chapel
at Weimar. In 1865 he became a cleric of the Roman
Catholic Church. Liszt had several natural children,
one of whom (Cosima, whose mother was the Countess
d'Agoult) was married first to Von Billow and then to
Richard Wagner. Another daughter married fimile
Ollivier. He was the author of a " Life of Frederick
Chopin." Died July 31, 1886.

See L. RBLLSTAB, " F. Liszt : Beurtheflungen, Berichte, Lebec*-
kiite," 1842: GUSTAV SCHILLING, " F. Liszt: sein Leben und
Wirken," 1844: F. KEMPE, " F. Liszt ;" RICHARD WAGNER, "Apho-
ristische Memoiren," etc., 1851.

Lith'gow, (WILLIAM,) a traveller, who traversed on
foot a large part of Europe, Asia, and Africa, and pub-
lished in 1614 an entertaining narrative of his travels.
At Malaga he was arrested as a spy and heretic, and
tortured by the Inquisition.

Lithov, lit'hov, ? (GusTAVUs,) a Latin poet, born In
Sweden in 1692. In 1734 he published "Heroic-Mis-
cellaneous Poems," ( Poemata heroico-miscellanea.")
His "Panegyric on Charles XII." (1720) produced a
great sensation. Died in 1753.

Lit'olff, (HENRY CHARLES,) an English pianist and
composer, born in London, February 6, 1818. His father,
in Alsatian, had settled in London as a violinist. He
gave concerts in the principal European cities, and, after
many wanderings, finally settled in Paris. Died in 1891.

Litta, let'ti, (PoMFEO,) COUNT, an Italian historical
writer, born in Milan in 1781. He entered the French
army in 1804, fought at Austerlitz, (1805,) and, having
obtained the grade of chtf-dt-bataillon, left the service in
1814. In 1819 he began to publish at Milan his famous
and costly work, "Celebrated Italian Families," which
was continued until his death, and contains accounts of

seventy-five families. It is considered remarkable foi
historical accuracy. Died in 1852.

Lit'tle, (JAMES STANLEY,) a British art writer,
born at Herne Hill. He was secretary of the
Society of Authors 1888-90, and edited the " African
Review," 1895-97. He published a number of works
on political, art, and other subjects.

Lit'tle, (WILLIAM,) an English historian, called NAU-
HRIGENSIS, was born at Bridlington, Yorkshire, in 1136.
He became a monk of Newborough Abbey, and wrote a
' History of England from the Conquest to 1197," which
is a work of merit.

Little, (W. J. KNOX.) See KNOX-LITTLE.

Lit'tle-dale. (RICHARD FREDERICK,) LL.D., a British
clergyman, born at Dublin, September 14. 1833. He
graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1854, and in
1856 took orders in the English Church. He published
a large number of works, controversial, liturgical, and
other. He was of the extreme High-Church party, but
was a zealous anti-Romanist. Died January n, 1890.

Lit'tle-J6hn, (ABRAM NEWKIRK,) L). D.,an American
bishop, born in Florida, New York, December 13, 1824,
graduated at Union College in 1845, took orders in the
Episcopal Church, 1848, 1849, and was consecrated
Bishop of Long Island (the first of that title) in 1869.
He has made large and important contributions to cur-
rent religious literature.

Lit'tle-tou, (ADAM,) an English divine, eminent as
a philologist and Orientalist, was born in Shropshire in
1627. He became chaplain to Charles II., rector of
Chelsea, and prebendary of Westminster. His Latin
Dictionary (1679) was esteemed and often reprinted. He
published many sermons, and other works. Died in 1694.

Littleton, (EDWARD,) LORD, lord keeper of the great
seal of England, born at Munslow, Shropshire, in 1589,
was a lineal descendant of the jurist Thomas Littleton.
After finishing his studies in the Inner Temple, he soon
rose to the summit of his profession. In 1626 he entered
Parliament, where he was at first a zealous ailhrrent of
the popular party, but afterwards went over to the court
with Wentworth and others. He was made chief justice
of the common pleas in 1640, and reluctantly accepted
the great seal in January, 1641. He was then raised to
the peerage, as Lord Littleton. The vacillation which
he displayed in the contest between Charles I. and the
Parliament is ascribed to lack of moral courage ; but he
was suspected of perfidy by the royalists and by the king.
In 1642 the king, then at York, ordered Falkland to de-
mand the great seal from the "traitor." Littleton soon
joined the court at York, and, through the intercession
of Lord Clarendon, was retained in office until his death,
in 1645. "He was," says Lord Campbell, "a man of
excellent private character."

See LORD CAMPBELL, " Lives of the Lord Chancellors of Enft
land," 1846; Foss, "The Judges of England."

Littleton, (EDWARD,) an English poet, 17e was
presented to the living of Maple Durham about 1727,
and was afterwards chaplain to the king. He was author
of Verses on a Spider, and other poems. Died in 1734.

Littleton, LORD. See LYTTLETON.

Littleton or Lyttleton, (THOMAS,) a celebrated
English judge and jurist, born probably about 1420, was
the son of Thomas Westcote, of Devonshire, and Eliza-
beth Littleton. He studied in the Inner Temple. In
1455 he was appointed king's Serjeant, and rode the
northern circuit as judge of assize. After the triumph
of the house of York, he received a pardon from Edward
IV., about 1462, and was retained in the office of king s
sergeant He was appointed a judge of the court of
Common pleas in 1466, and created a knight of the Bath
in 1475. He died in 1481, leaving three sons, from whom
the lord keeper Lyttleton and other eminent men de-
scended. His treatise on " Tenures," written in Norman
French, is regarded as the principal basis of the laws
of property in Great Britain. Sir Edward Coke wrote a
celebrated commentary on Littleton.

Littre, le'tR.V, (MAXIMILIEN PAUL SMILE,) a French
philologist, born in Paris in 1801. He was an editor of
the "National," a democratic journal, from 1831 to 1851
and published a translation of Hippocrates, (8 vols.

i, e, T, fi, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, Q, obscure; far, fill, fat; mjt; n5t; good; moon


'5 6 3


1839-52,) a translation of Strauss's " Life of Jesus,"
(1839-40,) " History of the French Language," (1862,)
an admirable " Dictionary of the French Language,"
(1863-73,) "Medicines and Medical Men," (1873,) etc -
In 1867 he established a new review, " La Philosophic
Positive." In 1871 he became professor of history and
geography in the Polytechnic School, and was elected a
member of the French Academy. Died June 2, 1881.

Littrow, lit'tRof or lit'tRo, (JOSEPH JOHANN,) an
eminent astronomer, born in Bohemia in 1781. He was
appointed professor of astronomy at Cracow in 1807, and
at Kazan in 1810. In 1819 he became director of the
Observatory of Vienna, which he greatly improved, and
lectured on astronomy with success in that city. He


" Dioptrics," (1830,) and "The Wonders of the Heavens,"
(1853.) The last is called one of the best popular books
on that subject. Died in 1840.

Littrow, (KARL LUDWIG,) a son of the preceding,
was born at Kazan in 1811. He succeeded his father
as director of the Observatory of Vienna in 1842. The
Annals of this observatory which have appeared since
his appointment are esteemed among the most valuable
astronomical registers. In 1847 Littrow and W. Struve
were employed to connect Austria and Russia by trian-
gulation. Littrow died at Vienna, November 16, 1877.


published many valuable scientific works, among wh
are "Theoretic and Practical Astronomy," (1822-

Int-y-er'sea, (Gr.

a son of Midas, King

of Phrygia, was killed by Hercules.

Liutprand. See LUITPRAND.

Liutprandus. See LUITPRAND.

Livens. See LIEVENS.

Liv'^r-more, (Aiiltu ABBOTT,) an American Unita-
rian divine, born at Wilton, New Hampshire, in 1811,
became in 1850 pastor of a church at Cincinnati, and
from 1863 to 1890 was president of Meadville, Pa., Theo-
logical School. He published several commentaries and
other works in prose and verse. Died Nov. 28, 1892.

Livermore, (MARY ASHTON,) an American writer,
born at Boston, Massachusetts, December 19, 1821.
Her maiden name was RICE. Her husband was D. P.
Livermore, a Universalist preacher. During the war of
186165 she was very prominent in the work of sanitary
relief, both in the field and in the Northern cities. After
the war she edited the " Woman's Journal," and became
distinguished as a public speaker. She has been
active in the temperance and woman suffrage move-
ments, and has published several works, including
" American Women" (with Frances E. Willard.)

Liv'er-pool, (CHARLES JENKINSON,) first EARL OP,
a British statesman, born in Oxfordshire in 1727, was
the son of Charles Jenkinson. In 1761 he entered Par-
liament, and was appointed by Lord Bute under-secretary
of state. After the retirement of Lord Bute, in 1763, he
acquired the favour of the king, and incurred much
popular odium as the chief of the secret cabinet. He
became one of the lords of the treasury in 1767, was
secretary of war under Lord North from 1778 to 1782,
and was afterwards president of the board of trade in
the ministry of the younger Pitt. He was created Lord
Hawkesbury in 1786, and Earl of Liverpool in 1796. In
1758 he had published a "Discourse on the Conduct of
Great Britain with respect to Neutral Nations." He died
in 1808, leaving his title to his son, who became premier.

a conservative British statesman, eminent for his pru-
dence and prosperity, born in 1770, was the son of the
preceding. He was educated at Oxford. In 1790 he
entered Parliament as a political friend of Pitt. He dis-
tinguished himself by his candour in debate, by abilities
more solid than brilliant, and by his persistent hostility
to innovation or reform. About 1796 he received the
title of Lord Hawkesbury, and married a daughter of
the Earl of Bristol. He became foreign secretary in the
ministry of Addington in March, 1801, and made peace
with Napoleon by the treaty of Amiens in 1802. In
1804 he accepted the office of home secretary under Pitt,
who had returned to power. The ministry having been
dissolved by the death of Pitt, in 1806, Lord Hawkesbury
was requested by the king to form a new ministry ; but
be declined the task. He took office as home secretary

in the cabinet of the Duke of Portland in 1807, and suc-
ceeded to his father's earldom in 1808. In June, 1812,
he obtained the place of first lord of the treasury, or
premier, vacated by the death of Percival, which he re-
tained until he was prostrated by a stroke of apoplexy
in February, 1827. "He presided over the councils of
England," says Brougham, " for a longer time than any
other, excepting Walpole and Pitt. It happened to him
that the years during which the helm of the state, as it
is called, were intrusted to his hands, were those of the
greatest events, alike in negotiation, in war, in commerce,
and in finance, which ever happened to illustrate or to

checker the annals of Europe.

So long and so littl*

interrupted a course of official prosperity was nevei
perhaps, enjoyed by any other statesman." Brougham
also represents him as remarkable for discretion and
as a model of safe mediocrity. He is censured foi op-
posing the abolition of the slave-trade, and for the part
he took in the persecution of Queen Caroline. Died
in December, 1828.

See BROUGHAM, "Statesmen of the Time of George III.;"
" Memoirs of the Public Life of Lord Liverpool," London, 1827.

Livl-a, [Fr. LIVIE, le've',] or, more fully, Livl-a
Dru-sil'ia, a Roman empress, born in 58 B.C., was
first married to Tiberius Nero. After becoming the
mother of Tiberius and Drusus Germanicus, she was
married in 38 B.C. to the emperor Augustus, over whom
she acquired an ascendency which she retained until his
death. She persuaded him to adopt her son Tiberius as
his successor. By his last will he appointed Livia and
Tiberius his heirs, and directed her to assume the name
of Julia Augusta. She was a woman of superior talents.
Died in 29 A.D.

See J. D. KOEHLER, "Dissertatio de Livia Augusta," 1715;
TACITUS, " Annales," i. and v. : " Nouvelle Biographic G^nerale."

Liv'I-a lav-ilia, a granddaughter of the preceding,
was the sister of Germanicus. She became the wife of
her cousin Drusus, the son of Tiberius, and was sus-
pected of poisoning her husband in concert with Sejanus.
She was put to death for that crime, by order of Tiberius,
about 30 A.D.

Livie. See LIVIA.

Livineius. See LIEVENS, (JAN.)

Liv'ing-ston, (BROCKHOLST,) an American jurist ano.
soldier, born in New York in 1764, served with distinc-
tion in the Revolutionary war, and subsequently rose to
be a judge of the supreme court of the United States.
He was a son of William Livingston, Governor of New
Tersey. Died in 1823.

Livingston, (EDWARD,) an eminent American jurist
and statesman, born in Clermont, Columbia county, New
York, on the 26th of May, 1764, was a son of Robert
Livingston, a judge of the supreme court of New York.
His mother was Margaret Beekman. He graduated at
Princeton College, New Jersey, in 1781, studied law,
and began to practise in the city of New York about
1785. He married Mary McEvers, of New York. After
he had acquired great eminence as an advocate, he was
elected a member'of Congress in 1794 by the Democrats.
He was re-elected in 1796 and in 1798. In 1801 he was
appointed district-attorney of the United States for the
State of New York, and elected mayor of the city of
New York for two years. In the autumn of 1803 he
became a public defaulter in consequence of the mis-
conduct of one of his clerks. He made an assignment
of his property, resigned his offices, and removed in
1804 to New Orleans. Having lost his first wife, he
married a Creole, named Louise Moreau de Lassy, in
1805. lie enjoyed great professional success in New
Orleans, and paid in full the debt which he owed to
the government. He was involved in a long controversy
and litigation about the title to some land, called the
Batturerwhich he purchased in New Orleans. President
Jefferson was one of his adversaries in this dispute;
but Livingston gained his cause. At the battle of New
Orleans, January 8, 1815, he acted as aide-de-camp to
General Jackson, who was his intimate friend. In 1821
he was authorized by the legislature of Louisiana to
revise the system of criminal law. He acquired celebrity
by his " System of Penal Law or Criminal Codes," pub-
lished in 1833, in which he opposed capital punishment

as /. c as i; g hard; g as /; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; R. trilled: s as z: th as in this. (jJ5p=See Explanations, p. 23. '



"This volume," says the "Edinburgh Review" for July,
1864, " is a perfect treasure-house of juridical and legis-
lative schemes and suggestions, doctrines and contri
vances ; and its indirect influence has been immense.'
M. Villemain declared the "System" to be "a work
without example from the hand of any one man. . . .
The lapse of time has deepened and strengthened the
foundations of his fame."

He represented a district of Louisiana in Congress
from 1823 to 1829, and was elected a Senator of the
United States by the legislature of that State in the
latter year. In April or May, 1831, he was appointed
secretary of state by President Jackson. Having re-
signed this office in May, 1833, he was immediately
appointed minister-plenipotentiary to France, where he
is said to have "hit the happy medium between firm-
ness and conciliation in diplomacy." He returned home
about the end of 1835, and died at Rhinebeck, New
York, in May, 1836. He had several children.

See a" Life of Edward I. ivinc^tnn. "by CHARLES HAVENS HUNT,
with an Introduction by OKORGE BANCROFT, 1864 ; " National Por-

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 96 of 425)