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trait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans," vol. i. : " North American
Review" for October, 1836.

Liv'ing-ston, (JOHN,) a Scottish Presbyterian divine,
born in 1603. Having declined to take the oath of alle-
giance in 1663, he was banished, and retired to Rotter-
dam, where he died in 1672.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen ;"
A. GUNN "Memoirs of J. Livingston," New York, 1829.

Livingston, (Rev. JOHN H.,) an American divine
of the Dutch Reformed Church, born at Poughkeepsie,
New York, in 1746. Having studied at Yale College
and in Holland, where he received the degree of D.D.,
he became, on his return, pastor of the Dutch Church
in New York. He was appointed professor of theology
at Queen's College, New Jersey, in 1807, and president
of that institution in 1810. Died in 1825.

Livingston, (I'm up,) an American revolutionist, and
signer of the Declaration of Independence, born at Al-
bany in 1716. He graduated at Yale College in 1737,
and in 1759 was elected a member of the General Assem-
bly of the colony from the city of New York. In 1770
he was one of the committee appointed to correspond
with the celebrated Edmund Burke, then agent for the
colony of New York. He was elected a member of the
Congress of 1774 and 1776. Died in 1778.

Livingston, (ROBERT,) the first possessor of the
Livingston Manor, New York, was born in Scotland in
1654. He emigrated to New York about 1672, and ob-
tained a grant of a large tract of land near the Hudson
River. He was the ancestor of several eminent men named
Livingston, lie had three sons, PHILIP, ROBERT, and
GILBERT, from the second of whom the statesmen Robert
R. and Edward Livingston were descended.

Livingston, (ROBERT R.,) an American statesman,
born in New York in 1746, was a brother of Edward
Livingston, the great jurist He graduated at King's
College, New York, in 1765. He was a descendant of
Robert, noticed above. As a member of the Congress
of 1776, he was appointed one of the committee to draw
up the Declaration of Independence. He became chan-
cellor of the State of New York in 1777, was secretary
for foreign affairs about two years, (1781-83,) and in
1801 was sent as minister to France, where he was very
favourably received by Napoleon and assisted in the
negotiation for the purchase of Louisiana. He returned
home in 1805, after which he aided Robert Fulton in
the introduction of steam-navigation, and promoted
improvements in agriculture. Died in February, 1813.

See "National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans,"
roL ir.

Livingston, (WILLIAM,) an American jurist, brother
of Philip, noticed above, was born in New York in 1741.
Having removed to New Jersey, he was elected to the
first Congress from that State in 1774. He became
Governor of New Jersey in 1776, which office he filled
for fourteen years. He was a member of the Convention
which framed the Constitution, (1787.) He was the
author of a " Review of the Military Operations in North
America from 1753 to 1758;" also of several political



works, and of a poem entitled "Philosophical Solitude."
Died in 1790.

See " Memoir of William Livingston," by THEODORE SEDG-
WICK, J*.

Liv'ing-stone or Liv'ing-ston, (DAVID,) a Scottish
missionary, distinguished as an explorer of Africa, was
born at Blantyre, near Glasgow, March 19, 1813. He
worked in a cotton-factory in his youth. Having studied
medicine and theology, with an intention to labour as a
missionary, he was sent by the London Missionary So-
ciety to South Africa in 1840. He laboured and trav-
elled in the interior of Africa for sixteen years, and
made important discoveries for which the Geographical
Society awarded him a gold medal. He returned to Eng-
land in 1856, and published an interesting work entitled
"Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa,"
etc, (1857.) In 1858 he again went to Africa, as consul
at Quilimane or Killimane, with a view to explore the
river Zambesi, to promote the production of cotton, and
to open commercial intercourse with the natives of that
region. He returned to England in 1864, and about the
end of 1865 published a " Narrative of an Expedition to
the Zambesi, 1858-64." He set out again for Africa in
1865, explored a portion of the continent westward from
Zanzibar, and, after enduring great hardship, succumbed
to an attack of dysentery, and died on the south shore
of Lake Bangweolo, May I, 1873. His " Last Journals"
were published in 1874.

See "Quarterly Review" for January, iS66; "Westminster Re-
view" for January, 1866; " Eraser's Magazine" for January, 1858

Livin Menus, lee'vin ma'nus, ? a skilful Dutch
painter, born at Amsterdam in 1630, worked for many
years at Florence, where he died in 1691.

Livius, (TiTUs.) See LIVY.

Liv'I-us An-dro-nl'cua, a popular Roman dramatist
and actor, who began his career as an author about 240
B.C. The place of his birth is unknown. He is regarded
as the earliest dramatic writer of Rome. He composed
both tragedies and comedies, of which only small frag-
ments now remain, and was the sole performer of his
own plays, which were used in schools in the time of
Horace. He was a writer of industry and learning
rather than original genius.

See PROFESSOR SELLARS, " Roman Poets of the Republic,"
chap. iii.

Livonniere, de, deh le'vo'ne-aiR', (CLAUDE Poc-
quet po'ki',) a French jurist, born at Angers in 1652 ;
died in Paris in 1726.

Livoy, de, deh le'vwi', (Pere TIMOTH^E,) a Fiench
friar and litterateur, born at Pithiviers in 1715. He pub-
lished, in 1767, a "Dictionary of French Synonyms."
Died in 1777.

Liv'y, [Lat Liv'ius,] (TiTUs,) [It. TITO LIVIO, tee'to
lee've-o; Fr. TITE LIVE, tet lev,] a celebrated Roman
historian, was born at Patavium (now Padua) in 59 B.&
Ancient writers furnish us few particulars of his life,
except that he was patronized by Augustus and became
a person of consideration at court. He appears to have
passed the greater part of his time in Rome. Niebuhr
favours the opinion that he was in early life a teacher of
rhetoric. His great history of Rome, from the origin of
the city to the year 9 B.C., was called by him "Annales,"
and was comprised in one hundred and forty-two books,
of which thirty-five have come down to us entire, viz.,
:he first, third, and fourth decades, and five books of the
Sfth decade. We have also epitomes, by an unknown
nand, of one hundred and forty books. The first book
was probably published or written between 29 and 25
B.C. His dialogues on philosophy and politics, which,
according to some writers, procured him the favour of
Augustus, are not now extant.

The great popularity o f his history must be ascribed
:o the excellence and beauty of his style and his wonder
ful powers of description. The numerous orations by
which the history is diversified are models of eloquence.
" The painting of the narrative," says Macaulay, in his
essay entitled "History," in the "Edinburgh Review,"
' is beyond description vivid and graceful. The abun-
dance of interesting sentiments and splendid imagery in
:he speeches is almost miraculous." But he was desti-
tute of many qualifications essential to a historian of the



a, e. i. fi, u, y, lo,,g: i, e, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, JF, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; n6t; good ; moon:



LJASALFAR



1565



L OB A U



first order. Incapable of broad philosophic views, and Lloyd, (DAVID,) a British biographer, born in Merio-

indisposed to profound research, he was more studious j nethshire in 1625. He took orders, and successively

to exalt the national glory and produce a picturesque ! held several benefices. Among his principal works is

effect than to compose a true history. He made liule " The Statesmen and Favourites of England sine* the

use of public documents, and was not familiar with the Reformation," (1665.) Died in 1691.

antiquities of his country. His work is also deficient Lloyd, (EDWARD,) an English tenor-singer, born in

in th explanation of the original constitution of the London in 1845. He has considerable reputation as an

state, the contests between the orders, the progress oratorio and concert singer.

of civilization, and other domestic affairs. Livy was Lloyd, (HENRY,) a British officer, distinguished as a

married, and had two or more children. Died at Padua writer on tactics, was born in Wales about 1725. He

in 17 A.D. [served in the Seven Years' war, first in the Austrian




government. Suddenly quitting the Russian service, he
Ljaaalfar. See ELVES. wen t to Gibraltar, and gave valuable counsel to General

Llanos de Valdez, U'n6s dl vll'deth, (Don SEBAS- Eniott respecting the siege of that fortress. He died at
TIAN,) a Spanish painter, born at Granada about 1002; Huyin , 7 8 3> leaving an "Introduction to the History of
died after 1670. the War between the King of Prussia and the Empress

Llanover, LORD. See HALL, (BENJAMIN.) Mar j a Theresa," (1781,) a " Memoir on the Invasion and

Llewellyn or Llywelyn, loo-eTin, L, Prince 01 Defence of England," (1798,) and other works.
Wales, began to reign about 1 190, and married a daughter see " Nouvelle Biographic GeniSrale."

of John, King of England. The latter afterwards invaded Lloyd, (HENRY DEMAREST,) an American author,
Wales and forced him to do homage. Llewellyn waged born at New Vork city in jg 47 . He was admitted to
war against Henry III. about 1228. Being harassed by (he Ngw York bar in , 86 and removed to Chicago
the rebellion of his youngest son Griffith, he made, m Jn lg becoming a j ourna l lst . He wrote "Wealth
1237, a treaty with Henry, and purchased peace i by Commonwealth," " Labor Copartnership," "A
acknowledging himself the vassal of that king. He died J, -i >> t

in 1240, and was succeeded by his son David Countr >' wlthout Strlkes ' < '9') etc " u

Llewellyn EL was the son of Griffith, and successor Lloyd, (ROBERT,) an English poet, born at West
of his uncle David. He renewed the homage to Henry minster in 1733. He became an usher in the Wes
III., but conspired with the Earl of Leicester against minster School, and a companion of Churchill Col man
him in 1263. Llewellyn and his allies were defeated at etc. His health and fortune were injured by dissipated
Evesham in 1265. In 1276 he was summoned by Edward habits. He composed an admired poem, "The Actor,
I. to come and do homage; but he declined. Wales (1760.) "The Capricious Lovers, a comic opera, and
was then invaded and conquered by Edward in 1277. other works. Died in 1764.
Llewellyn, having again revolted, was killed in battle in See NEWTON, " Life of R. Lloyd;" KENRICK, "Life of Lloyd,"

'"uorente, lo-ren'ta, (BERNARDO GERMANO,) a Span- '^^' ( W*^:* ^TeV^IIe woir!ted
ish painter, born at Seville in 1685 ; died in 1757. Bishop, born in Berkshire in 1627. He was appom ec

LUnte, (Don FKL.X,) a Spanish paints/born at P Sn ^Pj -n : fc, ^nd^one^f th.

'" ^ landSCapeS> publish in their churls the declaration of indulgence

to Catholics and dissenters. He became almoner to

ld in 1692, Bishop of
lmoner to Queen Anne
iJurnet valuaDle mate*




secretary-general of the Inquisition, of which he became

a determined adversary. In 1794 the Grand Inquisitor Llywelyn. See LLEWELLYN.

directed Llorente, whose opinions were known to be Loaysa, lo-I'sa, (GARCIAS,) a Spanish cardinal and

liberal, to write an exposition of the abuses of the In- eloquent preacher, born at Talavera a >o-t 1480. About

quisition. In 1808 he embraced the party of the French 1524116 became confessor to Charles V . He was after-

invaders, wis admitted into the council of state by King wards Bishop of Seville, and president of the Royal

Joseph, and promoted the suppression of the Inquisition Council of the Indies. Died in 1546'

in 1809. On the expulsion of the French from Spain, in Lo'banoff-Rostof ski, (ALEXIS,) PRINCE, a Rus-

1814, he went as an exile to Paris, where he published 5 ; an statesman, bora in 1824. He entered the public

in 1817 his "Critical History of the Spanish Inquisi- ( ser vice in 1843, and occupied various positions till

tion," which was his geat work. It is said by Presccstt | J g 7 g > wnen he was made ambassador to Turkey, in



to be the only authentic account of that institution. He
also wrote " Historical Notices of the Basque Provinces,"
(1 806-8.) Died in 1823.

Lloyd, loid, (CHARLES,) an English banker, eminent
as a scholar and philanthropist, born in Birmingham
in September, 1748, was a member of the Society of
Friends. lie was conspicuous as an advocate of the
abolition of the slave-trade, and was a man of great in-
fluence in the community. He was an uncle of Thomas
F. Buxton, and father of Anna Braithwaite. Died in 1828.



1879 to London, and in 1882 to Vienna, remaining
there until 1895. He was thence transferred to Ber-
lin, and afterwards made minister of foreign affairs,
in which post he displayed great activity and ability.
Died August 30, 1896.

Lobau, de, deh lo'bo', (GEORGES Mouton moo'-
t6N',) COUNT, a French general, born in Phalsbourg in
1770. He entered the army in 1792, became aide-de-
camp of Joubert in 1798, and aide-de-camp of Bonaparte
1805. His services were rewarded by the rank of



Lloyd, (CHARLES,) an English poet, born in Birming-




idge. Lloyd produced, oesiaes otner poems, \'~*-' - - ., <?

"Nug* CanoW' ("Sounding Trifles," 1819.) "Desul. He fought at Lutzen and Bautzen ,n 1813. and was Ul

tory Thoughts in London," (1821,) and "The Duke prisoner at Waterloo m 1815, aftei which he : passed Imai

of Ormond" a traeedv (1822) He translated the years in retirement During the revolution of 1830;

Aged's of' Alfierhfto English * D "d in 1839 favoured the cause of Louis Philippe who appointed him

L DE CONCHY, Li.erary Reminiscences," vol. i, . Mon,h, 7 commander of the national guard m Decembe T, 1830, and

Review" for May, ,816, July, 1820, and July, 182*. gave him a marshal s baton in 1831.
as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled: s as z; th as in this. ( J^=See Explanations, p. 23.)



LOBE



1566



LOCK



Lobb, (THEOPHILUS,) an English physician, born in
London in 1678. He practised with success in that city,
and wrote medical works, among which are a "Treatise
on the Small-Pox," (1731,) and "Medical Practice in
Curing Fevers," (1735.) Died in 1763.

Lobe, lo'beh, (JOHANN CHRISTIAN,) a German mu-
sical composer, born at Weimar in 1797. He produced
in 1833 "The Princess of Granada," an opera. His
theoretic works are highly esteemed. Died Julyz?, 1881.

Lobeck, lo'bek, (CHRISTIAN AUGUST,) one of the
most thorough and acute philologists and antiquaries of
recent times, was born at Naumburg, in Prussia, in 1781.
He became professor of ancient literature and eloquence
at Kbnigsberg in 1814. He published valuable editions
of the "Ajax" of Sophocles, (1810,) and of Phrynicus,
(1820.) Among his other most important works is " Pa-
thologia: Linguae Grasca: Elementa," (1853.) Died in
1860.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Lobeira or Lobeyra, de, di lo-baVrS, written also
Loveira, (VASCO,) a celebrated Portuguese author, was
born at Oporto about 1360. He was knighted by King
John I. of Portugal on the battle-field of Aljubarrota in
1386, and died in 140.5. He was the author of the famous
romance " Amadis de Gaul," which is now seldom read.
The earliest edition now known was printed in 1519. It
passed for the best of the romances of chivalry until the
satire of Cervantes rendered them all unpopular.

See TICKNOR'S "Spanish Literature," voL i. chap. ri. p. jji
it sea.

Lobel or L'Obel, loT)?!', (MATHIEU,) an eminent
botanist, born at Litle, France, in 1538. He practised
medicine at Antwerp, and became physician to the Prince
of Orange, after whose death he went to England, where
he passed the most of his life. In 1570 Lobel and Pena
published in London " Stirpium Adversaria," which pre-
sents the first sketch, though rude, of a natural method
of botany, with neat engravings of about two hundred
and seventy plants. He published in 1581 a valuable
work entitled " Icones Stirpium," which contains figures
of about two thousand plants, and is still, says Duvau,
often consulted. Lobel was also physician to James I.
Died near London in 1616. The genus Lobelia was
named in honour of him.

See C. F. A. MORREN, " Notice biographique ur M. de L'Obel,"
1853: ELOV, " Uictionnaire de la M^dedne.'

Lobell or Loebell, Ib'bel, (JOHANN WILHELM,) a
German historian, born in Berlin in 1786. He became
professor of history at Bonn about 1830. Died in 1863.

Loben or Loeben, 16'ben, (Orro H F.I N R ICH, ) COUNT,
a German writer of the romantic school, born at Dresden
in 1786, is known by the name of ISIDORUS ORIENTALIS.
He wrote, besides numerous tales and poems, romances
entitled "Guido" (1808) and "Arcadion," (1811.) Died
in 1825.

Lobera, lo-na'ri, (Luis,) a Spanish physician, born
at Avila, in Old Castile. He was physician to Charles
V., and published treatises on anatomy and medicine,
(1542-51.)

Lobineau, lo'be'no', (Gur ALEXIS,) a learned French
monk, born at Rennes in 1666. He wrote a continuation
of the " History of Bretagne" (1707) by Legallois, and
another of Felibien's " History of Paris," (5 vols., 1725.)
Died in 1727.

Lcbkowitz. See CARAMUEL.

Lobkowitz. See HASSENSTEIN.

Lobkowitz, lob'ko-witz', (JOSEF FRANZ MAXIMIL-
IAN,) PRINCE, an Austrian musician, born at Vienna in
1772. He is best known as the friend and patron of
Beethoven, who dedicated to him a number of his works.
Died December 16, 1816.

Lobkowitz, von, fon lob'ko-wits', (GEORG CHRIS-
TIAN,) PRINCE, an Austrian general, born in 1702. He
took command of the army of the empress Maria Theresa
in 1741, and gained advantages over the French at Brau-
nau and Prague. Died in 1753. His son JOSEPH, bom
in 1725, distinguished himself in the Seven Years' war as
major-general. In the reign of Joseph II. he was made
a field-marshal. Died in 1802.

Lobo, lo'bo, (FRANCISCO RODRIGUEZ,) a celebrated
Portuguese poet, born at Leiria about 1550. He was the



author of songs, pastoral romances, sonnets, and of a
prose work entitled "Court in the Country and Wintei
Nights." He has been styled " the Portuguese Theocri-
tus." "He was," says Longfellow, "a scholar of great
erudition ; and the services he rendered to the Portu-
guese language and style make an era in that literature."
See LONGFELLOW'S " Poets and Poetry of Europe."

Lobo, IO'BO, (GERARDO,) a Spanish poet, born in Old
Castile. He became a favourite at the court of Philip
IV., who sometimes required his companions to talk
in verse to him. Lobo had a remarkable facility for
improvisation, and, it is said, could converse all day
without descending to prose. His productions consist
of odes, sonnets, etc. Died in 1668.

Lobo, (TERONIMO,) an enterprising Portuguese mis-
sionary and Jesuit, born at Lisbon in 1593. He was
sent to labour in the mission of Goa in 1622. In 1625,
with other missionaries, he undertook to evangelize
Abyssinia, whose sultan, Seged, (Segued,) had become a
Roman Catholic, or at least was friendly to that Church.
The sultin having died, the missionaries were expelled
by his successor in 1634. In 1640 he went again to Goa,
where he was chosen provincial of his order. He re-
turned to Lisbon in 1656, and published a valuable rela-
tion of his travels in Abyssinia, entitled a " History of
Ethiopia," (1659,) which was translated into English by
Dr. Johnson. Died in 1678.

Locatelli, lo-kl-tel'lee, or Lucatelli, loo-ka-tellee,
(ANDREA,) an Italian painter of landscapes and genre,
born at Rome. He adorned his landscapes with figures
which are admired, and displayed good taste in familiar
scenes. His works are praised by Lanzi. Died in 1741.

Locatelli, (Luici,) an Italian physician, born at Ber-
jamo, invented the "balm of Lucatel." Died in 1637.

Locatelli or Lucatelli, (PiETRO,) a historical painter
born in the Roman States. He was admitted into the
Academy of Saint Luke in 1690.

Locatelli, (PiETRO,) an Italian violinist, born at Ber
jamo in 1693 ; died in 1764.

Locceniua, lok-sa'ne-us, (JoHAN,) a Swedish histo-
rian, born in Holstein about 1598. Queen Christina gave
him the title of historiographer of Sweden. He wrote,
in Latin," History of Sweden," (1654,) and several works
on law. Died in 1677.

See M. STBUCH. " Memoria J. Loccenii," 1678 ; OLOF A. KNOHS,
'Letvernes Beskrifhing om J. Loccenius," 1807.

Loch, (HENRY BROUGHAM,) BARON, an English
official, was born in 1827. He served in the navy
1840-42, in the army 1844-57, and was subsequently
in the diplomatic service. Was Lieutenant-governor of
Isle of Man 1863-82, Governor of Victoria 1884-89,
Governor of Cape Colony and High Commissioner of
South Africa 1889-95. He was made a baron in 1895.

lioch, lok or IOK, (JAMES,) a Scottish lawyer, born in
1780. He was employed as auditor by the Earl of Elles-
mere and other noblemen, and was for many years a
Liberal member of Parliament He published a " Sta-
tistical and Historical Account of the County of Suther-
land." Died in 1855.

Locher, loK'er, (JAKOB,) a German poet, born in
Suabia in 1470, was surnamed PHILOMUSUS. He was
crowned poet-laureate by the Emperor of Germany.
Among his works (in Latin) are a poem on Lazarus
and Dives, and "The Judgment of Paris," (1501.) Died
in 1528.

Lochner, loK'ner, (MICHAEL FRIEDRICH,) a skilful
German physician and botanist, born near Nuremberg
in 1662 ; died in 1720.

Lochore, IOK-OR', (ROBERT,) a Scottish minor poet,
born at Strathaven, July 7, 1762. He was a shoemaker,
and a friend of Burns. He published " Tales in Rhyme,"
(1815.) Died April 27, 1852.

Lock, (MATTHEW,) an excellent English composer,
born at Exeter about 1635. Soon after the restoration
(1660) he received the title of composer-in-ordinary to
Charles II. He is called the first English composer for
the stage. Some of his sacred compositions appeared in
the " Harmonia Sacra." His chief title to durable fame
is the admirable " Music in Macbeth." Died in 1677.

See BUR>TKY, " History of Music."



it, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, 4, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, Q, obscurt; fir, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon;



LOCK ART



LOCKER



Lcck'art, (ALEXANDER,) a Scottish lawyer, born
near Edinburgh in 1675. He wrote "Memoirs of Scot-
land." Died in 1732.

Locke, lok, (DAVID Ross,) an American humorous
writer, burn in Vestal, New York, September 20, 1833.
lie became a journalist of Ohio, and wrote much politi-
cal satire, under the name of PETROLEUM V. NASBY.
Among his books are "Divers Views, Opinions, and
Prophecies," " Swingiu' Round the Cirkle," " Ekkoes
from Kentucky," "Morals of Abou ben Adhem," "A
Paper City," " Moral History of America's Life-Strug-
gle " etc. Died February 15, 1888.

Locke, lok, |Lat. LOC'KIUS,) (JOHN,) a celebrated
English philosopher ana philanthropist, born at Wring-
ton, in Somersetshire, in 1632, was the son of Captain
Locke, who served in the parliamentary army during
the civil war. I le studied at Westminster School, and in
1651 entered Christ Church, Oxford, where he soon dis-
tinguished himself by his talents and acquirements. He
left Oxford with no very favourable views of the system
of instruction there pursued. He had, indeed, been far
more indebted for his mental culture to his own efforts
than to the skill or labour of his tutors, and was himself
an example of that self-teaching which in his writings
he so strongly recommends. In 1665 Locke accom-
panied, as secretary. Sir Walter Vane, royal envoy to
the Elector of Brandenburg. He returned to England
in February, and soon after formed the acquaintance of
Lord Ashley, (afterwards Shaftesbury,) who received him
into the number of his most intimate and confidential
friends. In 1672, Shaftesbury being then lord chancellor,
Locke was appointed secretary for the presentation
of benefices, but quitted this office in 1673, when his
patron, having quarrelled with the court, resigned the
great seal. In 1675 Locke visited the south of France
on account of his health. He resided more than a year
at Montpcllier, and afterwards spent much time in Paris.
He returned to his own country in 1679 ; but, Shaftes-
bury having been compelled by his enemies to leave
England towards the close of 1682, Locke followed him
to the continent in 1683, and passed several years in
Holland. In 1688 he returned to his native land in
the same fleet that conveyed the Princess of Orange to
England. Soon after his arrival, he was offered by Lord
Mordaunt the position of envoy to one of the European
courts; but he declined the office on account of his


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 97 of 425)