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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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i he old Norse logi, (Gcr. Lohe,) "flame," allied to the
Latin luc-eo, to "shine," and to the Scottish lug, "fire;"
probably so named because he united the subtlety and
untrustworthiness (or treachery) of fire with its destroy-
ing properties,] in the Norse mythology, the god of evil
and deceit, corresponding in the main with the Ahriman
of the Zoroastrians. He is of Jotun (giant) descent, but
was received among the gods, and in the beginning was
a foster-brother of Odin. From his association with the
Msh, he is often styled AsA-LoKl or ASALOKE. I le is
called by various appellations ; among others, the Slan-
derer or Accuser, epithets exactly corresponding to the
Greek &&>>of, (Latin Diafolus.) He is the enemy and
mocker, as well as tempter, of gods and men. As proof
of his subtlety, he often changed his sex, assuming on
different occasions the form of a mare, a cow, an old
woman, etc., as well as that of the gods. The ;Usir often
made use of his cunning and strength ; but still more
frequently they had cause to rue those very powers em-
ployed against themselves. Professor Petersen furnishes
perhaps the most philosophical and most satisfactory
account of Loki and his various attributes that can any-
where be found. Among other things, he observes thai
"Asaloke forms an antagonism (modsatning) to all the
other gods. He is the (principle of] evil exerting itself
in every direction. 1 le runs in the veins of mankind as
sensuality. He is the destructive [power] of nature in
air, in fire, and in water. In the bosom of the earth |he
shows himself] as volcanic fire ; in the sea as a devour-
ing serpent ; in the lower world ( underverdfn ) as pale
Death. He is not confined to any one part of nature,
but, like Odin, pervades it all. . . . And all that he is
in [external] nature, the same is he in the mind of man :
shrewdness, but also cunning and falsehood at the same
time ; spirit, but likewise craft, deceit, and malice. . . .
And in each of these forms he continually becomes worse
and worse ; according to the old proverb, that 'every-
thing grows worse as it grows older.'" ("Nordisk My-

olojTj," pp. 355-6.)

Through the deceitful malice of Loki, Balder, the
beautiful and good, was slain by the hand of his blind
brother Hoder. (See BALDER.) By the female Jotun
Angurboda, Loki was the father of the wolf Fenrir, of
the World-Serpent, (or Midgard's Ormr,) and of Hela,
the goddess of death. He is also fabled to have been (by
a change of sex) the dam of the horse Sleipnir. The
^Jsir, exasperated on account of the death of Balder,
determined at length to take vengeance on Loki. He
had fled to the mountains, and there built himself a
house which was open on four sides, whence he could
see everything that happened throughout the world. By
day he often transformed himself into a salmon, and hid
himself in a waterfall. The gods, learning his hiding.

a,e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscurt; far, fill, lit; met; n6t;good; moon;



place, attempted to catch him with a net ; he sprang
jver the net, but Thor caught him by the tail. This is
the reason, we are told, why the salmon has so thin and
pointed a tail. Having thus captured Loki, the gods
bound him with magic cords to three sharp stones. A
venomous snake was then hung above his head, so that
the poison might continually drip on his face. But his
faithful wife Sigyn (sig'in) stands by him and catches the
falling venom in a cup. When the cup is full, while she
is emptying it the poison falls upon his face, which makes
him howl with anguish and writhe his body so that the
whole earth trembles. Loki will break loose from his
bonds at Ragnarock, (the " twilight or evening of the
gods,") when he will become the leading spirit among
the enemies of the ./Esir. He is not only the leader of
Fenrir and the other progeny of evil, but he is said
to steer the fatal ship Naglfar which conveys the sons
of Muspel over the ocean. In the final conflict he will
encounter Heimdall, and they will slay each other. Frey
falls under the sword of Surt. Tyr slays and is slain by
the dog Garm. Odin is devoured by the wolf Fenrir,
which in turn is killed by Vidar. Thor slays the world-
serpent, but dies immediately afterwards from the effects
of its venom. Then Surt scatters fire over the earth,
and the whole world is consumed. (See FENRIR.) We
are told, however, that this destruction is not to last
forever. A new earth, forever green and beautiful, will
rise out of the sea. Vali and Vidar (the slayer of Fen-
rir) will survive the conflagration, and will be joined by
Modi and Magni, the sons of Thor and Balder, and
Hoder will return from the realms of Hela. The sun
before her destruction bore a daughter more beautiful
than herself. As successor to her mother, she will pursue
her appointed path through the renovated world. A new
race shall fill the earth, and all evil come to an end.

See KEYSER, " Religion of the Northmen," translated by PEN-
NOCK, pp. 101-104: THORPE, "Northern Mythology," vol. i. : MAL-
LET, "Northern Antiquities," vol. ii.. Fable XVI., also XXX. to
XXXIII. inclusive: PETERSEN, " Nordisk Mythologi."

Lokmaii or Locman, lok'mln', written also Loq-
man, an ancient Arabian sage, celebrated for his wis-
dom, and supposed to be the author of a collection of
popular Oriental fables. He is mentioned in the Koran,
and is regarded as a contemporary of David and Solo-
mon. One Arabian writer tells us that Lokman (who is
called " the oldest sage") was an Abyssinian slave be-
longing to an Israelite in the time of King David, and
that he was a tailor by trade. Another writer says he
had read more than 10,000 wise sayings and maxims, but
none finer than those of Lokmin. It is related that
Lokman, being asked whence he had learned his wisdom,
replied, " From the blind, who do not set down their
feet until they know the place ;" and when asked from
whom he had learned good manners, he said, " From
the ill-mannered, because I avoid everything offensive
in them." Coincident traditions suggest the possible, if
not probable, identity of Lokman and jEsop. " Many
passages of his history," says Silvestre de Sacy, " seem
evidently borrowed from the life of ^*Esop." " Nothing
in his fables is characteristic of Arabian genius ; and
they have received the name of LokmSn only because
he was renowned for wisdom." They were edited and
translated into Latin by Erpenius in 1615.

See HAMMER-PURGSTALL, " Literaturgeschichte der Araber."
vol. i. p. 31 et uq.

Lola Montez, lo'la mon'tgr, (MARIA DOLORES FOR-
Ris GILBERT,) a famous female adventurer, was born
about 1820, at Limerick. At an early age she made her
dibut at Paris as a danseuse, and by her beauty and
genius attracted many admirers. About 1846 she went
to Munich, where she captivated the king, Louis, who
gave her the title of Countess of Lansfeld. After several
ministers had been discarded by her influence, her
enemies prevailed in 1848, and she retired from Bavaria.
She was afterwards married twice, and lived in England
and the United States, where she lectured with success
in various cities. She published a volume of lectures,
and was the reputed author of a work called "The Arts

Derived, according to Keyser, from Regin, the " ruling powers,"
ind hence "gods," and Riktr, "darkness," also " twilight."

of Beauty, or Secrets of a Lady's Toilet." She died in
New York in 1861.

See " Eraser's Magazine" for January, 1848.

Loll, lo'lee, (LORENZO,) an Italian painter and en-
graver, born at Bologna in 1612, was a pupil of Guido
Reni. His most admired works are etchings, after Guido,
Sirani, etc. Died in 1691.

Lonard or Lol'hard, (WALTER,) a person of whom
we have little information, except that he was burned
to death as a heretic at Cologne in 1322. His followers
or fellow-believers, called " Lollards," were a numerous
sect in England many years after his death. Their doc-
trines appear to have been similar to those of the Prot-
estants. The term Lollard was applied to the disciple*
of Wickliffe by their opponents. In the reign of Henry
V. (1414) the Lollards were persecuted, and revolted
without success. (See COBHAM, LORD.)

Lolli, lol'lee, (ANTONIO,) an Italian violinist, born at
Bergamo in 1728; died in 1802.

Lolli-a Pau-li'na, a Roman empress, whose beauty
captivated Caligula. She was married to him in 38 A.D.,
but was soon discarded by the capricious emperor. She
was put to death in 49 A.D. by the order of Agrippina,
who was prompted to this act by jealousy.

Lol-U-a'nus, [AoUtavof,] a Greek sophist and writer
on rhetoric, born at Ephesus, lectured at Athens in th
reign of Hadrian, (117-138 A.D.)

See KAYSER, " P. Hordeonius Lollianus geschildert," etc., 1841.

Lollio, lol'le-o, (ALBERTO,) an Italian orator and
poet, born at Florence in 1508. He published elegant
orations and letters, and several poems, among which is
"Arethusa," a pastoral drama, (1563.) Died in 1568.

Lolll-us, (M.,) a Roman general in the service of
Augustus. He was defeated in Gaul by the Germans in
16 B.C. Died in 3 A.D.

Lolme. See DE LOLME.

Lom'ax, (JOHN TAYLOE,) an American lawyer, born
in Virginia in 1781, was appointed in 1826 professor of
law in the University of Virginia. Died Oct. 10, 1862.

Lomazzo, lo-mat'so, (GIOVANNI PAOLO,) an Italian
painter and able writer on art, was born at Milan in
1538. He was appointed by Cosimo de' Medici keeper
of his vast gallery of pictures in Florence. He was
versed in belles-lettres and various sciences, and ac-
quired a profound theoretical and practical knowledge
of the fine arts. Having become blind in the prime of
life, he composed his "Trattato della Pittura," (1584,)
" the most complete treatise on painting," says the " Bio-
graphic Universelle," "that has hitherto appeared." Hfe
praises were sung by the first Italian poets of his time.
He also published " Idea (or Image) of the Temple of
Painting," ("Idea del Tempio della Pittura," 1591.)
Died about 1600.

See LANZI, "History of Painting in Italy;" WINCKKLHAHK,
" Neues Mahler- Lexikon :" TICOZZI, "Dizionario."

Lombard, IdNTiiR', (CLAUDE ANTOINE,) a French
surgeon, born at Dole in 1741; died in 1811.

Lombard, (JEAN Louis,) a French artillerist, born
at Strasburg in 1723, was learned in languages, etc. He
published a translation of Robins's " Principles of Ar-
tillery," (1783,) and other esteemed works on gunnery.
Died in 1794.

Lombard. lom'baRt, (JoHANN WILHELM,) a Prus-
sian politician, born at Berlin about 1767. He was ap-
pointed minister of foreign affairs about 1800. He
favoured the French interest by promoting the neutrality
in which Prussia persisted until 1806. Died in 1812.

Lombard, ^N^IR', [Lat. LOMBAR'DUS,] (LAMBERT,)
an excellent Flemish painter and architect, born at Liege
about 1500. He studied in Italy under Andrea del Sarto,
and returned to his native city. In his school of design
were formed several eminent artists, among whom was
Frans Floris. His style is Italian. Among his master-
pieces is an oil-painting of the " Last Supper." Died in

See VASARI, "Lives of the Painters:" DOMINICUS LAMPSONICS,
(or LAMPSON,) " Lambertt Lombard! apud Eburones Pictoris celebe*
rimi Vita," 1565.

Lombard, (THEODORE,) a French poet, born at An-
nonay in 1699; died about 1770.

i; 5 as ; g hard; g as/; G, H, K. guttural; N, nasal: R, trilled; s as *; th as in this. ( JEg="See Explanations, p. 3>)



Lombard de Langrea, 16NTDSR' deh loNgR, (VIN-
CENT,) a French litterateur, born at Langres about 1765.
He wrote "Neslie," (1798.) and other poems, and "Me-
moirs of the French Revolution," (2 vols., 1823.) Died
in 1830.

Lombard!, lom-baR'dee, (ALFONSO,) an Italian sculp-
tor, was born at Ferrara in 1487. He had an excellent
talent for portraits. Among his works were portraits of
Bembo, Ariosto, and Charles V., and a group in terra
cotta representing the "Death of the Virgin." Dier 1
in 1536.

" Lombard!, (GIOVANNI DOMENICO,) called L'OMINO,
an Italian painter, born at Lucca in 1682 ; died in 175*.
Lombardi, (GlROLAMO,) an Italian sculptor, born at
Ferrara, lived about 1550. He was employed, under the
direction of Sansovino, on the church of San Marco,

Lombardi, (GIROLAMO,) an Italian philologist, born
at Verona in 1707 ; died in 1792.

Lombardo, lom-baR'do, (PlETRO,) a Venetian archi-
tect and sculptor. He made the monument raised to
Dante at Ravenna in 1482, and designed the church of
Santa Maria de' Miracoli at Venice. Among his works is
the tower for the clock on the Piazza San Marco. Died
about 1520. His sons ANTONIO and TULLIO were able
sculptors and architects. The latter designed the church
of San Salvator, Venice. His finest works as a sculptor
were two marble bas-reliefs in the Chapel del Santo at
Padua. Died in 1559.

Lombardo, (TOMMASO,) an Italian sculptor, bom at
Lugano, lived about 153-
Lombardus. See LOMBARD, (LAMBERT.)
Lombart, 16N'bSR', (PIERRE.) a French engraver,
born in Paris in 1612. Among his works are twelve
portraits, after Van Dyck, a " Nativity," after Poussm,
and a " Penitent Magdalene," after Titian. Died in 1682
Lombert, IdN'baiR', (PIERRE,) a French translator,
born in Paris, was an associate of the Port-Royalists.
He produced French versions of the works of Saint
Cyprian, (2 vols., 1672,) and of Saint Augustine's "City
of God," (2 vols., 1675.) Died in 1710.

Lombro'so, (C-ESAR,) an Italian anthropologist
born, of Jewish descent, at Venice in 1836. He studied
medicine, and held professorships successively at
Pavia, Pesaro, and the University of Turin. He be-
came a noted authority on insanity and on crime in its
relation to the physical organization. Among his
many works maybe named "Genius and Insanity,"
(1864,) " Microcephalism and Cretinism," (1873,)
"The Man of Genius," (1888,) and "The Female
Offender," (1895.) His greatest work, " L'Homme
Criminel," (1875,) unfolds his theory of congenital
tendency to crime.

Lomeier, lo'mT'er, written also Lomeir, (JAN,) a
learned Dutch philologist, born at Zutphen in 1636. He
became minister of the church in that town in 1674, and
professor of belles-lettres there in 1686. He published
a curious treatise " On Libraries," (" De Bibliothecis,"
1669,) and a work on ancient history and philology, en-
titled "Dierum Genialium." Died in 1699.
See SAX, "Onomasticon."

Lomenie, de, deh lo'mi'ne', (HENRI AUGUSTE,)
Count de Brienne, a French statesman, born in Paris in
1594. At the age of twenty he obtained the reversion
of the office of secretary of state, which his father had
held. In 1624 he was sent to England to draw up the
articles of the marriage between Henrietta of France
and the Prince of Wales. He retired from office in 1661,
and died in 1666.

Lomenie, de, (Louis HENRI,) Count de Brienne, the
son of the preceding, was born in 1635. About the age
of twenty-six he resigned the office of secretary of foreign
affairs, and became a priest of the Oratory. He wrote
poems, memoirs, and other works, which have some
literary merit. He was expelled from the order of the
Oratory for eccentric or improper conduct, and was
deranged many years. Died in 1698.

See " Me'moires de L-. H. de Lomenie," 2 vols., 1720.

Lomenie, de, (Louis LEONARD,) a French author,
born in Haute-Vienne in 1818. He began his literary
career by a series of biographies, entitled "Gallery of
Illustrious Contemporaries, by a Man of no Account,"
(" Galerie des Contemporains illustres, par un Ilomme
de Rien," 10 vols., 1840-47,) which procured for him an
honourable reputation for good taste, discretion, and
other merits. Many of these biographies have been
published separately. Among his works is " Beaumar-
chais and his Times : Studies on French Society," (j
vols., 1855.) Died April 2, 1878.

Lomenie de Brienne, de, deh lo'ma'ne' deh bRe'eV,
(firiENNF. CHARLES,) a French cardinal and minister of
state, born in Paris in 1727. He was appointed Arch-
bishop of Toulouse in 1763. In 1770 he was elected to
the French Academy. In May, 1787, he succeeded
Calonne as contrMeur-glniral of finances, without abili-
ties adequate to the crisis. An exciting contest arose
between the court and the Parliament of Paris, which
was exiled from the capital and deprived of political
power. In 1788 he was invested with the title of prime
minister and made Archbishop of Sens. In this year,
yielding to the importunate appeals of the people, then
in a state of great excitement, he convoked the States-
General for May, 1789. Having been so unsuccessful as
a financier that he was compelled to suspend payments,
he was dismissed on the 24th of August, 1788, and Necker
became premier. He was one of those in the new regime
who took the oath as a constitutional bishop. Died in


See DROZ, " Histoire du Regne de Louis XVI :" " Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Ge"nirale."

Lomi, lo'mee, (ARTEMISIA,) an Italian painter, born
at Pisa in 1590, was a daughter of Orazio Lomi, and a
pupil of Guido. She had a high reputation as a portrait-
painter, and painted some historical works, among which
is "Judith and Holofernes." She died in London or
Naples about 1644.

Lomi, (AURELIO,) an Italian painter, born at Pisa in
1556, is called one of the chiefs of the school of Pisa.
He painted frescos and oil-paintings in Rome, Genoa,
Florence, Pisa, etc. Among his admired works are a
Saint Jerome and "Adoration of the Magi." Died in 1622.

See LANZI, " History of Painting in Italy ;" BALDINUCCI, " No-
tizie "

Lomi, (BACCIO,) an Italian painter, an ancle of the
preceding, born at Pisa, lived about 1570-1600. He
worked at Pisa with success, and founded a school.

Lomi, (ORAZIO,) an Italian painter, called GENTI-
LESCHI, a brother of Aurelio, noticed above, was born
at Pisa about 1563. He worked in Rome, where he was
employed by Agostino Tassi to paint figures. About
1623 he removed to London, where he was patronized
by Charles I. Among his works are a "Repose in
Egypt," and an "Assumption." Died in London in 1646.

Lomm, lorn, [Lat. LOM'MIUS,] (JossE,) one of the
most skilful physicians of his rime, was born at Buren,
in Holland, in 1500. He practised at Tournai and at
Brussels, whither he removed about 1557. In his "Medi-
cinal Observations" (" Observationes Medicinales," 1560)
many diseases are accurately described. He wrote other
works, in Latin of uncommon purity. Died after 1562.

Lommius. See LOMM.

Lomonoaof, Lomonossov, Lomonoaov, or Lom-
onosow, lom-o-no'sof, (MICHAEL VASILIEVITCH,) a cele-
brated Russian poet, born at or near Kolmogory, in the
government of Archangel, in 1711, is called the father
of modern Russian literature. He was the son of a serf,
whom he assisted in the business of a fisherman until
his thirst for knowledge led him to Moscow, and thence
to Saint Petersburg, in 1734. He became learned in an-
cient and modern languages and in abstract and natural
sciences. In 1746 he was appointed professor of chem-
istry, and in 1760 rector of the gymnasium and Uni-
versity of Saint Petersburg. He rendered the Russian
language more polished and more rich by his multifarious
productions, in prose and verse, on grammar, history,
chemistry, rhetoric, etc. His poem entitled " Petriade"
(an unfinished epic, of which Peter the Great is the
hero) is one of his most popular works. He also pro-

a, e, I, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, ii, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, till, fit ; mt; n&t ; good; moon;





duced two volumes of odes, religious and secular, and
an abridged " History of Russia." He was made council-
lor of state in 1764. Died in 1765. Polevoi has published
a work entitled "M. V. Lomonossov," (1836,) which is
said to be a biography blended with fiction.

See, also, G. GKITLIN, " Dissertatio de Mentis literariis Lomo-
nossovii," 1829; " Nouvelle Biographic Generale ;" ' Foreign Quar-
terly Review" for July, 1839.

Londe, 16.Nd, (CHARLES,) a French medical writer,
born at Caen in 1798. His "Elements of Hygiene"
(1827) has been frequently translated. Died in 1862.

Londe, de la, deh IS 16.Nd, (FRANCOIS RICHARD,) a
French poet, born at Caen in 1685 ; died in 1765.

LonderseeL, lon'der-saT, (AssuR,) a Dutch landscape-
painter and engraver, born at Amsterdam in 155-

Londerseel, van, vin lon'der-sal', (JAN,) a Flemish
engraver, born at Bruges about 1580.

third MARQUIS OF, born in Dublin in 1778, was a son
of Robert the first Marquis, and a half-brother of Lord
Castlereagh. His mother was a daughter of Lord Chan-
cellor Camden. He entered the army in 1793, became
colonel and aide-de-camp to the king in 1803, and dis-
tinguished himself in Portugal under Sir John Moore.
He served as adjutant-general under Sir Arthur Wei-
lesley for several years in the Peninsula. In 1813 Sir
Charles was envoy-extraordinary to the court of Berlin,
and was officially attached to the head-quarters of Ber-
nadotte. Much importance is ascribed to the efforts
and menaces by which he induced Bernadotte to co-
operate with the allies at Leipsic. He was raised to the
peerage, as Lord Stewart, in 1814. and was one of the
plenipotentiaries sent by England to the Congress of
Vienna in 1815. Having married a daughter and heiress
of Sir Harry Vane Tempest in 1819, he assumed the
name of Vane. He succeeded his half-brother as Mar-
quis of Londonderry in 1822, and obtained the rank of
general in 1837. He was author of a " History of the
Peninsular War," (1813.) He died in 1854.


Hopkinton, New Hampshire, in 1784. About 1816 he
set out on a tour for exploring the western frontier from
Texas to the sources of the Mississippi, and published in
1824 his " Expedition to the Source of Saint Peter's
River, Lake of the Woods," etc. Died Sept. 4, 1864.

Long, Le. See LELONG.

Lon'gard de Longgarde, (DORETHEA,) an Eng-
lish novelist, (bom Gerard,) in Lanarkshire, 1855.
She wrote several novels in conjunction with her sister
Emily, (see GERARD, EMILY,) and, after her marriage
in 1886, a considerable number independently, in-
cluding "A Queen of Curds and Cream," (1892,)
"A Forgotten Sin," (1898,) etc.

Longepierre, de, deh IdNzh'pe-aiR', (HILAIRE BER-
NARD DE REQUELEYNE,) BARON, a French poet, born at
Dijon in 1658. He was an excellent Greek scholar, and
produced poetical versions of Anacreon, Sappho, Bion,
and Moschus. His tragedy of " Medea," says Voltaire,
although too full of declamation, is superior to Corneille's
"Medea." Died in 1721.

Longet, lAN'zhi', (FRANgois ACHILLE,) a French
physician and physiologist, born at Saint-Germain-en-
Laye in 1811. He published "Anatomy and Physiology
of the Nervous System," (2 vols., 1843-46,) and a " Com-
plete Treatise on Physiology," (1850-55.) He became
consulting physician of the emperor. Died in 1871.

Long'fel-low, (HENRY WADSWORTH,) an eminent
American poet and scholar, born at Portland (Maine)
the 27th of February, 1807. He graduated at Bowdoin
College in 1825, soon after which he was appointed pro-
fessor of modem languages and literature in that institu-
tion, with the understanding that he should have the
privilege of spending some time in Europe in order more
fully to qualify himself for his new position. He left
home in 1826, and spent four years abroad, chiefly in
France, Spain, Italy, and Germany. In 1835 he suc-
ceeded Mr. George Ticknor in the chair of modern
languages and belles-lettres at Harvard. The same year
! he visited Europe the second time ; and, after making

Londonio, lon-do'ne-o, ( FRANCESCO, ) an Italian an extensive tour through Denmark, Sweden, Germany,

painter of animals, born at Milan in 1723 died in 1783- etc., he entered upon the duties of his professorship in

Long, (EDWARD,) an English writer, born in Corn- 1838. In 1839 appeared his romance of " Hyperion,"

wall in 1734. He emigrated in 1757 to Jamaica, where apd a collection of his poems, entitled "Voices of the
he was appointed a judge. Having returned to England
in 1769, he published a "History of Jamaica," (1774,)

and several minor works. Died in 1813. . , ,

Long, (GEORGE,) an eminent English scholar and charming drama of " The Spanish Student" appeared
editor, born at Poulton, Lancashire, in 1800. Having! in 1843. This was followed by his "Poets and Poetry

been educated at Cambridge, he became professor of \ of Europe," (1845,) "The Belfry of Bruges, and other

ancient languages in the University of Virginia in 1824, Poems," (1846,) and " Evangeline," (1847,) one of the

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 99 of 425)