Josephus Nelson Larned.

The Rise and Fall of Nations: Modern online

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THE RISE AND FALL
' OF NATIONS

WITH POKTRAYAIiS OF THEIB

GREAT MEN AND WOMEN

EXHIBITIKO

^et)entt Centuries

OF THE

LIFE OF MANKIND

WITH AN INTRODUCTORY ACCOUNT OF PRE-
HISTORIC PEOPLES

By J. N. LARNED

SDITOB OF ^* mSTORY FOB BBADT BBFEBBNCB " AND AUTHOB OF

** A H18TOBT OF THB UNTTBD STATB8 FOB 8EOONDABY SCHOOLS "

** A mSTORT OF BNOLAKD FOR SCHOOLS^' BTC.

Illustrated by about one hundred and fifty reproductions of famous
historical paintings and portraits in black and white, and colors

3^n €tDo l^olumejec

Volume II

MODEKK



PUBLISHED BT

THE C. A. NICHOLS COMPANY

Sprinofield, Mass.
1907



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H3^-^7.r



HARVARD C0UC6C U8RARY

FROa THE LIBRARY OF

DR. JALtSJ.PUTNAII

OClOftER 3 t932



COPYRIGHT 1905 AND I907 BY J. N. LARNBD
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED



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CONTENTS

EPOCH OP MODBRNIZINQ EXPANSIONS,
CALLED THB RENAISSANCE

CHIEF CHARACTERS OP THE EPOCH

CHAPTER XIII

FROM THE ADVENT OF GUTENBERG TO THE
ADVENT OF LUTHER

(A. D. 1454 TO 1517)

The transition from mediaeval to modem conditions. — Expansion,
fiberation, re- wakening. — Invention of printing and its effects. — Revival
of learning. — Geographical exploration and dhcovery. — Undertakings of
Prince Henry of Portugal. — Voyages of Columbus and Vasco da Gama.
State of Europe when America was discovered, France: Louis XI. and
Charles the Bold. — Consolidation of the kingdom. Italy: Naples, Milan,
Florence. — ^The Medicean despotism at Florence. — Savonarola and his
fate. — Invasion of Italy by Charles VIII. of France. — Its effects on
France. Germany and the Empire: The marriage unions of Austrian,
Burgundian and Spanish families. — Their immense effects. England:
Absolute monarchy resulting from civil wars. — ^Establishment of the
Tudor djniasty. Discovery of America: Voyages of Columbus, Cabot,
and Vespucius. — Papal grants. — ^The naming of America. — ^Effects of the
discovery, and of the opening of the sea-route to India. — The Portuguese
in the east. France and Italy : Italian wars of Louis XII. ... 88

CHAPTER XIV

FROM THE ADVENT OF LUTHER TO THE
ABDICATION OF CHARLES V.

(A. D. 1517 TO 1556)

The Protestant ReformcUion: How Europe had been prepared to
listen to Luther. — His ninety-five theses against the papal sale of indul-
gences. — Situation in Germany following the Austro-Spanish marriage. —
The emperor Charles V. — His opposition to the Reformation. — His
suppression of freedom in Spain. — His persecuting tyranny in the Nether-
lands. — His Italian wars with Francis I. of France. — Capture and sack of
Rome by the imperial army under constable Bourbon. — Peasant war in
Germany. — Progress of the Lutheran reformation. — The emperor's under-
taking to repress it by force. — Religious war, followed by the Peace of
Augsburg. — Abdication of Charles V. — Zwingli, and the Swiss reforma-
tion. — Persecution of reformers in France. — Calvin at Geneva. — Henry
VIII. of England. — Base motive of his quarrel with the papacy. — Separa-
tion of the English church from the Roman. — Reformation in Scotland and
Scandinavia. — Gustavus Vasa. — The Council of Trent. The Spaniards in
America: Cortes in Mejdco. — Pizarro in Peru. — Native civilizations. 64

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vi CONTENTS

CHAPTER XV

FROM THE ABDICATION OF THE EMPEROR

CHARLES V. TO THE ASSASSINATION

OF HENRY IV., OF FRANCE

(A. D. 1556 TO 1610)

Cathfllic reaction : Intrusion of mercenary and political motives in the
Reformation movement. — Protestant divisions. — Purification of the papacy.
— Organization of the Society of Jesus. — Malignant power of Philip II. of
Spain. Spain and the Netherlands: The ruining of Spain. — Philip's
despotism in the Netherlands. — Alva and his ** Council of Blood." — Fate
of Egmont and Horn. — The revolt. — Success of the ** sea-beggars.*' —
Heroic struggle of the Dutch for freedom. — Philip's assassination of its
great leader, William the Silent. — Eastern trade won by the Dutch and
English. Religious Wars in France : The contestants for power. — ^The
Guises. — Catherine de' Medici. — The Huguenots as a party. — The Bour-
bons of Navarre. —Admiral Coligny. — Meddling of PhiUp of Spain. — The
massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day. — ^Accession of Henry of Navarre to
the throne. — His abjuration of Protestanism. — His Edict of Nantes.
Germany: Events leading to the «* Thirty Years War." England:
Queen Elizabeth and Mary, Queen of Scots. — ^Execution of Mary. — The
Spanish armada. — Half -piratical warfare with Spain. — The Elizabethan
age. America : Undertakings of the French. — Hawkins's slave-trading
and Drake's piracies. — Projects of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. — Raleigh's
colonies. — The Virginia Company. — ^The Jamestown colony and Captain
John Smith. — French and Dutch settlements. China and Japan : Open-
ing of Christian missions. — Reconstruction of Japan by leyasu. — Sup-
pression of Christianity. India : Founding of the Moghul empire. 106

EPOCH OF POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS

CHIEF CHARACTERS OP THE EPOCH

CHAPTER XVI

FROM THE ASSASSINATION OF HENRY IV.
TO THE DEATH OF CROMWELL.

(161O TO 1658)

England and Scotland: Union of the crowns under the Stuarts. —
Offensiveness of James I. to English feeling. — Weakening of loyalty.
— Charles I. — His falsity of nature. — His attempts at absolutism. — ^The
Long Parliament and its work. — Civil war. — Rise of Cromwell. — Defeat,
trial, and execution of the king. — The Commonwealth. — The Protectorate
of Cromwell. — Restoration of the Stuart monarchy. France: Aggran-
dizement under Richelieu. — Ministry of Mazarin. — ^The Fronde. Ger-
many: The Thirty Years War. — Wallenstein. — Gustavus Adolphus. —
Destructiveness and results of the war. The Dutch Netherlands : Ac-
knowledgment of their independence. — Bameveld and Prince Maurice. —
Domination of Holland. — The Dutch maritime career. Russia: Ivan
the Terrible. Poland: The •*libemm veto." Tht Turks: Waning of
the crescent. China : The Manchu conquest. Japan : The period of
isolation. America : Overthrow of the London Company in Virginia. —
Founding of Maryland. — Colonizing of New England. — Independent Puri-
tan spirit. — Cavaliers in Virginia. — ^Troubles in Maryland 168



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CHAPTER XVII

FROM THE DEATH OF CROMWELL TO THE
DEATH OF LOUIS XIV., OF FRANCE

(1658 TO I715)

England: Restored monarchy. — Ignoble reign of Charles II. — Prot-
estant hostility to James II.— :Monmouth's rebellion. — Revolution of
1688. — Reign of William of Orange and Mary. — Reign of Queen Anne.
— Rise of ministerial government. — Literature of the reign. — National
union of England and Scotland. The Dutch Netherlands : William of
Orange, stadtholder. — His organization of resistance to Louis JCIV
France: Reign of Louis XIV. — His perfidious conquests and wanton
aggressions. — His revocation of the Edict of Nantes. — Leagues formed
against him by William of Orange. — War of the Spanish Succession. —
State of France as left by Louis XIV. Germany : Depressed condition
of the petty states. — Rise of Prussia to the rank of a kingdom. Kussia:
Advent of Peter the Great. Sweden: Extraordinary career of Charles
XII. Italy: The duke of Savoy made king of Sardinia. America:
Founding of the Carolinas. — English conquest of New Netherland. — Penn
and Pennsylvania. — Political character of the English colonies. — ^The
Massachusetts charter annulled. — Effects of the English revolution. —
The Franco-English wars in America. — Growth of antagonism between
the colonies and the home government. India: First footing of the
English East India Company obtained. China : Reign of Kanghi. ^7



CHAPTER XVIII

FROM THE DEATH OF LOUIS XIV. TO THE

ADVENT OF WASHINGTON IN THE

AMERICAN REVOLUTION.

(1715 TO 1775)

Momentous consequences from the wars of the period. Great Britain :
The first Hanoverian kings. — Walpole. — Evolution of premier and cab-
inet. — The Mississippi and South Sea bubbles. — Jacobite risings. France:
Louis XV. and the Regency. — Bourbon ** family compact." War of the
Austrian Succession: The <* pragmatic sanction'* of Charles VI. — Fred-
erick the Great and other spoils-hunters. — Results of the war. The Seven
Years War in Europe: Combination against Frederick the Great. — His
great defensive campaigns. The War in America : The French in the
Ohio Valley. — Washington's entrance into history. — Braddock's defeat. —
Dispersion of the Acadians. — Pitt's infusion of new spirit into the war. —
Wolfe's capture of Quebec. — Retirement of France from America. — Pon-
tiac's war. The War in India : French and English struggle for suprem-
acy. — Clive's career. — The** black hole of Calcutta." — Subjugation of
Bengal. — Expulsion of the French. Russia: The four tzarinas. — Cath-
erine II. Great Britain and her colonies: George III. — The ** king's
friends." — ^Their colonial policy. — The** stamp act" and its repeal. —
Patrick Henry. — Samuel Adams. — The tea question and ** the Boston tea
party." — Punishment of Boston and Massachusetts. — The first ••conti-
nental congress." — Lexington and Concord. — The colonies in arms. —
Washington appointed to chief command 347



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viii CONTENTS

CHAPTER XIX

FROM THE ADVENT OF WASHINGTON IN

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

TO HIS DEATH

(1775 TO 1799)

Condnuity of revolutionary influence from the English Long Parlia-
ment to the French States-general. The War of American Independence :
Campaigns and battles of the war. — Discouraging conditions. — Trials of
Washington. — Surrender of Comwallis. — Treaty of peace. •* The critical
period of American history : ' * Weakness of the Confederation. — Framing
and adoption of the federal constitution. The British empire: Hostili-
ties with France, Spain and Holland. — Wars in India. — Concessions to
Ireland. — Industrial revolution in Great Britain. France: The approach-
ing political revolution. — Its causes. — Its outbreak. — Meeting of the
States-general. — The Girondists. — The Jacobins. — Execution of the king.
— Fall of the Girondists. — ** The reign of terror." — ^The Jacobin factions
devouring one another. — End of •* the terror." — Advent of Bonaparte. —
His campaign in Italy. — His expedition to Egypt. — His domination as first
consul. The Partitioning of Poland : The three partitions. The United
States of America : Organization of federal government under Washing-
ton.- -Financial measures of Hamilton. — Lasting division of political
parties. — ^Troubles with England and France. — Overthrow of the Feder-
alists. British America : The Quebec Act. — United Empire Loyalists. 279



EPOCH OF SCIENCE, MECHANISM, DEMOCRACY,

AND THB TRAN5P0RMIN0 OP THB WORLD

CHIEF CHARACTERS OF THE EPOCH

CHAPTER XX

FROM THE DEATH OF WASHINGTON TO

THE ADVENT OF STEPHENSON AND

THE STEAM RAILWAY

(1799 TO 1830)

The days of absolute government numbered. — History assuming a new
tenor. — Beginning of a transformation of the world. The Napoleonic
Wars : Second defeat of Austria. — Reconstruction of Germany. — Napo-
leon emperor. — Austerlitz and Trafalgar. — Subjugation of Prussia. —
Warfare by destruction of trade. — Naj)oleon*s crime against Spain. —
The Spanish uprising. — The humiliation of Germany. — The making of
Prussia. — Napoleon in Russia. — Beginning of his overthrow. His faU. —
His return from Elba.— Waterloo.— St. Helena. The United States of
America during the Napoleonic Wars : Neutral trade. — Humiliations en-
dured. — Presidency of Jefferson. — The Louisiana purchase. — Wrongs and
insults from England and France. — English claim to a right of search.-*
Madison's presidency. — Napoleon's knavery. — War of 181 2 with England.
— Beginning of a conscious national life. Europe after the fall of Napo-
leon : The English corn laws. — Reconstruction work of the Congress of
Vienna. — The Holy Alliance. — Revolutions of 1820 and 1830. — Ireland



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CONTENTS ix

and Catholic emancipation. New departure in social progress : Effects of
steamboat and railway. Tfie United States after the war of 1812 : Steam
navigation. — Canal building. — "The cotton gin.** — Its effects on slaveiy.
— Question of slavery in the Territories. — ^The Missouri compromise.—
The *' Monroe doctrine.** British America : Discontentin the Canadas.
Spanish America: Revolt and Independence of Spanish provinces.
Santo Domingo : Revolt. — Slave rising. — ^Toussaint L'Ouverture. Branil:
Founding of the empire. Australia : Growth of New South Wales. 848

CHAPTER XXI

FROM THE ADVENT OF GEORGE STEPHEN-
SON TO THE ELECTION OF ABRAHAM
LINCOLN PRESIDENT OF THE
UNITED STATES

(1830 TO i860)

Era of the raUway and the telegraph. Great Britain : First reform of
parliament. — Opening of the reign of Queen Victoria. — The Chartist
movement. — Repeal of com laws. — Free trade legislation. — Peel. — Glad-
stone. — Disraeli. — Ireland and O' Conn ell's agitation. European Revolu-
tions of 1848 and after : Italy. — France. — Germany. — Hungary. —
Coup cTHat of Louis Napoleon. — The Crimean War. — Liberation and
unincation of Italy. The United States : Andrew Jackson president. —
Jackson and nullification. — Jackson and the United States Bank. — The
financial collapse of 1837. — President Van Buren. — Formation of the
Whig party. — Rise of the Abolitionists. — Agitation of the slavery question.
— ^Annexanon of Texas. — War with Mexico. — Acquisition of California,
New Mexico, etc. — Question of slavery in the new territory. — Compromise
of 1850. — Fugitive slave law. — *« Uncle Tom's Cabin.** — Steplien A.
Douglas. — Doctrine of "popular sovereignty.** — Kansas- Nebraska bill.
— Rise of Republican party. — Struggle for Kansas. — Dred Scott decirion.
— Lecompton constitution for Kansas.— Douglas Democratic revolt. —
Douglas and Lincoln debates. — John Brown *s invasion of Virginia. —
Election of Abraham Lincoln. British America: Rebellion in the
' Canadas. — Reunion of the two provinces. Australia and A'ew Zealand :
Founding of the colonies of Western Australia, Victoria, South Australia,
New Ze^and, and Queensland. — Discoveries of gold. Ittdia and Afghan-
istan : Tragedv of the Afghan war. — The sepoy revolt. China : The
"Opium War.*^* — ^The Tai-ping rebellion. — Second war with England.
fapan : The Perry expedition. — Opening of ports to foreigners. Sou^
Africa : Founding of the Boer republics 894

CHAPTER XXII

FROM THE ELECTION OF ABRAHAM LIN-

COLN TO BISMARCK'S FOUNDING

OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE

(i860 TO 1871)

The United States of America : Secession and confederation of slave-
holding States. — Opening of civil war. — Blockade of Confederate ports. —
Battle of Bull Run.— The «« Monitor " and the ** Merrimac. "—Grant's first
successes. — McClellan's peninsular campaign. — Rising fame of the Con-



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federate generals Lee and Jackson. — Farragut's capture of New Orleans.
— Lee's first invasion of Maryland. — President Lincoln's proclamation of
emancipation. — Dark period of national reverses. — Political opposition in
the north. — Outfit of Confederate cruisers in England. — Lee's second
movement northward. — Gettysburg. — Vicksburg. — Grant's Chattanooga
campaign. — Lincoln's amnesty and plan of reconstruction. — Grant's cam-
paign against Richmond. — Reelection of Lincoln. — Sherman's march to
the sea. — Crumbling and fall of the Confederacy. — End of the war. —
Murder of President Lincoln. — Presidency of Andrew Johnson. — His
rapture with congress. — Congressional measures of reconstruction and
their results. — Period of demoralizations. — Presidency of General Grant. —
Settlement of ** Alabama ' ' claims. Events in Europe : Unification of Italv.
— Austro-Prassian and Franco-German wars. — Unification of Germany in
a federal empire. — Federation of Austria- Hungary. — Birth of the third
French republic. — Disraeli and Gladstone ministries in Great Britain. —
Irish Fenianism. — Revolution in Spain. — Emancipation in Russia. —
Russians in Central Asia. British America: Confederation of the
Dominion of Canada. Mexico: French conquest. — Maximilian's em-
pire and its fall. Egypt: Ismail Pasha, khedive. — ^The Suez canal. —
Japan : Fall of the shogunate. — End of feudalism and the daimiates. 434



CHAPTER XXIII

FROM BISMARCK'S FOUNDING OF THE GER-
MAN EMPIRE TO THE PRESENT DAY

(187 1 TO 1905)

The Peace Conference at The Hague. Great Britain and Ireland:
Beaconsfield and <* jingoism." — The third reform bill. — Gladstone's Irish
home rule bills. — Rupture in the liberal party. — Salisbury and Balfour
ministries. — Pacifying measures for Ireland. — Education acts. — Imperial-
btic policy. — Chamberlain's revived protectionism. — Death of Queen
Victoria.— King Edward VII. The French republic: The Dreyfus agi-
tation. — Measures for public control of education, and for separation oi'
church and state. The German empire : William II. — Imperial egotism.—
The new Germany. — Socialistic paternalism. Russia and her neighbors :
Rosso-Turkish war. — Russian treatment of Finland. — Development of
Siberia. — Dangerous discontent in the empire. Japan, China^ Korea, and
the Russians in eastern Asia: War between Japan and China. — Treat-
ment of China by- western powers. — ^The ** Boxer" outbreak. — Russian
designs in Manchuria. — Russo-Japanese war. Egypt and the Sudan:
Fordgn control of Egyptian finances. — Arabics revolt. — British suppression
of it. — The *« mahdi '*^in the Sudan.— Fate of Colonel Gordon. — Egyptian
conquest of the Sudan. The partitioning of Africa : The Congo Free
State. — ^The Berlin Conference. — Scramble for African territory. Boer-
Briton war : Its causes and results. The United States : Conditions in
the south. — Monetary questions. — Greenback and Silver parries. — Tariff
questions. — Civil service reform. — War with Spain. — Acquisition and sub-
jugation of the Philippines. — Liberation of Cuba. — Panama Canal. —
Material progress. — Imperialistic ambitions. Elsewhere. Prosperity in
Canada. — Progress under Diaz in Mexico. — Fall of the Brarilian empire. —
Confederation of Australian colonies. — Socialistic experiments in New
Zealand 466



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ILLUSTRATIONS

1. ** Columbus at Court of Ferdinand and

Isabella*' FronHspiece

Prom the painting by Vaczlav Brozik (1852-1900)

2. Gutenberg Page 20

Prom an ancient print

3. Columbus " 20

Prom the paintingr in the Marine Museum, Madrid

4. Copernicus " 21

Prom an old enfi^raving

5. Shakespeare Face p. 22

'*The Janssen Portrait," said to have been painted
by Cornelius Janssen (1593-1662) for the Earl of
Southampton

6. Bacon

Prom an engraving by Jacobus Houbraken (1698- 1780)

7. Cervantes

Prom the portrait by Josef del Castillo (i737-i7?3)»
who made the drawings for the edition of*' Iron
Quixote " published by the Madrid Academy

8. Montaigne

Prom an engraving by Th. de Leu (Leeuw), died 161 2

9. Raphael

"I ^ . ^

1506-7 by Raphael himself (1493-1520), now in the Gal-



** In Youth." Prom the original painting made in
1506-7 by Raphael himself (1493-1530), now m "" '^ *
lery at Florence



Prom the portrait by Lucas Cranach (m72-i5S3X now
• * "^ rlin*



ag€


• 23


(i


24


(<


24


«


25



10. Michael Angelo " 26

Prom the original painting in the Hall Collection,
by Michael Angelo himseli (1475-1564)

11. Lorenzo de* Medici ** 26

Prom the painting by Giorgio Vasari (i5ii-i574Xnow
in the Uflftzi Palace, Florence

12. Savonarola ** 27

Prom the painting by Pra Bartolommeo (1475-15x7)*
now in the Museum of St. Mark, Plorence

13. Luther " 28

Prom the portrait by L
in the Berlin Museum



14. Erasmus " 29

Prom the painting by Hans Holbein (1497-1543), in the
Louvre, Paris

15. Loyola *' 30

Prom the painting by Peter Paul Rubens (XS77-X640),
now in the Gallery at Vienna

(«)



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xll ILLUSTRATIONS



i6. Charles V

From the painting by Titian (1477- 1576)

17. Henry IV

Prom a painting in the Louvre

18. William the Silent

Prom the painting by M. J. Miereveldt (is67-i64iX
now in The Hague Gallery

19. Sir Walter Raleigh

Prom the engraving by Jacobtia Houbraken
(-1698-1780)



20. ** Luther at the Diet at Worms"

Prom the paintinr by Anton A. V(
(X834-), now in the Museum at Stuttgart



Page


31


i<


33


<<


34


<<


36


Face p.


68



21. ** Mary Stuart Receiving Death Sentence" Face p. 130

Prom the painting by Karl von Piloty (1826-1886),



Online LibraryJosephus Nelson LarnedThe Rise and Fall of Nations: Modern → online text (page 1 of 56)