PRESIDENCY OF MADRAS
J. S. GAMBLE
FOREWORD, PREFACE, AUTHORS NOTE, NOTES ON
PART XI, GENERAL DESCRIPTION, ABBREVIATIONS,
GLOSSARY AND KEY TO FAMILIES.
FLORA : RANUNCULACEAE TO CAPRIFOLIACEAE.
PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL
ADLAED & SON, LIMITED
21, HAET STREET, W.C.
Made and printed in Great Britain.
lESIDENCY OF MADRAS
J. S. GAMBLE
UBLISHED UNDEi; THE AUTHORITY OF THE
SCRETAUY OF STATE FOK INDIA [N OOUNC1L
WEST, NEWMAN & GO.
AND AD LARD & SON,
CONTENTS OF THE WHOLE WORK
FOREWORD ......... iii
AUTHOR'S NOTE vii
NOTES ON PART XI ....... ix
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE FLORA xi
ABBREVIATIONS AND SIGNS, INCLUDING BIBLIOGRAPHY . xvi
GLOSSARY OF BOTANICAL TERMS USED xx
ARTIFICIAL KEY TO THE FAMILIES ..... xxxvi
CORRIGENDA ......... 1895
INDEX TO BOTANICAL NAMES ...... 1899
INDEX TO VERNACULAR NAMES 1989
WITH this last part of the ' Flora of the Presidency of Madras,'
I should like to take the opportunity of thanking Mr. Fischer for
the conscientious and thorough way in which he has completed
my late husband's work, which was undertaken at the request of
the Government of India in 1912.
Mr. Gamble told me that Mr. Fischer was the only man he knew
who could carry on the work if he did not live to complete it himself.
I am much gratified that my husband's wish has been so ably
I should also like to thank Sir Arthur Hill for his kind and valuable
help in furthering the work.
18, CUMBERLAND ROAD,
IN 1912 the late Mr. J. S. Gamble, C.I.E., F.R.S., was requested
to undertake the preparation of a * Flora of the Presidency of Madras,'
a task for which he was remarkably well qualified owing to the
exceptional knowledge of the Flora he had acquired during his long
service in the Presidency as Conservator of Forests. During the
course of his extensive and careful tours he made very complete
collections of plants of the Presidency, and formed and maintained
a very complete private Herbarium, which he subsequently pre-
sented to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Mr. Gamble retired
from the Indian Forest Service in 1899, and at the time was fully
occupied with the publication of his ' Materials for a Flora of the
Malayan Peninsula'. The first part of the * Flora of the Presidency
of Madras ' (Ranunculaceae to Opiliaceae), consisting of 200 pages,
was published in November, 1915, and the draft of the botanical
portion of about the first 132 pages was prepared by Mr. S. T. Dunn,
as explained by Mr. Gamble in his introduction to this part, since
Mr. Gamble had not at the time completed his Malayan work.
The remainder of this part and the editing of the whole and the
preparation of Parts II- VII inclusive was undertaken entirely by
Mr. Gamble. Part II was published in 1918 and was followed by
Part III in 1919, Parts IV, V, VI and VII in 1921, 1923, 1924 and
1925 respectively ; Part VII being published very shortly after Mr.
Gamble's death on October 16th, 1925. The publication of this part
carried the work to the end of the Euphorbiaceae. With the consent
of the Government of India and of Mrs. Gamble, the completion of
the ' Flora ' was entrusted to Mr. C. E. C. Fischer, late of the Indian
Forest Service, now Assistant for India, Royal Botanic Gardens,
Kew, who had had many years of experience in the Madras Presi-
dency, and thanks to his knowledge of the flora the work has now
vi FLORA OF MADRAS.
been completed by the publication of Parts VIII-X in 1928, 1931
and 1934 respectively.
The choice of Mr. Fischer to complete the task has been a
fortunate one, since not only has he had all the resources of the
Kew Herbarium at his disposal, but he has received the same ready
help from the botanists in India which was so freely given to Mr.
The work has been completed on the lines laid down by Mr.
Gamble, and though it is much to be regretted that he did not live
to complete the ' Flora,' the change in authors has most fortunately
very little affected the character of the work, and is a worthy
memorial to the assiduous labours of a distinguished Indian botanist.
A. W. HILL.
IT has been a very real source of personal gratification to be
allowed to complete the work left unfinished at the lamented death
of Mr. J. S. Gamble, and this not so much as a botanist, but rather
as a tribute to the memory of one for whom I have a sincere
admiration and affection.
I have endeavoured to adhere as precisely to Mr. Gamble's
scheme as lay in my power.
I have to acknowledge with thanks the assistance of several of
my colleagues at the Kew Herbarium, but I alone must be charged
with all the shortcomings. I must also gratefully acknowledge
advice and help from my friends Mr. J. H. Burkill and the late
Professor W. G. Craib. I am indebted to Mrs. Gamble, who proved
unfailingly encouraging and patient, and to Sir Arthur Hill, K.C.M.G. ,
F.R.S., for his kind support. Finally, I thank my wife for help in
preparing the Indexes.
A very large number of botanical specimens have been examined
and compared in connection with the flora ; not only those in the
Kew Herbarium, to which, during the progress of the work, Mr.
Gamble's own herbarium and that from South India collected and
presented by Sir A. G. and Lady Bourne were added, but also those
among the large sets obtained on loan from the Superintendent
of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, the Principal of the
Government Agricultural College at Coimbatore, and the Conservator
of Forests, Travancore. Further, the Professors of Botany at
Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh kindly placed the Indian
specimens in their charge at the disposal of Mr. Gamble and myself.
Through Mr. A. Meebold, the collection of Indian grasses he made
from 1908 to 1912 were lent to me by the Direcor of the Breslau
Museum. A number of the type-specimens of species described by
Retzius from plants collected in S. India by F. G. Koenig were
kindly sent on loan from the Lund Herbarium. Smaller, but
viii FLORA OF MADRAS.
valuable, recent collections were received from Professor E. Barnes
and the Botanical Assistant at the Government Museum, Madras,
Mr. P. V. Mayuranathan. To all these thanks are due and here
It was Mr. Gamble's practice to publish explanatory notes in the
4 Kew Bulletin ' soon after the appearance of each part a practice
which the Editor has kindly permitted me to continue. These notes
appeared as follows :
For Part I in ' Kew Bulletin,' 1916, p. 57.
II 1918, p. 222.
III 1920, p. 49.
IV 1921, p. 312.
Parts V and VI in ' Kew Bulletin,' 1924, p. 235.
Part VIII in ' Kew Bulletin,' 1928, p. 281.
IX 1931, p. 257.
X 1935, p. 143.
Mr. Gamble appears to have made no observations for Part VII.
For Part XI the notes will be found on p. ix below.
It was intended that the map accompanying the final part should
include every locality mentioned in the work, but a very few have
been omitted -as they could not be traced, and three or four to avoid
further congestion on the map. Absolute accuracy is not claimed
for every item indicated because many of the places cited are not
recorded on any published map ; their positions are sufficiently
proximate, however, to make it easy to locate them in situ.
CECIL E. C. FISCHER.
ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS,
9th September, 1935.
NOTES ON PART XI
ROTALA FYSONI, Blatt. & Hallb. in J. B. N.H.S. xxv, 709, is, I consider,
B. illecebroides, Koehne.
In <Kew Bull.,' 1924, 236, Mr. Gamble drew attention to a paper by
Mr. N. Ridley in * Journ. Bot.,' 1921, 257, in which it was shown that
Jussieua suffruticosa,~Linn., as described in *F. B. I. 'ii. 587, comprises
more than one species. Mr. Ridley further identifies the true J.
suffruticosa, Linn., with J. fissendocarpa, Haines, of which one sheet
from Malabar is in the Kew Herbarium. This latter sheet, which
appears not to differ from Haines's specimens from Purneah, however,
has been identified by Dr. Lewin, of Berlin, as J. linifolia, Vahl. After
comparing the Malabar sheet with American specimens of the last-
named species, I agree with Dr. Lewin's determination. It is not
the J. suffruticosa, Linn., based on the description of " Karambu " in
* Hort. Malab.' ii., 55, t. 49. For the rest I agree with Mr. Ridley, and
in the Addenda three species of Jussieua have been added.
Too late for quoting in any part of the * Flora,' I have seen a
copy of ' Bombay Grasses ' by Rev. E. Blatter and C. McCann, with
illustrations by R. K. Bhide. The illustrations will greatly facilitate
identification, and as many of the grasses are common to the two
areas this work is mentioned here.
THELEPOGON ELEGANS, Roth. When dealing with the Gramineae
in Part X, I had seen no specimen from the area included in the * Flora,'
but since then one collected in the northern part of the Hyderabad
State has come to hand.
ANDROPOGON MICRANTHUS, Kunth. No specimen of this species
was forthcoming until after the publication of Part X. One sheet
from Horsleykonda has turned up, and the species has been included
in the Addenda as CAPILLIPEDIUM PARVIFLORUM, Stapf.
x FLORA OF MADRAS.
EHRHARTA ABYSSINICA, Hochst. The genus EHEHABTA is mainly
African ; it has not been reported hitherto from India, and so does
not find place in the ' F. B. I.' Since the publication of Part X of
the present work, Mr. C. E. Hubbard had drawn my attention to a
sheet of the species mentioned above collected not later than 1835 in
the Nilgiri Hills by B. Schmid and now in the Kew Herbarium. On
the label is a note, not in the collector's hand, suggesting that it is
an introduction, but as the species occurs in the mountains of
Abyssinia and also in E. Africa, it is not at all a likely plant to be
introduced either intentionally or accidentally. Moreover, certain
plants are known to be common to India and E. Africa. In spite,
therefore, of the fact that no further specimens have been collected
since B. Schmid's time, it seems to be the safest course to include this
species in the Addenda. Unfortunately there is no mention of the
precise locality where Schmid found it.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE
THE Presidency of Madras presents, probably, a more varied
flora than any other tract of equal area in India, possibly in the
This phenomenon is due to the combined effects of its geographical
situation and its topography.
A double coast line with the Indian Ocean on the West and the
Bay of Bengal on the East, yet the two sufficiently distant from
each other to allow of continental conditions in the interspace ;
two main hill ranges of the Eastern and Western Ghats within the
direct influence of these expanses of water and numerous other
lesser connected and isolated hill masses ; considerable tracts of
open plain or plateau land within the said heights ; elevations
ranging from sea-level to almost 9,000 ft ; the proximity of the
southernmost part to the Equator ; all these, with the climatic
features they connote, are the factors which contribute to this
The most interesting feature, and one that distinguishes it from
that of the rest of the Indian Peninsula, is found in the dense,
evergreen forests of the West and South with their wealth of sub-
The flora falls into the 4th (Malabar) and 5th (Deccan) Provinces
described by Sir Joseph Hooker in 1904 in his ' Sketch of the Flora
of British India'. As there stated, the flora comprised upwards
of 4,000 species of flowering plants. Since then a number of new
species have been described, so that the total in the present work
amounts to 4,516. This figure must not be accepted as final ;
further botanical exploration is bound to yield more species new
to botanical science, as indeed is indicated by the results of Professor
E. Barnes's collections made during the past three years, as well as
discoveries by others. This is particularly marked in the genus
xii FLORA OF MADRAS.
Impatiens, to which Sir Joseph attributed about 50 species, whereas
the present work includes 81.
It is interesting to compare the ten dominant families with
similar lists drawn up by Sir Joseph Hooker, as follows :
Position in list for
1. Leguminosae 432 species
2. Gramineae 388
3. Rubiaceae 226
4. Acanthaceae 202
5 and | Euphorbiaceae 199
6 lOrchidaceae 199
7. Compositae 189 ,,
8. Cyperaceae 172
9. Labiatae 128
10. Asclepiadaceae 93 ,,
14. Urticaceae 76
25. Scitamineae 40 ,,
Geraniaceae with 92 species (including Balsaminaceae) comes
close to Asclepiadaceae, and is likely to outstrip it in the future.
The number of Dicotyledons is slightly more than three times
that of Monocotyledons, and there are only 5 indigenous Gymno-
In spite of, perhaps because of, its numerous components it is
difficult to split up the area into very well-defined regions, and still
more to fix clear limits to them, although the typical characteristics
of each are susceptible of differentiation. There is so much over-
lapping, intrusion and shading off from one to the next that only
a minutely detailed description of each can give a clear idea ; an
ecological study would involve the compilation of several volumes.
Much the same would apply to the variations within each region
due to the influence of elevation, atmospheric, topographic and
phreatic moisture and to changes in soil. On the hills the flora
peculiar to the higher slopes and plateaux may intrude into a lower
and dryer region along the streams, and the more xerophytic species
often climb upwards along exposed and eroded spurs. Unfor-
tunately, detailed ecological investigation is lacking. The examina-
tion, in more or less detail, of one range of hills has shown that
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE FLORA xiii
within a few miles certainly within fifteen miles one may meet with
a series of very distinct types, ranging from a semi-desertic through
dry and moist deciduous hill forest, dense evergreen forest varying
with elevation to the open grass lands and alpine flora of the higher
Subject to the limitations indicated, the Madras Presidency may
be divided roughly into five main floristic regions as follows :
I. The Sal Region in the North ; comprising the district of Ganjam,
and the hill tracts of the Agency of that district and of Vizagapatam
and Godavary. As its title implies, the region is characterized by
the more or less abundant presence of Shorea robusta, Gaertn., which
species does not occur south of the Godavari River.
Apart from the presence of this and some other species of more
northern tracts that appear on a few of the higher hills (Mahendragiri,
Madgole, etc.), the region presents no very obvious line of cleavage
from the next and the vast majority of their species are identical.
II. The Dekkan Region, comprising the Lower Godavari, Kistna,
Guntur, Kurnool, Bellary, Anantapur, Cuddapah, Chittoor, Nellore,
Chingleput and North and South Arcot districts and also parts of
the Salem and Coimbatore districts.
The forest growth is mainly deciduous, and includes Tectona
grandis, Linn., Terminalia tomentosa, W. & A., Terminalia coriacea,
W. & A., Anogeissus latifolia, Wall., and numerous other trees of
the more or less dry forest tracts. In some of the valleys evergreen
trees of comparatively small size are found, e. g. Memecylon edule,
Roxb., Maba nigrescens, Dalz., and Gelonium lanceolatum, Willd.
There are four endemic trees of interest that appear in one part
of this region. These are Pterocarpus santalinus, Linn, f., Terminalia
pallida, Brand., Syzygium altemifolium, Walp., and Shorea Tum-
baggaia, Roxb., which inhabit the Veligonda, Lankamallais, Pal-
konda, Seshachalam and Kambakkam Hills of the Cuddapah,
Nellore, Chittoor and Chingleput districts. The first three also
occur in the southern outliers of the Nallamalais hills in the
Kurnool and Cuddapa districts.
III. The Semi Desert Region, comprising the lower parts of the
districts of Coimbatore, Salem, Trichinopoly, Madura and Tinne-
The rainfall is low, in most places under 18 in. per annum. The
xiv FLORA OF MADRAS.
flora is characterized by thorny small trees and shrubs with small
leaves, such as Dalbergia spinosa, Roxb., Dalbergia coromandelina,
Prain, and Acacia planifrons, W. & A.
IV. The Wet Region ; comprising the coastal tracts and the
Western Ghats in the districts of South Kanara, Malabar, Nilgiri,
Coimbatore and Tinnevelly, and the Native States of Cochin and
Travancore, up to an elevation of about 6,000 feet.
The flora of this region is particularly diversified and rich, so
that a number of sub-regions depending on elevation, aspect and
latitude and on the resulting rainfall and temperature define
The characteristic species are Hopea parviflora, Bedd., Valeria
indica, Linn., and Xylia xylocarpa, Taub. near the coast ; the enor-
mous growth of Tectona grandis, Linn., Dalbergia latifolia, Roxb.,
Pterocarpus Marsupium, Roxb., Terminalia crenulata, Roth., Lager -
stroemia lanceolata, Wall., etc., in the moist deciduous forests further
away from the coastline, and a host of evergreen species of Guttiferae,
Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Orchidaceae and
Scitamineae among others in the wet forests higher up the mountains.
In the latter are found large tracts covered with a dense growth
of the reed-like bamboo, Ochlandra travancorica, Benth., generally
along streams, and also a great wealth of mosses and ferns, including
It is in this sub-region that occurs the only indigenous conifer,
Podocarpus latifolia, Wall., and the two tree composites, Vernonia
monosis, C. B. Clarke, and V. travancorica, Hook. f.
V. The Alpine Region ; occupying the higher hills of the Nilgiri,
Pulney and Anamalais ranges and the higher ranges of Travancore
and Tinnevelly above 6,000 ft.
This tract comprises open grass lands with small alpine plants
and bushes. Among them may be cited Parochetus communis, Ham.,
Hypericum mysorense, DC., numerous species of Impatiens, Olden-
landia, Anaphalis, Exacum, Sonerila grandiflora, Wall., and many
terrestrial orchids, Arisaemas and Eriocaulons.
The ravines usually shelter patches of evergreen trees (sholas),
among which may be mentioned Rhododendron nilagaricum, Zenk.,
Syzygium Arnottianum, Walp., and other Myrtaceae, Microtropis
spp., Rapanea Wightiana, Mez., Elaeocarpusferrugineus, Wight, and
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE FLORA. xv
Daphniphyllum glaucescens, Bl. On the borders of these fragments
of evergreen are found belts of Strobilanihes Kunihianus, T. And.,
Gaultheria fragrantissima, Wall., and Rubus spp.
As already indicated, within all the regions are a number of
lesser distinctive features and some of these must be further
Along both coasts in the deltas estuarine belts of mangroves
occur, such as Avicennia officinalis, Linn., Lumnitzera racemosa,
Willd., Bruguiera spp., Rhizophora spp. and of halophytic
On the dry foreshore sands the exotic Casuarina equisetifolia,
Forst., has been planted extensively, but the natural flora consists
of herbs and creeping shrubs such as Hydrophylax maritima, Linn,
f., Ipomea biloba, Forst., Sesamum prostratum, Retz., and Spinifex
A feature of the coastal tract in Region II is the shrubby and
small tree growth of evergreen species that clothe the .low-lying
parts and the small hillocks within 20 miles or so of the sea. There
may be a stratum of 3 to 6 ft. of wind-blown sand overlying better
soil, or they may grow directly on the soil washed down from the
higher hills. Characteristic species of these evergreens are : Eugenia
bracteata, Roxb., Memecylon umbellatum, Burm. f., Capparis
brevispina, DC., Carallia integerrima, DC., Linociera malabarica,
Wall., and Mimusops hexandra, Roxb.
ABBREVIATIONS AND SIGNS
WORKS CITED AND ABBREVIATIONS USED.
Ada, Hort. Petrop. : Acta horti Petropolitani.
Andr. Repos. : H. Andrew's Botanist's Repository.
Ann. Bet. : Annals of Botany.
Ann. Calc. : Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta.
Am. Pug. : Pugillus plantarum Indiae orientalis, by G. Walker- Arnott.
7 * 7 J- Flora sylvatica, by R. H. Beddome.
Joedd. Jc I. bylv. \
Bedd. For. Man. : Forester's Manual of Botany, by R. H. Beddome.
T> jj ' T ' r>7 T j r\ I Icones plantarum Indicae orientalis, by R. H.
Bedd. Ic. PL Ind. Or. \ _ , _ r
D jj T r>7 r\ Beddome.
Bedd. Ic. PL Or.
Benth. Fl. Aust. : Floraaustraliensis, by G. Bentham.
Bidie : Report on Neilgherry loranthaceous parasitical plants, by
Bot. Cent.-Blatt. : Botanisches Centralblatt.
Bot. Mag. : Curtis's Botanical Magazine.
Bourd. For. Trees Trav. : The Forest Trees of Travancore, by T. F.
Brand. For. Fl. : Illustrations of the Forest Flora of North-West and
Central India, by D. Brandis.
Brandis Ind. Trees : Indian Trees, by D. Brandis.
Brand. Monog. : Das Pflanzenreich iv. 242 Symplocaceae.
Bull. Herb. Boiss. : Bulletin de Fherbier Boissier.
Bull. Jard. Bot. Suit. : Bulletin du jardin botanique de Buitenzorg.
Bull. Madr. Gov. Mus. : Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum.
Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. : Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale des
Naturalistes de Moscou.
Burm.f. FL Ind. : Flora indica, by N. L. Burmann.
Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. : Calcutta Journal of Natural History.
ABBREVIATIONS AND SIGNS. xvii
Clarke Comp. Ind. : Compositae Indicae, by C. B. Clarke.
Cogn. Monog. : de Candolle'sMonographiaephanerogamarum Melas-
Comm. Beng. : Commelynaceae et Cyrtandraceae bengalensis, by C. B.
Contr. Gray Herb. : Contributions to the Gray Herbarium.
Cooke Bomb. FL\ , r ^ T> -j X-DI, i, m ^
> ilora of the Presidency of Bombay, by T. Cooke.
Cooke Fl. Bomb.)
Cor. PL : Coromandel Plants, by W. Roxburgh.
DC. Fl. Fr. : Flore francaise, by A. P. de Candolle.
DC. Monog. : de Candolle's Monographiae phanerogamarum.
DC. Prodr. : A. de Candolle's Prodromus systematis naturalis regni
D. Don Prodr. Fl. Nep. ~) _
> Prodromus florae -Nepalensis. by D. Don.
Don Prodr. )
Denkschr. Akad. Wien. Denkschriften der Mathematisch-Natur-
wissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissen-
Desc. et Ic. : Descriptionum et iconum novas plantas, by C. I.
Engl. & Prantl. Naturl. Pflzm. : Natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien.
Engl. & Prantl. Naturl. Pfl. Nacht. : Nachtrag.
Engl. Jahrb. : Engler's Botanische Jahrbucher.
Engl. Pflanzenr. )
> Das Pflanzenreich.
Engl. Pflzreich. )
Enum. PI. Zeyl. : Enumeratio plantarum zeylanicae, by G. H. K.
Enum. Subst. Braz. : Enumerasao das substancias brazileiras, etc., by
Exot. Bot. : J. E. Smith's Exotic Botany.
F. B. I. : The Flora of British India.
Fl. Cap. : Flora capensis.
Fl. Gang. PL : Flora of the Upper Gangetic Plain, by J. F. Duthie.
FL Madr. : Flora of the Presidency of Madras.
Fl. Nilg. & Puln. : Flora of the Nilgiri and Pulney Hill-tops, by P. F.
FL N. Z. : Handbook of the New Zealand Flora, by J. D. Hooker.
FL Trop. Afr. : Flora of Tropical Africa.
Forsk. FL Aeg.-Ar. : Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica, by P. Forsskaal.
F. E. : Fedde's Repertorum specierum novarum regni vegetabilis.
Gaertn. Fruct. : De fructibus et seminibus plantarum, by J. Gaertner.
Gard. Chron. : The Gardener's Chronicle.
xviii FLORA OF MADRAS.
G. Don. Gen. Syst. : A General System of Gardening and Botany, by
Hook. Bot. Misc. : W. J. Hooker's Botanical Miscellany.
Hook. Ic. PI. : J. D. Hooker's Icones plantamm.
TT * nf 7 i, f H. van Rheede's Hortus Indicus Malabaricus.
Ic. PL : J. D. Hooker's Icones plantarum.
Ind. For. : The Indian Forester.
Ind. For. Rec. : Indian Forest Records.
Interp. Rumph. Herb. Amb.: An Interpretation of Rumphius's Her-
barium Amboinense, by E. D. Merrill.
Journ. As. Soc. Beng. : Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.
Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. : Journal of the Bombay Natural