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Convocation addresses of the universities of Bombay and Madras online

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Sub-vditur, The Hindu.

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THE Convocation addresses of the Bombay and Madras
Universities are so valuable in themselves and are the
productions of such eminent men, that no words of mine
are needed to commend them to the cordial acceptance of
the public. They furnish an authentic history of the com-
mencement and progress of Higher Education in the Pre-
sidencies of Bombay and Madras. In them are found an
admirable exposition of liberal education and its marvel-
lous effects ; authoritative declarations on the policy of the
Government towards Collegiate education, and on the
status, the privileges and responsibilities of the alumni of
the Universities. But the interest which they possess is
not merely academical. There is hardly any subject of
practical importance which they fail to traverse. On the
supreme necessity of the education and elevation of Indian
women, " the insatiable passion " for foreign travel that
ought to animate the educated youths of the country,
the willing homage that must be paid to rules of sanitation,
the methods calculated to increase the material prosperity
of the country, and a variety of equally weighty sub-
jects, the accompanying pages contain the mature opinions
of many of the best thinkers of the present and the pre-
ceding generation. The addresses therefore deserve a
permanent place in Indian literature, in a form convenient
for ready reference and within the easy reach of all. If
the publication of a moral text-book is still exercising
the mind of the Government of India, a judicious selec-
tion from the addresses would well serve the purpose.
Above all, the addresses set forth in an excellent manner
the objects with which England in her unrivalled genero-
sity and far-seeing statesmanship founded the Indian
Universities and the ideal which they desire their alnwni
to always keep in view.


2 Preface.

The princely benefactions of the citizens of Bombay
deserve the highest commendation and may probably, if
widely known in this Presidency, create a similar spirit
among the wealthy of my countrymen.

I have had to omit three addresses of the Madras
University, those delivered in 1858, 1865 and 1867, the
first and the last as I could not secure copies of them, and
the second agreeably to the resolution of the Senate that
the publication of it was not in keeping with the general
policy of the University in such matters.

To facilitate reference, I have given marginal head-
ings and an index to each of the parts.

I regret sanction was not given to me to publish the
A ddresses of the Chancellors and the Vice-Chancellors
of the Calcutta University.

In conclusion, I beg to tender my thanks to the Regis-
trars of the Madras and Bombay Universities for the per-
mission they accorded to me, to Messrs. S. R. Bhandarkar,
Assistant Registrar of the Bombay University, and Din-
shaw Eduljee Wacha, of Bombay, for the aid they ren-
dered me in procuring copies of the Bombay addresses,
and to Mr. K. Natarajan, B.A., for revising with me the

100, MOUNT ROAD. K. S.


i s is i o 3sr

v c- r^C* "


Covernor of Madras and Chancellor of the Madras Universily




Sir H. B. E. Frere, K.C.B. ... ... ... ... 1 to 30

Sir Alexander Grant, Bart, LL.D.... ... 31 to 33

Siv H. B. E. Frere, K.C.B. ... ... ... ... 33 to 38

Sir \V. R Fitzgerald, G.C.S.I., D.C.L 38 to 47

Rev. John Wilson, D.D., F.R.S.... ... ... ... 47 to 55

The Hon. Mr. Justice Gibbs ... ... 55 to 60

Sir W. R. Fitzgerald, D.C.L. G.C.S.I. ... ... ... 60 to 65

Sir P. E. Wodehouse, K.C.B. 65 to 74

The Hon. Mr. Justice Gibbs ... ... ... ... 74 to 86

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., G C.S.I , C.I.E... 86 to 104

The Hon. Mr. Justice Gibbs ... ... ... ... 104 to 113

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., C.I.E... . 114 to 125

Sir James Fergusson, Bart., K.C.M.G., D.C.L. ... ... 125 to 130

Mr. Justice Raymond West, C.S., M.A., F.R.G.S 130 to 140

Sir James Fergusson, Bart, K.C.M.G., D.C.L.... ... 14O to 140

Mr. Justice Raymond West, C.S., MA., F.R.G.S 149 to 160

Sir James Fergusson Bart., K.C.M.G., D.C.L. ... 160 & 161

Lord Ripon ... ... ... ... ... ... 161 to 163

The Hon. J. B. Peile, C.S., C.S.I. ... ... 164 to 177

Sir Raymond West, C.S., M.A., F.R.G.S. 178 to 206

Lord Reay, LL.D., G. C.I.E. ... ... 2O6 to 227

Rev. D. Maokichan, M.A., D.D, ... ... ... 227 to 243

Lord Reay, LL.D., G.C.I.E. ... ... 243 to 245

Mr. Justice Birdwood, C-S., MA., LL.D. ... ... 245 to 248

Lord Harris ... ... ... ... ... 248 to 252

Mr. Justice Birdwood, C.S., M.A., LL.D 252 to 268

Lord Harris ... 268 to 271



E. B. Powell, Esq., M.A. 1 to 8

J. D. Mayne, Esq., B.A 8 to 13

The Rev. A. B Symonds, M.A 13 to 17

The Bev. B. Halley, M.A 17 to 22

J. Bruce Norton, Esq., B.A. ... ... ... 22 to 27

E. Thompson, Esq., M.A. ... ... 27 to 32

Honorable Sir Adam Bittlestone ... ... ... 33 to 40

Honorable A. J. Arbuthnot, C S.I. ... ... 40 to 49

Lord Napier ... ... ... 49 to 57

George Smith, Esq., M.D.,L.B.C.S.E. ... 57 to 69

The Bev. William Miller, M.A.... ... ... ... 69 to 79

Henry Fortey, Esq., M.A. ... ... .. 79 to 85

W. A. Porter, Esq., M.A. ... ... ... 85 to 93

Honorable H. S. Cunningham, M.A. ... 93 to 101

Geo. Thorn, Esq., M.A 101 to 108

Honorable Mr. Justice Innes ... ... 108 to 115

Col. B. M. Macdonald ... ... ... ... ... 115 to 123

M. C. Purnell, Esq., M.D., F.B.C.S ... ... 123 to 135

The Bight Rev. B. Caldwell, D.D., LL D. ... ... 135 to 142

Duke of Buckingham and Chandos ... 142 to 147

Honorable Sir Charles A. Turner ... ... ...147 to 154

Honorable Mr. Justice Muthusamy Aiyar 155 to 168

Honorable D. F. Carmichael ... ... ... ... 169 to 174

Surgeon- General The Hon'ble W R. Cornish, C-I.E. .. 174 to 185
Honorable P. O' Sullivan ... ... ... 186 to 191

Rt. Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstonc Grant Duff 191 to 222

Raja Sir T. Madhava Row, K. C.S.I. ... ... ... 222 to 236

Lieut. Col. W. Hughes-Hallet ... ... 236 to 252

D. Sinclair, Esq., M.A. ... ... .. ... ...253 to 259

Rai Bahadur P. Banganadha Mudaliar, M.A 259 to 270

D. Duncan. Esq. M.A., D.Se. ... ... ... .. 27Oto284

H. B. Grigg ; Esq., M.A., C-I.E 284 to 314




Part I. Page 19, line 10 for exprience read experience.
47 6 for learn read earn.

)) 135 3 for apart read a part.

), ,) 150 }) 4 for Moble read Noble.

3 ) ) } 47 in the marginal heading for Duke of Con-

naught read Duke of Edinburgh.

159 Marginal heading for university read univer-


Part II. 49 Marginal heading for orgin read origin.

which have enabled me to be present.

I cannot help going back in memory to the occasion shortly
after my arrival in this country, when I met
Messrs - Bel1 and Henderson, who had then just
landed, the two first of the highly educated teachers
who were selected by Mr. Elphinstone to commence his great
system for the education of the youth of this presidency. I
recollect, too, when Dr, Harkness, your present Dean of the
Faculty of Arts, arrived here with Professor Orlebar in 1835,
as the first Professor of the then infant College. Looking to
the great difficulties with which they had to contend, I think


or THE

of Bombay



Mr. Vice-Chancellor and Gentlemen of the Senate, I am
sure it is a subject of: very sincere regret to the
Clerk George Senate and to every one here present that this
meeting could not be presided over by the great
statesman who has lately left these shores : to one whose heart
was so full of sympathy with everything connected with the
welfare of India who loved India with a large and generous
heart as Sir George Clerk did, the present would have been an
occasion of no ordinary interest. But while I regret he is not
here among us to-day, I cannot but feel grateful to Mr. Vice-
Chancellor, for the arrangements he so considerately made,
which have enabled me to be present.

I cannot help going back in memory to the occasion shortly
after my arrival in this country, when I met
Messrs. Bell and Henderson, who had then just
landed, the two first of the highly educated teachers
who were selected by Mr. Elphinstone to commence his great
system for the education of the youth of this presidency. I
recollect, too, when Dr, Harkness, your present Dean of the
Faculty of Arts, arrived here with Professor Orlebar in 1835,
as the first Professor of the then infant College. Looking to
the great difficulties with which they had to contend, I think

Utiiversiiy'of' Bombay-

we canuot but \je" surprised at IHe rapid growth, of the educational
system in this presidency.

I find that the first charter of this University was granted

on the 18th July 1857. It was a time of darkness

First Charter an( j discouragement, when all of us were thinking-

of the Umver- -, . ' ,. ,

sity. much more of immediate measures of material

defence than of the more peaceful subjects con-
nected with education. It has always seemed to me one of the
almost sublime characteristics of that period, that when we
were all absorbed in measures relating mainly to the immediate
defence and security of the country, men were found who made
time to calmly and deliberately carry out the measures connected
witlt the grant of a charter to an infant University.

I find that in 1859 the first Matriculation examination was held,

when 132 candidates presented themselves. Of

The First Ma- these only 22 passed. The cause of so small a pro-

triculation Ex- ,. J *v. .-,, , i ,1 -u 7.

amination. portion succeeding will be fresh in the recollection

of all who took an interest in the University at that
period. It was found that a great number of the candidates who
would have been well qualified for admission if judged simply by
the progress they had made in those branches of learning which
were to be the subjects of their University studies, were yet
deficient in a complete and scholar-like knowledge of their own
mother tongue. I for one, while regretting the disappointment
entailed on many an anxious and zealous student, cannot regret
the decision at which the examiners of that period arrived, that
a knowledge of the student's own vernacular language should
be required as indispensable in any one who applies for admission
to this University. It is, I am convinced, one great security
for the future prosperity as well as utility of the University.

Of the 22 students matriculated in 4859, 15 presented
themselves in 1861 as candidates for the First
E^aminafiwis^ Examination in Arts : of whom 7 passed ; and six of
these 7 presented themselves at the final exami-
nation for the Bachelor of Arts degree in the present year. Of
these 4 passed, two in the First Division and two in the Second.
It is a circumstance worthy of note, and highly creditable
to the successful candidates, that they have all
Masterof Arte f intimated their intention of going up to the exami-
nation for the Master of Arts degree.

In all the old European Universities I believe the Degree
of Master of Arts is conferred without examination on Bachelors
of a certain standing ; but it is not so in this University. Here
the degree of Master of Arts is only granted after an examination

1862. Sir H. B. E. Frere.

of a very high standard, similar to that required for honours in
other Universities, and it is much to the credit of these young
men that they should voluntarily offer themselves to undergo
such an ordeal. I would only offer them this one word of advice,
that they should not attempt to grasp their academical honours
by hurrying through their studies for the examination. The
honour they will attain is substantial and permanent, and well
worthy of being sought by patient and laborious study.

What I have said relates solely to the graduates in Arts,
As regards the graduates in Medicine, I find many
circumstances of peculiar interest. This is the
first time that the Grant Medical College has
surrendered its privilege of conferring diplomas to the Univer-
sity, and that the College duty of testing the attainments of the
students has merged, in the examination for a University degree.
I would beg the successful candidates to bear in mind the
greater responsibilities as well as the higher honours which
devolve on them by this change. They go forth to the world with
the stamp, not of a school, but of a University; while they will
find their abilities and industry tasked to the utmost to maintain
the reputation of the school of Medicine in which they have
been educated, and which boasts among its professors and
graduates some gentlemen members of this Senate, who are
second to none in their noble profession in professional reputa-
tion and scientific attainment. I trust that the young licen-
tiates will not rest content with the lowest degree, but will aspire
to the higher degree of Doctor, which can only be attained by
laborious practical as well as theoretical study, and which will
justly confer on them the highest honours the University can

While I cannot but congratulate the Senate on the great
and rapid progress which the University has
already made, I would venture to remind every one
connected with it that we shall have a hard struggle
to maintain a generous rivalry with the sister Universities of
the other Presidencies. At an examination which took place
shortly before I left Calcutta I was informed that nearly 1,100
candidates had presented themselves at the examination for
matriculation, and the greatest enthusiasm appears to prevail
on the subject of University education in Calcutta. The range
of University studies there, too, is much wider than it is here.
I can only hope that we may here make up in depth for what
is wanting in expanse, and that when the time arrives for
comparison, we may be found inferior to no University in India in

ity of Bombay.

thorough scholarship in all those branches which we profess to
teach. And I would venture to express a hope that no attempt
will be made to lower the University standard in any respect.

And, Mr. Vice-Chancellor, while congratulating the Senate
Dr H kn as On ^ e success ^ u ^ re sult of this first examination for
University Degrees, I am sure I only speak the
sentiments of every member of the University present in offering
the tribute of the warm thanks of the Senate to the highly
respected Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Dr. Harkness, who is so
shortly to leave us. As the first professor in Elphinstone College,
it must be a source of sincere and heartfelt pleasure to him to
witness a scene like this before us. He watched over the cradle
of the University in its infancy ; and now before he finally
returns to the country where his own academical honours were
gained, he has been permitted to see this University established
in its maturity, and promising, I trust, to take its place amongst
the great Universities of the British Empire.

I would, in conclusion, say a few words to you who have
this day graduated, and are about to quit this
res onsiblXties' University for the active pursuits of life. I would
beg of you to recollect that you are no longer
pupils of any single school, but graduates of a University.
Your standard must henceforth be, not that of your masters, or
even of the Government to whose service some of you may devote
yourselves, but of the whole educated world. You have the
character of this University to maintain. "Wherever the studies
of this University are known and appreciated, you have to
establish its reputation, and I trust you will help to remove
from the learned men of India the common reproach that we
are now compelled to seek professors in every branch of learn-
ing, even in the ancient classical languages of your own country,
on the banks of the Rhine or the Seine, the Isis or the Forth.

But while I trust that we may henceforward look for pro-
found scholars among the educated Hindoos and
Development Parsees, I trust that one of your great objects will
literature* 013 always be to enrich your own vernacular literature
with the learning which you acquire in this Univer-
sity. Remember, I pray you, that what is here taught is a sacred
trust confided to you for the benefit of your countrymen. The
learning which can here be imparted to a few hundreds, or at
most to a few thousands, of scholars, must by you be made
available through your own vernacular tongues to the many
millions of Hindoostan. The great majority of your countrymen
can only learn through the language which is taught them at

1862. Sir H. B. E. Frere.

their mother's knee, and it must be through such language
mainly that you can impart to them all that you would communi-
cate of European learning and science.

Remember, too, that not only the character of the Univer-
sity, but the character of your whole people, is to
a g reat extent in your hands. You have two
classes of objectors to meet. One is to be found
chiefly among Europeans, not, I trust, among those who have
lived long in this country, but still so common among those
who are not practically familiar with your countrymen, as to
deserve your earnest exertions to remove it. They will tell you
that the oriental intellect is worn out ; that it may possess great
capacity to receive and retain knowledge, but that it has no
power to analyse or combine ; that it is no longer capable of
producing those results of a high order of intellect of which
your ancient literature contains such abundant evidence. I trust
that no one connected with the Senate of this University, or
who is really able to judge what native intellect is now capable
of, will endorse this opinion ; but yet you well know it is widely
prevalent, and it rests with you to disprove it.

Again, you will find among members of your own communities
a widespread and deep-rooted conviction that an education such
as you have received, tends to sap the foundation of social moral-
ity, that it tends to make you presumptuous and self-sufficient
despisers of parental and all other authority.

The conduct which will be the best answer to both classes
of objectors is shadowed forth in a superstition
almost universally prevalent in the wild moun-
tains of Germany and Scandinavia as well as in
every nation in the East. The legend runs of a magic mirror in
which may be imaged all things of the visible or invisible world,
but the secrets which are there revealed are not visible to every
enquirer ; they are not to be seen by the seer himself, they are
only visible to the eyes of a simple teachable innocent child. It
always seemed to me that this old and prevalent superstition
shadowed forth a great truth applicable to knowledge of every
kind : you will find it taught by the philosophers of Greece, of
Persia, and of China in your own Shasters as well as by the
example of all the great intellects of Modern Europe. It is
this that if you would seek the knowledge of Newton or
Bacon, or hope to wield the intellectual weapons of Locke, you
must learn in their spirit, lowly and reverently with a pure as
well as with a humble and teachable heart. Remember the

6 University of Bombay.

great University truth, that Arts rest on Morals, and that if you
would be wise and learned, the pure heart is as necessary to the
successful pursuit of Science and Art as the high and unclouded



Mr. Vice-Chancellor and Members of the Senate, I am
glad to be able to meet the Senate in this their Second Convoca-
tion, and again to congratulate them on the progress which the
University has made during the past year.

I find that of 143 candidates who presented themselves at
the Matriculation Examination, fifty-six passed,
which is a far larger proportion than that of last
year, when only thirty passed out of 134 candidates,

I am glad to see no less than twenty Parsees among the
successful candidates, but I must remind them
f * nat ^ey are s **^ ^ ewer ^ n proportion than their
Hindoo fellow-students, and that we must have
more Parsee candidates, and they must be more successful before
they can make good their claim to a full appreciation of the
benefits of this University.

I am glad, to congratulate the. Directors of the Bombay Pro-
prietary School on the appearance of their first suc-
prStarylcol" cessful students at the Matriculation Examination,
but here I must qualify my congratulations by again
reminding them that much more is justly expected of them than
they have yet effected. The constitution of their school presents
many admirable features, it numbers among its students the sons
of some of the richest and most respectable Parsee gentlemen.
It is I believe entirely self-supporting, and the proprietors, with,
as it appears to me, very sound judgment, retain its entire man-
agement in their own hands. We might justly expect from such
a school, if not the largest numbers, certainly the largest propor-
tion of candidates for admission to the University, and of com-
petitors for University honors, and I trust that the young student
who has now appeared among us will be but the first of many sons
of our Parsee worthies who will vindicate by their career at this
University their aspiration to be considered as one of the most
enlightened communities in British India.

1863. -Sir H. B. E. Frere.

In a greater or less degree what I have said of the Bombay
Proprietary School applies to all the schools in the Presidency.

Schools vs. Col- I find that of the passed candidates


25 belong to the Elphinstone College.
18 to the Poona College.
9 do Elphinstone Central School.
2 do Poona College School.
1 do Bombay Proprietary School.
1 do Free General Assembly's Institution.


So that the schools of the Presidency furnished but thirteen
students for Matriculation, while the Colleges furnished forty-

It is evident from this that the teaching resources of the
Colleges must, to some extent, be diverted from their proper
object, from preparing Matriculated students for their degree, in
order to bring unmatriculated students up to the Matriculation
standard. I would not have our Colleges do less, but I would
urge our schools to do more, for they may rest assured that their
excellence as schools for imparting a liberal education will be
measured in no small degree by the proportion of students they
may prepare for Matriculation at the University.

I am glad to congratulate the Poona College on the large
number of successful applicants for Matriculation
who were prepared at that institution. They are
20 this year against 6 in the last.

The facilities which the capital of the Deccan possesses for
obtaining a liberal education have of late been greatly increased,
and I trust that the Brahmins of the Deccan will take advantage
of those facilities, and not yield without a struggle the palm of
intellectual superiority to their brethren of Bombay.

1 am glad to find that the Senate is satisfied that there is a
marked and steady improvement in every branch
Examination of the examinations. A larger proportion of can-
Resuits. didates has passed, while the standards of exami-

nation have been in no respect relaxed.

Fifteen out of twenty candidates passed their First Exami-
nation in Arts (or Little go).

Three candidates out of six passed for their B.A. degree.

In Medicine., five out of thirteen candidates passed their
First Examination, and there were three candidates, who all
passed, one of them with great distinction, for their L.M. degree.

University of Bombay.

At the examination, the first that has ever been held, for
honours in Arts, one Bachelor was a candidate,
R^ade M< the and obtaine ^ a ni g n position in the 2nd class. The
first M'.A. in result of this examination entitles him, at the end
India ' of five years from his Matriculation to the degree

of M.A., and I would warmly congratulate Mr.
Mahadey Govind Ranade on being the first student of this Uni-
versity, indeed one of the first in India, who has passed his exami-
nation for his degree as M,A.

I would note with pleasure another signal mark of progress.

One of the most respected and trusted of our fellow

Online LibraryK Subba RauConvocation addresses of the universities of Bombay and Madras → online text (page 1 of 66)