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Convocation addresses of the universities of Bombay and Madras online

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amount to the large sum of Us. 1,03,600. These have come
from the different parts of Western India to which the influence
of this University extends, from the more distant Kutch and
Junagadh, as well as from the City of Bombay and the near
parts of the Presidency, and they are designed for the further-
ance of several of the branches of learning over which the Uni-
versity presides. Medicine, Indian Philosophy, Literature,
Science and Law are included within the scope of these bene-
factions, and it is a matter for congratulation not only that the
interest of the people of Western India in the University is so
widespread, but also that it shows so intelligent an appreciation
of the University's varied wants and of the special need of the
time. The munificent gift made by Bai Motlibai of Rs. 1,50,000,
together with a valuable site for an Obstetric Hospital, and Sir
Dinshaw Manekji Petit' s well-timed offer of Rs. 1,25,000 for a
hospital for children's diseases and for gynascological research
and in close proximity to the Cama Hospital, the Obstetric Hospi-
tals to which the Allbless family devote a gift of Re. 60,000,
have placed this city under great obligations to these generous
benefactors. In addition to fulfilling their primary object, the
alleviation of human suffering, these endowments will give an
impulse to special departments of medical study, and it is there-
fore fitting that they should find mention on this occasion.
It is unnecessary to allude on this occasion in any detail to
the great national movement which has for its aim the pro-
vision of efficient medical aid to the women of India, but I refer
to it in this connection, because amongst the gifts which it falls
to me to announce are several which show a laudable desire to
associate the University with this great movement. We have
the Sir James Fergusson Scholarship for lady medical students,
to which part of the sum of Rs. 22,500 presented to the Uni-
versity for Scholarships by the Sir James Fergusson Memorial
Committee has been devoted ; the sum of Rs. 3,000 bestowed
by the women of India Medical Fund Committee for a
similar purpose; and the sum of Rs. 6,000 presented by
Mr. Harkissondas Narotumdas for the foundation of a Lady Reay
Gold Medal and Scholarship also to be awarded to successful
lady competitors. The desire to advance the cause of Maho-
medan education is represented by the wisely directed liberality
of Bahudin Vazir Saheb of Junagadh, who has placed the sum of
Rs. 30,000 at the disposal of the University for the foundation of
a Scholarship in memory of Sir Mohobat Khan Bahadur, the late
Nawab of Junagadh, to be awarded preferentially to Mahomedan
graduates of the University. We may congratulate the Vazir

1889. Lord Reay. 209

Salieb on the fact that the number of Mahomedan students taking
distinguished position on the lists of the University gives promise
that his munificent gift will not remain inoperative. Associated
with the same Nativo State is the gift of Rs. 15,000 in
commemoration of the late Rao Bahadur Sujna Gokalji Zala,
Devan of Junagadh, which his friends and admirers have
handed to the University for the encouragement of the study
of the Vedanta, a system of philosophy in which the late
Devan was himself so proficient, as shown in the record of
his life written by Mr. Manassukharama Suryarama Tripathi.
The services rendered by another administrator to the neigh-
bouring State of Kutch I refer to its- late Devan Bahadur
Manibhai Jasbhai are similarly commemorated by the gift of
Rs. 12,000 bestowed upon the University for the purpose of
founding two Scholarships, one to be connected with the science
course of study in the University, the other with the Victoria
Jubilee Technical College. I am glad to observe that theBhattia
community is beginning to associate itself with the work of the
University. The Committee of the Valabhdas Valji Memorial
Fund has placed the sum of Rs. 5,000 at the disposal of the Uni-
versity for the encouragement of higher education in the Bhattia
community, by the awarding of a Scholarship to the most deserv-
ing Bhattia student passing the Matriculation Examination.
Zend and Pehlvi Scholarships will receive an impulse from
the recognition of the Zend and Pehlvi languages in the higher
examinations of the University, and from the Scholarship endowed
by Mr. Nasarvanji Manekji Petit, in memory of his much-lamented
son, the late Mr. Jamsedji Nasarvanji. In thus carrying out the
unfulfilled purposes of his son, Mr. Nasarvanji Manekji Petit
has raised an additional memorial to one whose life was distin-
guished by high and generous aims. Within the last day or two
the Secretaries of the Spencer Memorial Fund presented to the
University the sum of Rs. 5,100 for the endowment of a prize of
books in memory of the late Mr. N. Spencer, Barrister-at-Law,
late Judge of the Small Cause Court. This prize will perpetuate
a worthy and honoured name, and the winners of this prize, we
trust, will be influenced by the example of one who was during
so many years a good judge and a trusted friend of the people.
I have great pleasure in noticing the donation of my friend
H.H-, the Thakor Saheb of Gondal, E.G. I.E., to establish and
increase a collection of Sanskrit manuscripts to be available to
all scholars in this University. I should like to be able to add
to this enumeration of benefactions that the Bhagvanlal Memo-
rial Fund was in a flourishing condition, but I now make an earnest
appeal for the support which its name and its object deserve.

210 University of Bombay.

There is in certain quarters, in various parts of the globe, a
growing distrust of the educated classes a latent
Distrust of misgiving in India with regard to the policy of
cksses Macaulay's Minute and of Sir Charles Wood's De-

spatch,embodying the principles of the Whig party,
any departure from which in this respect the people of England
would, I feel sure, view with regret. That distrust, gentlemen,
is to my mind absolutely groundless, if it refers to classes who
come under the sway of sound educators. There is a danger, a
very great danger, in partial, superficial, and unreal education.
Such education however is a mere sham, a parody of University
education. The danger lies in the absence of a really educated
class. A man may have passed a score of examinations and still not
be qualified to call himself an educated man, because he is deficient
in the refinement which always accompanies and betokens aca-
demic distinction. Universities in one sense are exclusive. They
cannot tolerate any standard but the highest, they cannot recog-
nize any education but that which at once places a man in a sepa-
rate category. On the other hand, Universities are accessible to
all who submit themselves to the strictest discipline. Subject to
that condition and in that sense they are absolutely democratic.
An intellectual aristocracy is recruited from all stations in life, but
it is an aristocracy to which nobody can belong who does not
satisfy the highest tests, those which obtain in the republic of
letters, and we must add the republic of sciences. The fran-
chise in this republic can never be lowered and must always rise
higher as literature and science are constantly adding to their
treasures. The meter of University standards is simply that
which is given by an ever-increasing stock of knowledge. If
you lower the franchise with the standards and reject the meter,
you cease to belong to this great republic of letters, your edu-
cation is not higher education, and your educated classes sail
under false colours. Indian Universities cannot escape from a
rule which is binding on all Universities, and there is no reason
why they should evade it. There is nothing in the conditions of
social or of individual life in India to discourge that severe
application to scientific training which alone gains admission to
the academic ranks. There is plenty of leisure and there is
nothing in the social customs of India to deter a man from lead-
ing a student's life. I need only quote Sir H. Maine, whose loss
India mourns as much as England, to convince you that indivi-
dual capacity, and especially the versatility, the flexibility of
mind which predisposes to academic studies, exists in India to a
very large extent. Sir H. Maine's opinion was : " In those sub-
jects in which high proficiency may reasonably be expected, the

1889. Lord Reay. 211

evidence of industry, quickness and clearness of head, is not very
materially smaller than the proof of similar qualities furnished
by a set of English Examination papers. Superficiality will to
some extent 'form a part of the results of every examination, but
I cannot conscientiously say that I have seen much more of it
here than in the papers of older Universities." Want of energy,
want of sustained effort, the desire to avoid the strain of hard
labour, these are our foes. In Mr. Bright we have brilliant
illustration how the equivalent of academic distinction can be
achieved without a previous University career, by the adoption
of academic discipline in after-life. His forcible style derives its
vigorous simplicity from his command of pure Anglo- Saxon words.

We are at the parting of the roads. Indian Universities
must choose. They may consider it sufficient to
examine in ever-increasing numbers young men
who will delude themselves with the notion that a
University degree is equivalent to academic birthright, or they
may confer the latter not in name but in reality. Constant im-
provement of the method of teaching, even where Universities
are not teaching bodies, belongs to their domain. I am very far
from advocating a system of centralisation such as is represented
by the French University. I am quite willing to admit that higher
education can be imparted in a variety of ways, and that infinite
harm would be done by stereotyping the method. What I con-,
tend is, that a University cannot fulfil its obligations towards
higher education by mere examinations, least of all in India, where
the Western University system is an absolutely new creation, an
exotic which requires very careful nursing. I am afraid that to
our present system the criticism of Mgr. Dupanloup is applicable :
" Le programme, qui a engendre le manuel, qui a engendre le
preparateur, et qui, tous les trois, ont engendre la ruine de la
haute education intellectuelle." And the opinion of Mgr.
Dupanloup is also that of M. Bersot, who attributed the decay of
higher education to the fact that examinations had been made
the foundation of University teaching. Unless our Universities
take a wider conception of their responsibility, higher education
must decay. Let me once more quote Sir H. Maine : " It is
quite true that conceit and scepticism are the products of an
arrested development of knowledge." Therefore he says : " In-
tellectual cultivation should be constantly progressive."

In three faculties at least the Government is alone directly

H onsibili- responsible for progress. As long as it alone

ties of Govern, appoints Professors of Medicine and of Law and of

ment - Engineering, it exercises a more immediate influ-

212 University of Bombay.

ence than the University can exercise through its examinations.
In the Faculty of Medicine we have introduced reforms of a
tentative character, circumscribed by existing regulations.
The principle of those reforms is to strengthen the scientific
character of the Institution, to create a faculty, membership of
which will constitute the highest reward for professional
ability ; to ensure continuity of teaching as well as to open
possibilities of research ; to make the fullest use of the splendid
opportunities which this city offers to the medical student by
throwing our hospitals open to the best men of the local pro-
fession, so that their professional knowledge may benefit our
students, and that they themselves may remain in touch with
medical science. In doing this and I only discovered the fact
after the Government Resolution was issued I find that we have
acted in accordance with the views of the two eminent late Prin-
cipals of this College. Dr. Cook said on March 2nd, 1882, at a
distribution of prizes to the students : " I would strongly advocate
that the process might be immediately begun by the appoint-
ment of members of the general profession as a supplementary
staff to the existing hospitals. While I hope the time is not far
distant when other hospitals may spring up in this city and else-
where, which may be entirely under the management of medi-
cal men independent of the medical service/' According to
Dr. Cook, " the profession had reached a stage when it may lay
claim to a share of those public duties which, though they should
'be here as elsewhere unpaid, bring with them their own reward."
On the 10th of February 1883, at the annual meeting of the
Grant Medical College, Dr. Carter gave it as his opinion that
" it has become urgently desirable to appoint a few talented
native tutors and demonstrators, whose whole time would be
devoted to the learner's benefit ; and he might ask whether or
not it be expedient also to nominate an assistant or deputy pro-
fessor in the more highly technical subjects, who on emergency,
or as a successor, could take the place of the full professor."
" The suggestion/' he further said, " seems not amiss, that col-
lege professors be always taken as they are in the chief European
colleges from amongst the best qualified men available, where-
ever to be found ; and eventually it may happen that a moiety,
at least, of our teachers, will be thus derived from the alumni
of Grant College, their alma mater." A great deal more remains
to be done. How much you will understand if I
le^tuS?Me^ g ive vou the programme of lectures by Profes-
cai) in the Uni- sors of the Medical Faculty of the University of
versity of Am- Amsterdam. (1) Anatomy, General and Compara-
tive, (2) Physiology, Microscopy, Practical Physi-

1889. -Lord Reay. 213

ology, (3) Pathology, Practical Pathology, (4) Morbid Anatomy,
Forensic Medicine, (5) Medicine, Clinical Medicine, Therapeutics,
(6) Surgery, Clinical Surgery, (7) Clinical Medicine, (8) Clinical
Surgery, Operative Surgery, (9) Ophthalmology, (10) Hygiene,
(11) Obstetrics, (12) Dermatology, (13) Aural Disease, (14)
Chemistry, (15) Materia Medica, (16) Botany. Besides the above,
courses of instruction are given by lecturers in the following :
(1) Military Surgery, (2) Ophthalmic Medicine and Surgery, (3)
Gynaecology, (4) Bacteriology, (5) Surgery, (6) Histology, (7)
Diseases of the Nervous System. I purposely take that Uni-
versity, and not the Strasburg programme, for this reason, that
the University of Amsterdam is a Municipal creation, entirely
supported by Municipal funds, and as such it teaches a lesson
which our Corporation may take to heart, in contributing to the
further development of higher education in this city. Local
self-government in this city would cover itself with glory if it
showed a due appreciation of the requirements of higher educa-
tion, and filled up the many gaps which exist in our system.
To the enlightened heads of Native States whose subjects
obtain their training at our colleges, who recruit their doctors,
surgeons, jurists, engineers, from our colleges, I should also like
to point out what a splendid field our University offers to their

There is another precedent which might be followed by
Another pre- ^ e Medical Faculty. One of the most important
cedent for the events in the life of our University has been the
Medical Faculty. f oun dation in 1888 of a Chair of Agricultural
Chemistry for the whole of India. This has been brought about
by a combined effort of the various Provinces on the invitation
of the Government of India. It has thus become possible to
secure an eminent Prof essor, who will divide his time among the
various Provinces, and his advent will mark a new era in agri-
cultural education. The same principle can be applied to other
branches. We thereby gain the immense advantage of obtaining
the best tuition, and we spread its benefits over the whole country.
Through co-operation of the various Provinces we preserve intact
the progressive development due to and dependent on decentral-
isation, and we obtain results which the absence of co-operation
would imperil. We may give further extension to this principle.
Nothing would stimulate higher education more in India than lec-
tures on any subject, by a highly qualified expert, even though
he could not permanently be absorbed in our staff. I do not see
why eminent men at home should not be invited to give a
course of lectures at our Universities. Occasional teaching of

214 University of Bombay.

this kind would in any Faculty, not only benefit the students, but
graduates and others would secure thereby a fresh impetus to
their own intellectual life. If we could have induced Lord
Herschell and Mr. Bryce to give us, whilst they were here, some
of the treasures of their store of knowledge, we should certainly
have been the better for it, even though no examination tested
the results. I shall not fail to communicate with my University
friends on the subject. It is a great mistake to confine higher
teaching to those who occupy chairs. Universities should seize
everv opportunity of opening their doors to those whose learning
can tie made available, even though it is only for a short period.
As long as excellence is reached it matters very little what the
nature of the connection is of the lecturer with the University.
To attain excellence we must have endowments, and select care-
fully the beneficiaries of the endowments. Sir John Strachey,
in his valuable book on India, bears testimony to the " remark-
able aptitude for surgery " of the Natives of India, ' ' to the great
aptitude shown by them in the practice of surgery and medicine."
This University must make use of these gifts, and its energetic
initiative will lay the foundation of what I cannot help thinking
is destined to be one of the foremost scientific bodies. Amsterdam
has certainly not the many advantages which are at our disposal.
I am only too well aware of the difiiculties which it had to con-
quer, as I had with some of my friends in the States- General to
fight very hard to secure a small majority in favor of a charter
for the University, but the Municipal Corporation of Amsterdam
has amply justified our anticipations of its fostering care of the
Institution of which it is most justly proud.

With regard to the Faculty of Law, the observations I have
made with regard to Medicine equally apply,
P ubcllw d fssen! ^^ Faculty also is undermanned, and its full
tial to adminis- equipment is desirable for many reasons. In all
trators. countries with a strong bureaucracy and India

will for a long time to come have to be administered on bureau-
cratic principles it is desirable that all branches of the bureau-
cracy should have a thorough knowledge of administrative law,
of the principles underlying their practical work, and from which
it derives a value that in the absence of such knowledge it lacks.
For admission to the Public Service, attendance at lectures
on public law, of which administrative law forms part, should, I
think, be made compulsory. Administrators in local bodies will
also avoid many errors if they have sought such knowledge
before they seek the votes of electors. All those who aspire to
take part in public affairs should make use of the opportunity

1889. Lord Reay. 215

given them. This University cannot allow the stigma which the
absence of such teaching entails to rest on it even temporarily.
The best illustration of the malignant results of the absence
of such teaching is to be found in the misunderstandings which
must arise when principles have not been mastered. No con-
troversy should have arisen about local self-government if a clear
understanding of its meaning had been the result of previous
University teaching. I do not wish to give an essay on the
subject, as I am not a candidate for the chair which will ere
long I trust be created, but I may briefly point out what a
lecture on the subject would contain. It would point out
how you can have in the same country unity of legislation
without unity of administration ; self-government without
autonomy, partial decentralisation ; unity both of legislation
and of administration; absence both of self-government and
of autonomy, absolute centralisation ; variety of legislation with
unity of administration or legislative decentralisation with ad-
ministrative centralisation ; variety of legislation and variety
of administration self-government combined with autonomy;
absolute decentralisation.

In England we have self-government without autonomy
Different sys- ^ cts ^ Parliament rule and overrule every detail
tems of adminis- of the administration, but the administration is
not carried out by a bureaucracy ; it is left to a
variety of local bodies to carry out the laws. These local bodies,
however, have no legislative functions. In England, we have
the maximum of legislative centralisation with the minimum of
bureaucratic centralisation and of autonomy. The adminis-
tration is carried on by the people themselves, but it is carried
on without autonomy on lines laid down by the central legis-
lature. There are no inferior legislative bodies with independent
powers. A strong legislative centralisation is quite compatible
with delegation of administrative powers to local bodies subject
to carry out what the law prescribes, and unable to follow their
own inclinations or to wander outside a strictly defined legal
sphere. The results of this system are general respect for the
law based on general understanding of the law, as all classes of
the community are called upon to join in its execution, absence
of conflict between the central law and the laws promulgated by
other legislative units, absence of bureaucracy except for the
highest Imperial concerns. In France we have neither self-
government nor autonomy. tf L'tat c'est moi'' means that the
lawgiver, whoever he is, not only legislates for the whole country
but administers it. No self-government is tolerated; no inde-

216 University of Bombay.

pendent local administrators are tolerated, whoever disposes
of legislative power also disposes of administrative power.
Whether the form of Government be autocratic, democratic,
or parliamentary, its distinguishing characteristic, common to
all these forms of government, is, that Frenchmen have no self-
government, but are governed by a bureaucracy which receives
its impulse, its ideas from Paris, whatever may be the special
idiosyncrasies of the populations to whom laws are applied.
For local autonomy and for local administration there is no room
in such a system because they might develop the germs of an-
tagonism to the central power. The Prefet and the Maire
receive their instructions from the Home Department, Advice
may be tendered by Committees which are elected, but they are
not administering bodies as ours are. The next system is that
of Germany and of Austria ; a great variety of legislative units,
but a strong bureaucracy in all of them, and a strong bureau-
cracy for Imperial purposes. Legislative and administrative
centralisation in essentials ; legislative and administrative decen-
tralisation in details, to suit the heterogeneous elements out
of which these Empires are composed, great care being taken,
that in all matters not essential to the security of the Empire,
the idiosyncrasies of its component parts should be respected,
and the bureaucracy should not come into conflict with the
traditions and customs of the people. In the United States of
North America we find self-government as well as autonomy,
decentralisation of the legislation and of the administration, but
great constitutional safeguards and effective means to prevent
any departure from the written Constitution by any member of
the Confederation.

It is clear, gentlemen, from an academic point of view, that
to an Indian student of political institutions, those
teres^of Ger- ^ Germany and Austria will be most interest-
man and AUS- ing, because they give us in some features of their
institutfon^To internal administration an insight into the probable
the Indian stu- future of the development of administrative institu-
tions in this Empire. I apply this only to our
administration, and even then with many limitations. I do nofc
draw the parallel between German Sovereigns and

Online LibraryK Subba RauConvocation addresses of the universities of Bombay and Madras → online text (page 24 of 66)