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of your public career, that you have proved a loyal and reliable
colleague, one on whose calm and judicial impartiality your
colleagues could rely for sound advice at any moment. You have
probably found, as most Statesmen do find when they enter a
position of less freedom and great responsibility, that every
reform advocated previously was not feasible in the exact form
you would have preferred ; that the views of the individual
before office is held must necessarily undergo some modification
when a more diffused light is thrown on the subject ; and also
that in a Grovernment other than an autocracy, opinions, however
determined, have not infrequently to accommodate themselves to
other views in some measure. But such is the experience of
every man who enters 011 the arduous task of Executive Govern-
ment, and happy are those who can say, as we can say, I think,
that we shall always look back with pleasure to the time when
our official position induced and established sentiments of friend-
ship. But, Sir, this brief resume of your thirty-five years' labours
has not touched on your efforts for the advancement of education,
which, so far as execution are concerned, are better known to
your colleagues than the public ; but I am committing no indis-
cretion when I say that whilst keeping almost careful guard
over the proper appropriation of the tax payers' money you have
never failed to press for the largest possible sums that could
be spared ; and it must be a satisfaction to you to feel that
in your last days here additional funds have been made avail-
able to carry out those promises made to Local Boards in
more prosperous times; and that there is nothing now to
prevent that improvement in legal tuition which you have
always advocated except the sanction , of the higher authority.
Finally, Sir, amongst the numerous crowd which is grate-
ful to you for private and public advice and assistance last,
but by no means least, comes this University in the councils
of whose administration you for so many years took an active
and interested share. It has been your object to extend to
it a wide measure of freedom and it is due to no hesitation
on your part that that measure will only be introduced by
gradual and cautious steps. That this University is grateful for



1892. Lord Harris. 271



what you have done for law and literature and in general
advancement in your private councils and your public address is
proved by its conferring the highest honour in its gift on you
to-day and amongst all those distinctions which you have received
from the hands of Her Majesty and from other learned institu-
tions, I doubt not you will in your own appreciation give a pro-
minent place to this last, which comes from the University with
which you have been so long connected. The unfortunate lot
has fallen to myself alone of all Governors of Bombay to deliver
as Chancellor two of those valedictory addresses. Unfortunate
in that during my tenure of office the State has lost the services
of two men of such distinguished attainments and public careers
so eminent that this University has accorded them the highest
honour it is in its power to give ; and iny regret is by no means
selfish, for whilst I feel personally these breaks in friendships,
of no long existence truly but still not the less sincere, I deplore
still more that this' Presidency of Bombay loses at such a short
interval public servants who have set such high examples as
have Professor Wordsworth and Sir Raymond West. But if we
have reason to deplore your departure we have much to
congratulate ourselves upon. It is impossible for a public
.servant to live five- and- thirty years in this country passing
through the various grades of the service to the highest position,
and through all that time keeping an unswerving gaze on the
path of probity, virtue, assiduity and impartiality without
good effects resulting from such a career. There are times in
the history of peoples when it is well that the careers of public
servants should illustrate for their instruction the homely adage
that honesty is the best policy. Sir Francis Bacon prefaced
his maxims of the Law with these noble words : " I hold every
man a debtor to his profession : from which as men of course do
seek to receive countenance and profit ; so ought they of duty
to endeavour by way of amends to be a help and ornament
thereunto." You can leave us, Sir Raymond West, convinced
that the universal feeling is that, even where you have not
secured agreement with your views, you aimed at this or that
object of policy, not because it suited your ambition, but, main-
taining an attitude of pure single-mindedness because in your
opinion it was the right. By following that undeviating course
you have been a help and an ornament to the service you are
about to leave. I can conceive no higher aim than yours has been :
I can imagine no prouder epitaph on the career of public servant.



INDEX.



Administration, different systems of

Adverse tendencies

Advice to disappointed candidates
Indian Noblemen ...

the Senate

Students ... ...

the wealthy

Agricultural Chemistry

Alexander Grant, Bart Services of

Amsterdam, University of

Anglo-Indian, the most academic of our times

Arnould, Sir Joseph ...

Attain perfection in some one subject ...

Avoid extremes



Page.

... 215

... 115

.. 194

... 225

... 125

... 112

... 66

.. 92

... 45

... 212

... 216

... 8

... 81

... 118



Bachelors of Law ..* ...

Benefactions ... ..,

to the University

New

Benefactors ... ...

Munificent

of the University ...

Be outspoken and frank
Board of Studies, institution of
Bombay University, progress of

1 superiority of the

the modern Alexandria

Bombay's stream of generosity...
Britons, duty of



... 27

... 258

... 207

... 229

.. 37
...' 15

... 42

... 117

... 244

... 38

... 40

... 184

... 138

... 55



Chancellor, the liberal sentiments of tke
Chancellor's Medal ...

Spech ...

Changes in the Carricatem ...
Clerk, Sir George
Contentment with first success
Covenanted Civil Service, the
Cowasjee Jehangeer ...

, liberality of

Curriculum of studies



... 32

... 46

... 160

255,262

.1

... 61
... 124
... 8
... 70
51



Danger of premature specialization
Darmesteter, James, and other French savants ...
Desist from unworthy habits...
Duke of Edinburgh, welcome to the



237

180

170

47



Index.



Page.

Educational System, the ... ... ... ... ..* ... 1

Educated Indians, their usefulness ... ... ... ... ... 3G

classes, distrust of ... ... ... ... ... ... 210

Education, Higher vs. Primary ... .. ... ... ... 26

, spread of ... ... ... ... ... ... 164

and Loyalty ... ... ... ... ' ... .... 118

Employment of Indians and Englishmen ... ... ... ... 6S

Endowment of Chairs in Law ... ... ... ... ... 231

to commemorate valuable services... ... .. ... 195

Engineering, importance of ... ... ... ... ... .. 45



Englishmen in India and at home

, why they draw higher salaries

English Universities, pride and glory of

society, most marked characteristic of ..

rule, merits of

Ethics, instruction in

Ethical instruction, the way to secure ...

Examination results (1863) ...



Examinations



-, standard of



Famine of 1876
Farewell, a graeef nl . . .
Fate, strive to conquer
Features of the report



Graduates, advice to



decrease in the number of ...

, duties of

- , obligations of

, prospects of

, responsibilities of

, their merits and faults

, what they may do

Gymnastic exercise, its importance



9

69

9

21

43

122

203

7

223
14



F.A. and B.A. Examinations ... ... ... ... ... 2

Faculties, other ... ... ... ' ... .. ... ... 219

Faculty of Law, the great object of ... ... ... ... ... 217

of Politics ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 217



83

37

139

126



Fellows, list of ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 264

and their qualifications ... ... ... ... .. 50

, fluctuations in the governing body of ... ... ... 29

, merits of the newly appointed ... ... ... ... 22

Forbes, Kinloch, and his love of justice ... ... .. ... 30

Foreign travel, importance of, and Indian prejudices ... ... ... 18

Forests, destruction of ... ... ... ... *.. ,,. 92

G

General enlightenment, the precursor of National government .. ,. 70

Generous donation, a ... ... ... ... ... ... 65

Government and Higher Education ... ... ... .. ... 186

, its responsibilities ... ... ... ... 211



112
115
140
225
12
4

116
25
77



Index. * in



Page.

Harkness, Dr. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 4

Higher Education in Bombay, progress of ... .,. ... ... 53

, results or. ... ... ... ... ... 54

and Government Service ... ... ... ... 113

Hindu gentleman, excellent example of a ... ... ... ... 30

Honours at the examinations... ... ... ... ... ... 207

Humility the true stamp of wisdom ... ... ... ... ... 25



Hbert Bill Controversy ... ... ... ... ... 149

Improvements introduced ... ... ... ... ... 122

India, to be administered as a trust from God ... ... ... ... 35

Indian classical languages, their importance ... ... ... ... 12

inaccuracy ... ... ... ... ... ... 98

legal system ... ... ... ... - ... 16

Princes and Xoblemen, excellent advice to ... ... 185

student, special interest of German and Austrian political institu-
tions to the ... ... ... ... ... 216

Universities, a complex function of ... ... ... ... 220

______ and their importance ... ... ... ... 159

Indians' love of their country ... . ... ... ... 129

1 Mr. West's advice to ... ... ... ... ... 189

Induction ... ... ... ... ... ... 99

Isolation, evils of ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 200



Knowledge, pursuit of ... ... .. ... ... ... 102

. strive after for its own sake ... ... .. ... 62



Ladies, University culture for ... ... ... ... 191

Lady Member of the Senate ... ... ... ... ... ... 254

Latin vs. Sanskrit ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 29

Law course... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 256

, examination in ... ... ... ... ... ... 41

Learning, lifelong devotion to ... ... ... ... ... 77

, love it for its own sake ... ... ... ... ... 13

not a mere source of pelf ... ... ... ... ... 185

Liberal education, definition of ... ... ... ... 11,135

a sine qua non of social and political position ... ... 10

Liberality of the citizens of Bombay ... ... ... ... ... 143

Limitation, abolition of a ... ... ... ... ... ... 132

Lines of further progress ... ... ... ... ... ... 59

Literary training, value of ... ... ... ... ... ... 138

Literature, Sanskrit, Persian and Assyrian ... ... ... ... 28

Local disturbances ... . ^, ... 73



Man, practical vs. theoretical ... ... . ... 136

Marriott, the Hon'ble John ... ... ... ... 147

Master of Arts, Degree of ... ... ... ... 2

Matriculation Examination ... ... ... ... ... 2 > 6 'J 4

, causes for large failure in ... ... ... 75

, a gigantic failure ... ... ... 257

, candidates for (1868) ... ... ... . ... ... 40

, high standard of ... ... ... ... ... 39



IV



Index,



Matriculation, revised scheme foi
Afat-ricnlates, number of (1866)
Medical Faculty, another precedent
Medicine and Engineering

, Graduates in

Moral training in Schools

Mangaldoss Nathuboy's travelling fellowship

Municipalities and Education ... ...

and University ... ...

Munificent act, a ... ... ...

Mussulman mind, stirring of the



Page.

.. 262
.. 27
.. 213
.. 42

3
,..' 202

8

... 182
... 185
... 45
.. 192



Native Members of the Senate

Press, loyalty of the ..,

Natural and Physical Science
New Prizes ...
Noble example, a



Objectors, two classes of ..
Observation, faculty of
Omce-bearers, changes in the staff of



Parsees ... .. ...

paucity of ... ...

Parting of tfae roads ...

Persian language

Petit, Sir Dinshaw Manockjee, liberality of

Philosophy, exclusive devotion to

, Mental and Moral

Physical Science and Natural religion ...
Policy of other governing nations
Poona College, the ... ... ...

Primary Education ... ...

Principles deserving attention ...

Prizes and Scholarships

Professional Studies

Professors of Science, qualifications of...

Proprietary School, Bombay ...

Public law, knowledge of



Ranade, M. G., the first Master of Arts in India...

Rapid retrospect, a ...

Eesults obtained during Sir H. H. E. Frere's regime

of nine years (1871-79)

: of Examinations (1865)

(1864)

(1870)

(1883)

: (1392)

Review of the past ...

Ripon,' Marquis of , his public career



Index.



Ripon, Marquis of, and the treaty of Washington
condition of India when he lauded



the charm of his personal influence



, his principles
, a review of his Viceroyalty ..
, his Christian spirit ... ..

, an explanation of his policy .,



Page.

... 151
... 152

... 15:;

... 1 r.:'.

... 154

... 158

... 163



Scholars of Medieval Europe ... ...

Scholarships ... ... ...

Scholarship, high standard of ...

Schools vs. Colleges ... ... ...

Science, the study of ... ...

Scientific culture, advantages of ...

research ... ... ...

Secular instruction ... ... ^

Senate, the valuable services of ...

, constitution of the ... ...

Some new beginnings ... ...

State education, system of ... ...

Students, their poor physique... ...

Study, course of

Superfluous wealth, how to dispose of ...



25

147

32

7

127

135

177

145

34

21

232

87

76

107

182



Teachers, rewards of ... ... ...

, selection of ... ... ...

Technical education, importance of

, Government's indifference to

and the University



and industrial education



Telang, Kasinath Trimbak, the Hon'ble Mr. Justice
Trust and Forbearance .



250
224
187
187
188
173
224
35



Universities, bearing of, on the administration
University Bill

, blessings conferred by ... ...

, definition of

degree, the stamp of liberal education



, delicate position of the
education, benefits of
, value of



, finances of the

, first charter of the ...

, first lectureship attached to the

, growing influence and importance of

, improvement in the constitution of

, independence of ...

, interest in the

life, its influence and end ...

, losses to the

men, recognition of



8

263
197
70
239
9
31
63
38
264
2

79
178
111
34,204
... 43
... 46
207,228
33



Vi



Index.



University


men, their character ... ...
mission of the
a model ... ... ... ..

a most valuable auxiliary to Government
movements concurrent with and parallel to ..
, parting word of the
, pillar of people's hope
, primary object of
, reconstitution of ...
standard, the ... ... ... ..
system, advantages of ... ... ..


Page.

... 20
32
... 222
... 36
... 199
261
... 195
... 29
... 257
3
... 133
... 28
5
253

Q





















truth, a great
, wants of the
. wit at it has ap.hip.vRd






Various opportunities for usefulness and distinction
Vaslekar, Mr. N. N., departure to England of ...
Vernacular vs. Classical languages

literature, creation of ... ...

, development, of ...

W

Want, a ... ... ... ... ..

Weed out dull boys ...

West, Sir Raymond a resume of the career of ...

, distinguished services of

Women, admission of, to public examinations ...

Words of caution and advice... ... .., N

Wordsworth, Professor, services of ... ,..



K ;s

7f>
51

91
4



240
131
268
266
147
169
246



CONVOCATION ADDRESSES



OF THE



ianf\>evstt of flfcabras.



SECOND CONVOCATION.

(BY E. B. POWEJ.L, ESQ., M.A.)

* My Lord, The Senate of the University having decided
that a portion of this day's proceedings shall consist of the
delivery of an Address by one of their body to the newly-admitted
graduates, and your Lordship having thought fit to appoint me
to discharge this duty, I betake myself to the execution of my
task, which would be far from a disagreeable one, were it not for
the conviction that its performance will suffer from the feeble-
ness of the hands to which it has been entrusted.

Gentlemen, you who have just received degrees, have you
reflected on the signification of your Diplomas and on the obliga-
tions which they carry along with them ? Do you regard them
as the " be all and the end all," or do you view them as an intro-
duction, an honorable introduction, to a career of intellectual and
moral progress ? It is probable that on these points, and indeed
on most others connected with this day's ceremonial, your notions
are vague and indefinite. Universities are of long standing in
the West, but here they are novelties : and moreover the differ-
ences that must necessarily exist between them, where they have
for centuries formed part and parcel of the social and religious
framework of a nation, and where they have been newly intro-
duced in what may be called an exotic form, are so great, as to
leave all minds more or less in a state of incertitude regarding
their character and operation in India. Taking the Universities
of Europe, though they always played an important part, and on
some occasions a prominent one, still their nature and influence
are but slightly brought before the student of general history ; to
natives of India their constitution must be almost unknown, and

* Lord Harris.



University of Madras.



the terms connected with them can be little more than mere
sounds. Such being the case, I think it will not be amiss for
me to say a few words upon the origin and progress of European
Universities, keeping in view more especially those of England,
before I proceed to the immediate object of this Address.

On the overthrow of the Western Empire and the settle-
Kiseand ro- mei1 ^ ^ * ne barbarian conquerors in the different
gress of Uni- countries of Europe, Literature and Science, sadly
West tieS in the mu ti late( ^ took refuge in the Christian Church,
which successfully resisted the convulsion that over-
threw almost every other institution of the past. After a certain
interval, a new position of equilibrium was found within each
nation : retrogression ceased, and progress re-commenced. The
first advances were, like the incipient development of a seed,
almost imperceptible. We may point to Charlemagne in France,
and Alfred in England, as pre-eminent ; but too thick a darkness
rests over their times to allow of our measuring the efforts of those
great men. Schools or Studia, as they were called, were from
time to time established in different places, most frequently in
connection with cathedrals and monasteries, and mainly, if not
entirely, for the education of the clerical order : combinations of
these Studia founded in favorable localities, acquiring eminence
from the patronage of monarchs, nobles and bishops, and from
the successful teaching of individuals, came at length to be
formed into Universities. The 12th century is commonly held
to be the period when this development took place, although
particular Universities lay claim to a much earlier origin.
The University of Paris, while not absolutely the first in time,
was undoubtedly the most celebrated; Englishmen, among
other foreigners, resorting to it, in preference to their own seats
of learning, Oxford and Cambridge. There were then two
courses of study, the one rudimentary, the other more advanced :
the former bore the name of the " Triviurn" or triple road to
knowledge, and comprised the elements of Grammar, Logic, and
Rhetoric; the latter was called the " Quadrivium," or quadruple
road, and included Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy, and
Music, or, at least, the portions of Science so denominated in
those days, There is a notion prevalent that the English Uni-
versities in the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries retained the same
intimate connection with the Church which belonged to them at
their foundation. Undoubtedly there still existed within them
many traces of their clerical origin. But when we turn to the
records of those ages, we find these institutions frequently in-
volved in contests with the Carmelites and other orders of



1859. Mr. E. B. PoweH. 3

Monks, who claimed peculiar privileges on the occasion of their
being admitted to degrees. The bishops, too, in whose dioceses
the Universities stood, were sometimes engaged in disputes
with them ; the latter pleading the Bulls of Popes as grounds
for exemption from episcopal jurisdiction. These circumstances
are interesting, inasmuch as they shew that Oxford and Cam-
bridge were even then, to a certain extent, centres of independ-
ent thought and action. In France, during the wars carried
on by Edward III, Henry V, and the Regents in the minority
of Henry VI, the University of Paris almost constituted a dis-
tinct estate of the realm .- it is true its interference in politics
was often far from beneficial, either in regard to the interests of
learning, or to those of religion. It cannot be said that the
Universities made any striking progress from the 12th century
to the middle of the 15th, so far as the improvement of their
curricula is concerned ; at the same time Theology, Metaphy-
sics, and Logic were, if not judiciously, at least energetically
studied by considerable numbers, and served to sharpen the
intellects of the students. National literatures, also, were in the
course of formation throughout Europe, to which the alumni of
the Universities were naturally almost the sole contributors ;
and all things were preparing the way for an accelerated advance.
After the fall of Constantinople, the Platonic philosophy invaded
the realms, which had previously bowed in profound submission
to Aristotle ; and a struggle ensued, that was highly beneficial
in evoking and fostering free and discursive thought. The
study of the Greek language and Greek literature, which now
began to be fashionable, exerted a peculiarly liberalizing influ-
ence : and the invention of printing, which, as it has been
remarked, seems to hare been permitted to take place exactly
at the time when it was most required, and when its efficacy
would necessarily be the greatest, lent its powerful aid in break-
ing the fetters in which ignorance had enthralled the bulk of
the populations of Europe. Here it is important to note that
the changes in religion, and in the constitution of society, which
occurred in the 16th century, co-operating with the Printing
Press, modified in a very great measure the action of the Uni-
versities in England and other countries. In earlier times know-
ledge had to be obtained mainly by oral communication, and
just as in this country an ardent Hindu scholar, desirous of
studying a particular work, would travel far to sit at the feet of
some famous Pundit, so, in Europe, thousands resorted from
distant regions to a seat of learning, where an eminent Teacher
explained a particular science, or commented upon a favorite
author. This was now altogether modified ; and while the $en-



University of Madras.



course of students became far less numerically, and individual
Teachers no longer captivated vast multitudes by their eloquence
and other gifts, centres of instruction of a less ambitious char-
acter were established in different localities. In England, for
example, numerous Grammar schools were set on foot, a course
devised by the celebrated Wolsey before the Reformation, but
carried out during the progress of that change and after its com-
pletion. In later times the two great English Universities have
constituted an agency for finishing the education of the higher
classes, and more especially of those among them intending to
enter some of the learned professions. At this moment they may
be regarded as in an unsettled state, many considering that with
the progress of the age the constitution and aims of the Univer-
sities should undergo some changes, and that a wider range of
studies should be embraced in their curricula. It is unneces-
sary for me to dwell upon this topic ; and I allude to it only
to complete the brief and very superficial sketch of the rise
and progress of University education in the West, and more
especially in England. You will observe that the time-honored
Universities of Europe are places of educational training, as well
as institutions for recognizing and proclaiming degrees of profi-
ciency in Literature and Science : not so our Indian Universities,
which, as now constructed, are intended merely to present a
standard of education to the Public, and to stamp with honor all
such as prove that they have reached that standard. Perhaps
the chief difficulty with us will be to secure the appreciation of
Degrees by the Natives of this country : but we are entitled to



Online LibraryK Subba RauConvocation addresses of the universities of Bombay and Madras → online text (page 31 of 66)