K Subba Rau.

Convocation addresses of the universities of Bombay and Madras online

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you promote this departure in the lower industrial regions, the
regions of the artizan, but you must also do what in you lies to
promote the same movement by bringing all classes within it,
more especially the mercantile and the substantial landholders
and you must thus bridge over the great gap which lies between
the artizan classes and the Science graduates of the University.
The movement towards industrial development and the applica-
tion of scientific knowledge to every branch of activity connected
with the material interests of the country must, to be really
effective, permeate every class in the community and people
of every calling. Your counsel to your countrymen must be,
get wealth, not by the devices of the usurer but by those of the
prudent farmer, who will leave no clod unturned, no spot un-
planted, no subterranean spring untapped, no labour-saving or
labour-supplementing machine untried, if from such labour,
such outlay he may hope to add to the productiveness of his



308 University of Madras.

land, in other words, to his wealth, to the capital of the country.
You are thrifty people in most respects, but it seems to me that
you are too apt to wrap up your rupees in a napkin, when they
might be judiciously expended in providing for some sound
industrial enterprise. You need not imitate the wild specula-
tions of the West, but you may well adopt that spirit which will
not rest until it has wrung from nature all her secrets, and made
the Earth-goddess grant to her worshipper her richest boons.
In your Brahman community you have the passion for literary
pursuits. As yet Western higher education has done little more
than nourish this passion. Consequently it is the classes follow-
ing clerkly callings that have chiefly responded to our educa-
tional efforts. Witness the occupation which you, graduates,
chiefly affect. But there is nothing in the nature of things why
the classes whose vocation is towards commercial and industrial
callings should not respond with an equal enthsiasm, when the
education of the State is recognised by them to be as much in
their interests as the system heretofore in vogue has been in
the interest of the literary classes. The changes which were
begun, when Sir Mountstuart Grant Duff was Governor of this
Presidency, had this object in view, and although the details of
that great measure are in many respects still defective, although
the outlay required to promote such a departure has been neces-
sarily restricted, and although the public intelligence is generally
as yet too uninformed to comprehend the necessity for this depar-
ture, still, thanks to the stimulus of public examinations, to the
labours of the gentlemen who have conducted these examinations,
to the efforts made by the Heads of such Institutions as the Col-
lege of Engineering, the College of Agriculture, the School of Arts,
Lee Chengalroya Naick's Commercial School, the London Mis-
sion High School, the Art Industrial Schools at Nazareth and
Karur, and of other similar institutions under private manage-
ment, and last of all of the Keformatory School, people are
beginning to seek knowledge of a more practical character con-
nected with their vocations in life, and classes which till recently
did not acknowledge that Western educations could do them
aught but harm are beginning to turn an attentive ear to the
teacher who tells them that Western education will bring to the
farmer, and the artizan the material benefits it has brought to
the literary classes, and that their own need of special as well
as general knowledge is the anxious care of the State. But
your duty is not simply to counsel your people, but to strengthen
that counsel by example and how so by yourselves attending
technical classes, by requiring young persons under your autho-
rity to attend such classes, more especially those in Drawing



1891 Jfr. H. B. Oriyg. 309

and Design, by promoting the establishment of such classes in
the leading schools in your neighbourhood, by offering prizes,
by encouraging the reading of books and journals treating of
such subjects, and by illustrating by experiment, so far as your
means admit,, the knowledge you have acquired. Have you
learnt a cheaper and more effective way of raising water ? Test
the mode by experiment. Have you seen a tree produce more
fruit by special cultivation ? Try the system. Do you know that
certain sanitary regulations ensure the health of a household ?
Prove your faith by adopting these regulations. This experi-
mental attitude of mind, spreading through the people, will
work changes in their economic and industrial proclivities,
which will not only ensure vast increase and greater variety in
India's productiveness of raw material, but also wonderfully
develop her power of converting by the labour of her own
people these products into manufactured articles of commerce,

I have spoken of the arts connected with the industrial side
of life. I would now ask you not to ignore or
Arts 6 6 undervalue the cultivation of the Beautiful in art,
which is needful to the completeness of the human
being. Kemember that the Beautiful is very near akin to the
Good so near that one people, intellectually the foremost of
races, had the same word to express both ideas or rather they
recognized in them but one idea, for they felt that the Beautiful
must include the Good, and regarded the cultivation of what is
beautiful as the cultivation of what is highest in the moral
nature also. Of this Beautiful that part which comes to you
through the sense of hearing you may cultivate in literature,
especially in Poetry, and in Music; the other part is that which
comes to you through the sense of sight in Architecture,
Sculpture and Painting. Of the cultivation of the Beautiful
through Literature I have already spoken. Bear with me whilst
I urge on you to cultivate the other branches. The history of a
people may be read in their arts as clearly as in their language.
And no people can reach a high standard of culture, or fully
develop the social and unselfish elements of its character, the
aesthetic side of whose nature is left uncared for. In your his-
tory what do we find ? The Beautiful has been cultivated
chiefly through Poetry, through Architecture and Music in a
lesser degree, but hardly at all through Sculpture and Painting.
Take them in order. Architecture should appeal most directly
to your sympathies. For what is it but the art of making the
building in which you have to live and work, or to transact your
public affairs, or to pray, as convenient and as beautiful as in



310 University of Madras.

the fitness of things it should be. At present it seems to me
your energies are chiefly confined to making your houses of
worship beautiful, and the houses in which you live comfortable.
But even when you aim at the Beautiful, it is in mere imitation
of old forms, which no doubt appealed to the t heart of your
ancestors, but which have little meaning to you. Now I would
ask you to try and understand for yourselves through reading,
and the study of drawings of the most beautiful buildings in the
world, or by studying with your eyes any beautiful building that
may be within your ken, what is beautiful, what is ennobling,
what is delightful in such structures, what it is that makes you
feel that you would like to see, or to pray in, or to live in the
building you admire ; and then apply the ideas you have con-
ceived to the forms that meet you in your daily life ; and when
applying try to imagine how you, if you had the power, would
remedy the defects you notice, or beautify, when only the
beautiful is lacking. Picture to yourselves the perfect home,
all local circumstances considered, in which to live, and the
most beautiful temple in which to worship. Believe me, if
you study architecture in this practical way, and cultivate
your imagination in regard to convenient and beautiful forms of
building, you will gain for yourselves a pleasure-giving faculty,
and render yourselves, though indirectly, the means of helping
your people as they rise in civilization to make their habitations,
their buildings of assembly, rise in the standard of beauty too.
And I would not have you forget how great an educative effect
the good and beautiful in buildings has upon the people who
inhabit or frequent them. To this sentiment is chiefly due the
erection of some of the noblest buildings in the world, Churches,
Palaces, Courts of Law and Houses of Convocation. Music you
have cultivated from generation to generation, but as yet it has
only reached the point at which the Greeks left it. And now it
remains for you to add to melody harmony, without which Music
can be but the art of the individual. Melody is the most perfect
expression of emotion, for where words end music begins, but
without harmony music can hardly be a great social cementing
force. Who can say how great has been the influence of the
German chorale in giving cohesion to the heterogeneous elements
of the German people ; or how great has been the moral, and
social, yes, the political effect too in promoting the harmonious
life of the English people, of the gathering together of men and
women of all grades of society in rendering under one leader the
great choruses of Handel, of Haydn or of Mendelssohn. In
asking you therefore to develop on scientific lines your system of
music, I am only asking you to add to your means of promoting



1892. -Mr. H. #. Grigg. 311

the union and regeneration of your people, and I would add of
strengthening your human sympathies and your sense of order
and proportion. By Sculpture and by Painting mankind is enabled
to body forth and express its sense of what is highest its ideal
of the Beautiful in the world around. No nation can rise high
in civilization which does not cultivate this divine faculty nor
can any art be satisfactory which does not gather into itself and
reproduce what is most refined and best in a people's life as in
that of the individual artist. " The value of a work of art/' says
Veron, " depends entirely upon the degree of energy with which
it manifests the intellectual character and sesthetic impressions
of its author." Sculpture the most sublime and most difficult
of the arts that which concentrates within itself more than any
other power, passion, individuality and beauty has been culti-
vated almost only in connection with religion, and even there
how few of the forms which your sculptors have produced repre-
sent what is grand, beautiful or ennobling. In Painting, the
faithful interpreter of nature in all her moods, you have done
but little, although your power to become painters is shown by
the promising productions of more than one living artist and in
the great beauty of your textile designs and embroideries. In
the early period of the history of your race you seem to have
possessed a high sense of the Beautiful. Your ancestors were
the worshippers of the Divine through the powers of nature.
Otherwise you could not have produced the poets of your early
literature. Will you not then train your eyes to see and your
hearts to feel, that you may return, not to the broken idols of your
youth as a nation, but to yield a more discerning and enlightened
reverence to the beauties of the material world about you. If
you do, believe me, you will find " books in the running brooks,
sermons in stones and good in everything/' And not only so, but
the cultivation of these arts will bring your several peoples closer
together for art is an aesthetic language and as a common lan-
guage unites races different in stock, so will it bring you together
who cultivate the same ideals. Whilst through that portion of it
which relates to the pourtrayal of the beauties of nature the sub-
limity of your mountains, the grand progresses of your golden
rivers, the smiling verdure of your fields of grain, the mysterious
influences of your vales and groves you may kindle to stronger
flame your love of the beautiful country which gave you birth.

I have striven, feebly striven, to induce you in the life which
now lies before you to cultivate every god-given
f f acultv in y ur nature to perfect your manhood I
had almost said your humanity. But " Humanity



312 University of Madras.

has two sides : one side in the strength and intellect of manhood ;
the other in the tenderness and faith and submissiveness of
womanhood. Man and woman, not man alone, make up human
nature." Gentlemen, will you whose lips have tasted of the
" new joy ineffable " of the feast of knowledge, keep th'e nectar
and ambrosia of that feast selfishly to yourselves and not invite
to join you at the board the other half of your humanity your
wives, your sisters and your daughters ? Remember if you will
not bid them to share that feast with you, if you leave them to
stand without, humbled and unsatisfied, you must pay the penalty.
The laws of our nature are inexorable. You cannot split human-
ity in two and expect to attain for yourselves moral and intel-
lectual completeness. That which God hath joined together let
no man put asunder. No people recognises more fully, I might
say more beautifully, than your own, so far as the family is
concerned, this truth, the mutual dependence of the sexes, but
as yet you have not recognised this union in knowledge and
culture as necessary for your social well-being and moral advance.
But so it is. It is a law which science more and more acknow-
ledges. If in man were collected all the excellencies of our
many-sided nature and women only possessed them in a lower
degree, something might be said for that view. But it is not so.
In woman this aptitude for the perfection of some of the qualities
of our nature is stronger and capable of a higher development
than our own. To these virtues, the distinctive virtues of
womanhood, how much does the world not owe ? To the influ-
ence of woman is due in no small measure the exercise of those
gentler virtues which have become characteristic of the most
progressive races on this planet. To woman are they indebted
for much of that reasonable spirit of self-sacrifice and obedience
which is rendering the social, nay, the political, progress of
mankind possible. But assuming that this is not so that woman
is but " undeveloped man " and feebler intellectually and morally.
Are you even so acting wisely in not educating her, in not
strengthening her intellect, in not substituting principles on
which to base right conduct for moral rules of thumb ? It is the
boast of the people of Madras that they of India's peoples have
been the first to welcome the rays of this new gospel for of the
two hundred and fifty thousand girls who are under instruction
in India one-third appertain to Madras although its population
is but a sixth of the total population. But this progress is after
all but the twilight which precedes the dawn. It rests with you,
gentlemen, by requiring for, and affording to your women the
highest instruction in knowledge, especially in those branches
which chiefly concern their side of humanity, to make these



1892 Mr. II. B. Gr'uj.j. 313



"hues of the rich unfolding morn" brighten into a glorious
flood of sunlight which shall illumine the homes of the poorest
and meanest of your people. It rests especially with you,
Brahman s of South India, whose fathers brought
much light and knowledge from the north to the
south, and who have at least twice in your history
given a mighty reformer of religion and morals to India, to follow
the lead of Dewau Bahadur Raghanatha Rau and to render a
more signal service to the people of this land by making it an
accepted principle of ail Indians that women shall be taught as
well as men, in a word that education shall not be one-sided bub
complete.

I have pleaded with you for your women ; and now I would
pray you to do what in you lies to raise the coiidi-
Pa " tion of the Pareiya and other kindred races. No
society can be in a wholesome condition, a large
portion of which is by custom or prejudice deprived of its proper
share in the work of the country and in its privileges ; which
has not in reality as well as in name the same facilities as its
other members for ameliorating its condition or of contributing
to the wealth of the community. These races form one-sixth
of the population of Madras. Your Government many years
ago set the prasdial slaves free so far as the Law can do this and
is now considering what measures will best elevate these races
and remove their disabilities. But much remains to be done,
and it rests with you, gentlemen, to supplement the liberal action
of the Government and the work of benevolent societies, by
helping to break down the conservatism of the large sections of
society which at present form the great obstacle to the progress
of these poor and unreasonably despised people. I say unreason-
ably because there is ample evidence, witness the Madras Sappers,
that when given a fair chance in life they can prove themselves
valuable members of society.

And now I wish you God-speed.

To you, Brahinans, the outcome of the self-denial and culture
of three thousand years, I would say, " He is truly great that is
great in charity."

To you, Sudras, who have been the sharers in that culture
and who have risen through your virtues to a higher social
sphere than that assigned to you by your early Law-giver,
" As you have received so give and more abundantly."

To you, Mahommedans, the descendants of a courageous
race, "Quit you like men be strong not with the sword, but
with the pen, the spade, the hammer and the anvil."
40



314 University of Madras.

To you, Native Christians, who have broken with many of
the religious ideals of your forefathers, be filled with the enthu-
siasm of humanity, and in keeping the letter forget not the spirit
of your most catholic faith.

And to you, Europeans and Eurasians who claim the
privileges of your fathers, be true to their best characteristics,
and show by your actions that like them you believe that " all
true work is sacred ; that in all true work, were it but true
hand-labour, there is something of divineuess."

To one and all, I say, cultivate each heaven-given faculty,
remembering too that the body cannot be divorced from the
mind, that in the perfect man the body must be perfected as
well as the soul, that the body should be not merely the setting
of the soul but the expression of it. And above all, be just, be
merciful, and humbly but with firm and onward-pressing foot
pursue the highest, the noblest, the purest ideals that have risen
or may yet arise upon your souls.



INDEX.



A beautiful simile ...

Acknowledge and respect God

Acquaintance with sons of fame

Acquire a taste for learning ...

Action

Action and duty the guides of life

Adherents of Truth ...

Advice to Bachelors of Arts ...

of Laws ...

Advice to Graduates m Law ...

Engineers ...

Advice to those who seek office
Agriculture ... ... ...

Agricultural College, Saidapet

Aims of life ...

Ancient coins

Another poorly represented faculty

Antiquity the Champion of Error

Architecture

Aristotle, the First Philosophy of

Art, the field of

Associations

, formation of

Attain moral excellence

Attend to details

Avoid contentment iu learning



Page.

... 142
... 17
... 76
... 34
... 106
... 58
.. 20
... 15
... 16
... 27
... 28
.. 178
... 1U6
... 120
... 225
... 214
... 116
... 19
... 209
... 277
... 208
... 233
... 157
... 14
... 187



Be brave

Be brave with the bravery of conviction

Be faithful interpreters

Be independent ... ...

Be manly ...

Be mxlest ... ... ...

Be not a mere book-worm

Be thorough ... ...

Be true to yourself ...
Blemish of the Caste System, a
Books, do nt grudge money for
Botanical aid to education, that invaluable
Brahmins, an appeal to the



244

257

53

242

244

36

177

L'4i

32

182

295

239

313



Calling (a), do not choose solely on pecuniary grounds

Callings, a vast number of other

Career of a Teacher ... ... ... ...

Carlyle, Thomas and his works ,.. ...

, the days of .. ... ... ...

, an Indian ... ... ... ...

Charaka ... ... ... ...



239
196
36
150
]5L
152
126



Index.



Children, what about your ... ...

Choice of a profession ... ... ... ...

Cholera ... ... .. ... ... ...

Cinch na fOkaloids, the virtue of ... ... ...

Civil Kng neon- g

Service, simultaneous examinations in India for the...

Clasi-al literature ... ... ... ... ...

Colleges, the two Government... ...

Collegiate education, hi.ifh ... ... ... ...

Combine experience with knowledge ... ...

Comparative Philology ... ... ... ...

Compromises ... ... ... .* ..

Company and Conversation ... ... ... ...

Conclusion (Sir Madhava Row's address) ... ...

Condition in which England found India .*.

Contentment ... ... ... ...

Con- inent.nl universities, practice of ... ... ...

Cotton, Sir Arthur ... ... ... ...

Convert principles into impulses ...

Conviction, the courage of ... ... ...

Counsel, a few words of homely ... ... *.*

Courtesy ... ... . ... ... ...

Cultivate the principle of honour ... ...

a tender conscience ... ... ...



Page.

.. 280
.. 59
... 129
... 195
... 194
... 234
... 103
... 44
... 235
... 10
... 61
... 228
... 229
... 236
... 112
... 226
... 57
... 117
... 157
... 228
... 242
... 20
11



Degree of Bachelor of Arts ...

Demonstrate what jou have learnt in your lives

Derby, Lord

Dhanwantri...

Difference between Indian and English Universities

Difficulty of solitary studies...

Difficult problem, a ... ... ... ...

Disc ntented men, a class of ... ...

Divine help, seek ... ... ... ...

power ... ... ...

Do not abandon yonr studies ... ... ...

Do not be disheartened by failure

Do not denationalize yourselves ... ...

Do not obstruct reforms ... ... ...

Drama, the ...

Duties of an Advocate

Duty, a serious

, a glori ma defined in glorious language

to the S ate

of teaching others

our fellow-countrymen

, hi;h sense of ...

I your) as seekers after iruth

, the straight path of ... ...



8

254

35

125

33

90

192

149

185

166

35

29

168

153

... 120
... 2*
... 59
... 248
30,250
... 7
... 30
... 46
... 71
.. 156



East India Company, the ... . -
Educated Indians and the Public Service
Educated man and an ignorant man



42
62

87



Index.



111



Educated natives and independent walks of life

Education of the masses

Educational system, a grave fault in the ...

Educated man and uncultured woman

Education (your) is not finished

Elementary education

End of Law is the harmony of the world

English Universities, their ancient origiu and national growth

English language, superiority of

,the

importance to the Indians of

homes at tbe time of Erasmus ...

Enlightenment of the masses, not prohibited' by the Shastrae
English Demos, the ...

language, value of a knowledge of the ...

,the ... ...

Equal, the sense in which men may be... ...

European language, learn a, besides English ...

Evidence from foreign sources ...

Expedition to the North Pole ... .. ...

Explode innovations of your Vedas ... ... ..



Page.

119
138
179
180
223
45
301
49
54
102
110
129
140
204
253
294
243
2i*6
127
134
174



Failing of the Natives of India ... ... ... ... ... 12

Faithfully interpret aims of Government ... ... ... ... 83

Fault of our critics ... ... ... ... ... ... 88

Famine, the late dreadful ... ... ... ... ... ... 131

Fauna- of the Presidency ... ... ... ... ... ... 216

Female education ... ... ... ... ... 84,161,180,189

, a necessary consequence of man's culture ... ... 181

Feminine temperament, peculiar virtues of the ... ... ... ... 250

Fellows, educate your ... ... ... ... ... ... 278

who died during the year (1891) ... ... ... ... 2 Q 4

First impulse of a student ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 50

Fine Arts, the ... ... ... ... ... ... 309

Flora, the ... .. ... ... ... .. ... ... 217

Form your own opinions .. %l , . ... ... ... 73

Foreign Politics ... ... . ... .... .. ... 90

Food ... ... ... .- ... .. 130

Forget all differences ... ... ... .. ... ... 157

French, the merits of ... ... ... .. ... ... 55

Fresh detachment a. of the army of human progress .. ... ... 115

From cultivation fever flies ... ... ... ... ... ... 132

Further the education of others ... ... ... ... ... 24

Future of your society, reflect on the ... ... . ... ... 281



Games ... ... ...

Good handwriting ... .

Go to Europe ... ...



Online LibraryK Subba RauConvocation addresses of the universities of Bombay and Madras → online text (page 65 of 66)