orchard in this country, perhaps the largest in
Western New York, planted by Messrs. Starks
& Mattison, embracing forty-five acres, on which
are growing over 4,800 young standard pear trees,
all healthy, and making a good growth, and many
of them bearing good fruit. So well pleased
were we with the appearance of this orchard, that
we made a rather careful examination, and gained
some facts, which may be of interest and profit
to our readers. These trees were from three to
five years old when planted, which was done dur-
ing the winter of 1857-8. The winter being un-
usually mild, planting, which commenced in De-
cember, was continued through January, Febru-
ary, March and April. Occasionally, freezing
weather would put a stop to the work for a few
days. No diff'erence is apparent in the growth of
the trees between those which were planted in
the fall, spring, or winter, and not a dozen out
of the number died. The varieties are as fol-
Flemish Beauty 224 Dearborn's Seedling.
Kosliezer 112 Gfinsel's Bergamot..
Louise Bonne de Jersey. . . .231 Columbia
Bartlett 1,000 Beurre Diel
Doyenne Gris d'Hiver 27 Winter Nelis
Seckel 270 Lawrence.
Virgalieu 1 ,316 Glout Morceau 116
Onondaga 58 Vicar Winlifield 373
Sheldon 151 Easter Beurre 70
The soil is a clay loam, or as the proprietor
expressed it, a "limestone loam" for eight to ten
inches or more, subsoil clay, though not very
stifi', having an admixture of loam, with a little
sand, the whole resting upon fossil lime rock.
The ground was prepared by subsoiling, about
eighteen inches deep, and the trees planted twen-
ty feet apart each way. In setting them out the
roots were covered with earth to the depth of
about one inch, over which v/as spread something
like two inches of stable manure. The remain-
ing portion of the opening was then filled with
earth to grade. The planting being completed,
the upper portion of the roots were about one
inch below the average grade of the soil. About
one-half a bushel of earth was placed at the foot
of each tree, in a conical form, immediately after
planting, which was allowed to remain until the
middle of May, and was then levelled and the
earth spaded as deep as practicable without
interrupting the roots, for a space of six feet
in diameter. In the fall of 1858 a mulching of
about two bushels of manure was given to each
tree, over which M'as placed earth in pyramidal
form to the depth of one foot, to protect from
mice and severity of winter. This was allowed
to remain until the first of May, last when all was
made level, and spaded as before, over an area
seven feet in diameter.
The trunk of every tree, from the ground to
the branches, is covered v/ith a bag made of cot-
ton cloth, sufficiently large to admit of three or
four years' growth, the cloth being fastened to
the lower branches, and hanging to the ground.
This, the proprietors believe, protects the trunks
from the sun, and from sudden changes of tem-
perature, and in a great measure prevents blight
and other evils, such as the hardening of the
bark, the contraction of the pores, thus prevent-
ing the free flow of sap, necessary exhalation, &:c.
Two cedar stakes are driven by each tree, to
which it is fastened, preventing swaying by the
wind, in any direction.
The rows run east and west for about three-
fourths of a mile, and are as true as it is possi-
ble to plant trees. At the western extremity is
planted a belt of Norway spruce, across the en-
tire orchard, consisting of two rows ten feet
apart, and the trees in the rows twenty feet apart,
those in one row being opposite the open space
in the other, leaving the trees ten feet apart.
Two similar belts are planted through the orch-
ard, at about equal distances, though the high-
est points of land are selected for the purpose,
and these it is thought will aff'ord all necessary
protection from the wind, as the trees are made
to head low.
Now, for the result thus far. The trees are
healthy and vigorous, and making a fine growth,
many having already made shoots from three to
four feet in length. Although having had but
one season's growth since planting previous to
the present, many of the trees are bearing fruit.
On one Seckel we counted 131 specimens, and
on the Bartlett, Flemish Beauty, &:c., fullj' as
many as the trees should be allowed to bear. On
removing the cloth from the trees we found the
bark glossy, smooth, and soft to the touch, yield-
ing under the pressure of the finger. No blight
has ever been seen in the orchard, and this ex-
emption the proprietors think is mainly attribu-
table to the protection afl"orded the trunks by the
The proprietors are entitled to great credit for
their enterprise, and we hope to see them amply
remunerated, as we have no doubt they will be
before many years. Mr. Mattison is an expe-
rienced nurseryman, who knows how trees should
be grown and cultivated, and practices himself
the thorough course that he recommends to oth-
ers, of which this orchard gives abundant proof.
Nearly every tree he has grown from the seed ;
and here we may say that Mr. M. claims an im-
proved method of cultivating pear seedlings, by
root-pruning during growth, thereby securing a
larger number of fibrous roots, which, to some
extent, prevents leaf blight, and ensures greater
safety in the removal of trees, even when large.
This orchard, if well cared for, for a few years
longer, must yield a princely revenue. We hope
these gentlemen will have many imitators in
Western New York ; and, indeed, in all parts of
the country where fruit can be grown with profit.
â€” Mooters Rural New-Yorker.
Acquaintance Resumed. â€” We are happy to
call the attention of readers to an article by "JVor-
folk," in another column, and to learn that New
Hampshire air, and New Hampshire fare, have
brought back to our correspondent health, en-
ergy and action once more.
NEW ENGLAND FARMER.
I have a three year old colt that settles back
on his halter, brings his under lip up on the hitch
strap and grunts or makes a noise like a horse
cribbing. I don't know but it is the first stages
of cribbing, but I have never seen him get hold
of anything and grunt â€” nothing more than to
bear down on the halter and grunt. What is the
matter with him ? J. Warren.
Charleston, N. JET., 1859.
Remarks. â€” It is difficult, from such, or any de-
scription, to tell what the matter is with the colt.
There is some morbid affection, or the animal
would stand quietly in the stall when properly
fed. There is actual disease, of some kind, or
there remains some want unsupplied. It appears
that the colt is stabled â€” is he there constantly?
If so, let him run an hour or two, each day in
the field where he can have access to plowed
ground ; add to this regular, and sufficient feed-
ing, and try the plan. If this fails, some wiser
head than ours must prescribe for him, from an
investigation of the case.
PHOSPHATE OF LIMB VS. ASHES.
Messrs. Editors : â€” I have heretofore been
slow to adopt the new notions in agricultural im-
provements, especially in the use of the so-called
fertilizers. But within the last two years I have
learnt of some good results from the application
of superphosphate of lime, and this season I have
for the first time used that fertilizer. I obtained
some of Coe's superphosphate of lime, and on the
23d of May planted my potatoes, and about the
same time planted my garden vegetables. I had
spread and plowed in a small quantity of stable-
manure. According to my usual custom, I planted
in drills â€” tubers about 20 inches apart in the
row, and cut so as to be not more than three or
four sprouts in a hill. I planted two rows side by
side. In one I put unleached ashes, as many as
I could well hold in my hand at once, in each hill.
In the other I put two-thirds of a gill of super-
phosphate of lime in each hill. Very early in the
season there Avas a marked difference. Where
the phosphate was put, the vines grew more rap-
idly, and when they had attained their growth,
hey were one-third to one-half larger than those
where the ashes were put. I have now dug the
potatoes, and will here state the result :
I dug ten hills where ashes were put, which
contained 36 of good size â€” weight, 8^ lbs. ; small
size, weight, | lb.=9i lbs. Ten hills where the
phosphate was put, 55 of good size â€” weight, 15^
lbs. ; small size, weight, 15 lbs.=17^ lbs.
I thought the difference was so great that this
statement might not be believed, and my neigh-
bor, Mr. William Reed, accepted my invitation
to be present at another trial. Mi-. II. made the
I dug ten hills where ashes were put, 34 of
good size â€” weight, 6 lbs. 5 ounces ; small size,
weight, 11 ounces=7 lbs. Ten hills where phos-
phate was put, 48 of good size â€” weight, 15 lbs.
3 ounces ; small size, weight, 1 lb. 9 ounces=16
lbs. 12 ounces.
Mr. Reed thought there must be a difference
in the condition of the land that made a part of
the difference in quantity. I then dug five hills
of each kind in another place.
Five hills where ashes were put, 16 of good size
â€” weight, 3 lbs. ; small size, weight, 2 ounces=
3 lbs. 2 ounces. Five hills where phosphate was
put, 28 of good size â€” weight 6 lbs. 11 ounces;
small size, weight, 7 ounces=7 lbs. 2 ounces.
In the growth of my other \egetables, I think
I have seen much benefit by the use of the phos-
phate of lime. A knowledge of these facts may
be of some advantage to farmers and gardeners.
â€” John R. Howard, in Boston Cultivator.
THE SMALL STINQIWQ NETTLE.
This nettle is the plant so common all over
New England, and one which is well remembered
through life by those who were brought up on a
farm. The quaint old herbalist, Culpepper, re-
marks, "that they may be found by feeling on
the darkest night." The small figures are the
flowers of the plant enlarged.
Nettle, Urtica, (from uro, to burn ; in refer-
ence to the stinging properties of most of the
species.) An extensive genus of herbaceous or
shrubby plants of little beauty, and which are
justly looked upon in the eyes of the agricultur-
ist as mere weeds. The herbage in all the spe-
cies is copiously armed with venomous perforat-
ed bristles, each of which has a bag of liquid
poison at its base. This liquor, by the slight
pressure required to pierce the skin, is transmit-
ted into it, causing great irritation. Many of
the numerous exotic species have not this sting-
ing property ; but the sting of common nettles
is not to be compared with that of some of the
NEW ENGLAND FARMER.
Indian species grown in the gardens of Europe.
These are, however, all surpassed in virulence by
one which in Timor is called duoim setan, or dev-
il's leaf, the effects of which are said by the na-
tives in many cases to cause death. In England,
the indigenous species of nettle are three ; viz.
1. Roman nettle (U. pilulifera,) an annual plant,
growing in waste ground amongst rubbish, chiefly
near the sea. The herb is armed all over with pe-
culiarly venomous stings. The stem is branched,
leafy, bluntly quadrangular, often purple, about
two feet high. 2. The small nettle (U. urens) is
found to be in all cultivated ground a trouble-
some weed, especially on a light soil. It is an-
nual in habit, flowering from June till October,
smaller than the last, and of a much brighter
green ; its copious stings hardly less virulent.
The several parallel ribs of the leaves form its
distinguishing character. The whole plant be-
ing refused by every kind of cattle, should be
carefully extirpated from pastures. 3. The com-
mon or great nettle (U. dioica,) which is a nox-
ious perennial weed, growing almost everywhere,
and flowering in July and August. The root is
branching and creeping, with fleshy roots, and
many fibrous radicles. The herb is of a duller
green than the last, erect, three feet high, with
less irritating stings. Leaves large, heart-shaped,
spreading, pointed, strongly serrated, veiny. The
leaves are employed for feeding poultry, espe-
cially in the winter ; when boiled, they are said
to promote the laying of eggs. Asses devour
nettles eagerly, but all other live-stock refuse
them unless they are dried. In the western islands
of Scotland, a rennet is prepared by adding a
quart of salt to three pints of a strong decoction
of nettles ; a tablespoonful of which is said to
be sufficient to coagulate a bowl of milk. The
young tops of the common and smaller nettles
may be boiled as potherbs during spring, and
eaten as a substitute for greens ; being not only
nourishing, but mildly aperient. The tough
fibres of the stem may be manufactured like
hemp, and are often found in winter naturally
separated and bleached. The roots are astrin-
gent and diuretic.
"sap settles to the roots in a visible form, that is
owing to temporary causes, the removal of which
causes its instant reascent." My method, for
years, has been to take the vines and lay them
along upon the ground, throwing over them a
light covering of leaves, litter or the refuse of
the garden. Should the vine be so situated that
I cannot conveniently take it down, I tack up
matting or any slight covering sufficient to keep
oft" the sun's rays. That it is the warm days of
winter that kill many of our half-hardy shrubs,
as well as vines, is exemplified in the culture of
the Moras Multicaulis. This plant was found to
winter better on the north side of hills than up-
on the south. J. M. I.
Salem, Oct., 1859.
For the New England Farmer.
LAYING DOWN THE ISA-BELLA. VINE.
Mr. Brown : â€” At this season of the year, the
open air grape vines that are trained up upon a
wall or building should be taken down and laid
upon the surface. I have thought that my former
directions given some time since, may be repeat-
ed. Most cultivators are aware that the Isabella
vine suffers more or less every winter. Long
shoots of the previous year's wood, and occasion-
ally the whole vine, is winter-killed, (so called.)
Many attribute this to the extreme cold ; I believe
it to be caused by the warm days of winter. In our
variable climate, where the thermometer sinks to
zero, followed the next day by a bright sun with
the warmth of spring, a plant so susceptible as
the vine is generally affected by these sudden
changes, particularly as the sap does not take
lodgment in the roots, but, as Dr. Lyndley says,
"is always in motion at all seasons, except in the
presence of intense cold." Can we wonder at
these results ? "If ever," says the same writer,
For the New England Farmer.
SA.W DUST AND SHAVINGS A3 FERTI-
Mr, Editor: â€” In your last issue I noticed a
piece on Saw-Dust as a Fertilizer. I would say
that whether it is a fertilizer or not, it depends
very much upon how it is used and of what wood
it is made. Dry saw-dust is one of the best of
articles for bedding horses and cattle, to take up
the urine and keep the cattle clean. But hard
wood is the best, and rock maple the best with-
out doubt for the land. Many of your readers,
1 presume, can recollect how well the grass used
to grow on Rock Maple land, and where, espe-
cially, the trunks were left on the ground to rot,
as they used to be fifty years ago, as I very well
Saw-dust put on land, right from the saw, I
think is not just the thing, unless on dry, cobbly
land. I recollect of putting a load on a spot
some two square rods, where, being on a side-
hill, there was not soil enough to make it grass
over for years before, but since, I have seen no
signs of barrenness. I believe it to be a retain-
er of moisture, if nothing more.
Hard woud shavings are also good for bedding,
such as come from planing machines in making
wash-boards, &c., &c., they being very fine and
soft. They cause the manure to heat much faster,
and, of course, will need overhauling much soon-
er than usual. I think hard wood saw-dust and
shavings should be used freely for bedding, even
if you have to go miles after them, and they will
answer every purpose of going to Peru for guano.
Meadow mud is not good for bedding, being
very soft when wet, but good to put into the
yard or barn cellar, and even to spread on ground
when you sow down. I did this on a piece of
ground I took up from pasture, and have noticed
that my cattle graze on that part where I put the
mud, two or three times as much as they do right
by the side where I did not put any, and yet the
land where I put it was the poorest.
Something is said in these days against barn cel-
lars, because manure heats, and the stench arising
injures the hay, and also the cattle, where they
have to breathe the foul air. I have no doubt but
that if cattle have to breathe this bad air, it must
be injurious to them, as well as to the hay they
eat. But why have it so? This heating and bad
odor should not be suffered to accumulate. My
father-in-law (who is about 90 years old,) said
NEW ENGLAND FARMER.
to me this summer, that nothing is lost, and if
it goes off in the air, it comes down in the dew.
True, 1 said, but it might come down in some old
swamp of my neighbor's, and I, as well as he,
â– would not get much use of it. To save it, put in
anything, even sand, that is worthless, apparent-
ly, if you can get nothing better, to take up the
moisture, and that, by overhauling, will prevent
heating, and double the quantity and value of
manure will be made to what would be in the old
way of cows in the yard in summer, and manure
in winter thawed out under the eaves, and wind
and water driving off all this bad odor people are
so afraid of in cellars. There is no l)ody so hard
up but that they can find sand for this purpose,
if nothing better. Keep the cattle in the barn at
night and put one or two shovels-full of sand to
each animal, together with straw, old meadow
hay, saw-dust, or shavings that are fine, to make
a good bed, and you will be astonished at the
amount of manure you will make. By so doing,
you will have it all, and ready for corn.
Some farmers not only put sand or loam on
the floor, but have a pile on the barn cellar to
throw upon the droppings every morning.
People lose much manure by being obliged to
let their cattle out in winter, and perhaps summer,
to some brooks or springs to obtain their drink.
Some let them go as they please, (which is the
best way to ensure the cattle to drink what and
when they wish.) Others drive them, perhaps
twice a day, and if they drink when they drive
them, well ; if not, they must go dry. If dry they
will not eat their hay well, and cows will not
give their expected quantity of milk, and then
the boys are found fault with because they gave
too much hay and have not milked clean.
To get water conveniently, dig a well near the
yard or under the shed, which should join the
cellar, and will not generally be more than some
20 or 30 feet, and many of them much less.
Should you happen not to find as much water as
desired, be sure and dig large, so as to stone up
some five feet at bottom, so as to make a reser-
voir, put up an eves trough on barn, and conduct
the water into the well, and then get one of
"Ayer's Self-Acting Farm Wells," and use it.
You will find your cattle do much better than
they will to go dry, or have to go some 20 to 80
rods for their drinks in cold and blustering
weather. Your cows will water their milk much
better than their owners, and suit their custo-
mers a vast deal better, for the quality as well as
quantity you will be able to let them have. I
have used one of them three years past and know
of a certainty the good of them. The cattle will
go freely to drink as to an aqueduct, after a few
times, and most horses, if dry, will go on the
platform the first time without any trouble what-
ever. The freezing is not half so bad as in com-
mon pumps or aqueducts, as only occasionally
any trouble occurs, and that easily corrected by
a pitcher of warm water. Alvan Ward.
Ashburnham, Oct. 31, 1859.
heard that sour buttermilk was good. I pro-
cured some and washed it from head to foot, and
in three days his breathing was very regular, and
he was as smart as need be. I had no more
trouble with him. â€” Rural JVew- Yorker.
Lice on Calves. â€” A number of years ago I
had a yearling that grew poor, and I could not
help it. Its breathing became so loud that it
could be heard several rods. I thought it would
die. One of my neighbors told me that he had
DEEPENING THE SOIL.
The depth of a cultivated soil is always a mat-
ter of importance. Lands on which the vegeta-
ble stratum is thin, are deficient in permament
productive power, and require a much larger ap-
plication of manure, and more thorough work-
ing, than those which have a greater depth. Dig-
ging two spits deep, as is practiced in Europe,
or gradually going deeper with the plow, tends
to obviate this difficulty, and will eventually ren-
der the soil productive, if the requisite care be
exercised in cropping and manuring.
Where the vegetable stratum is thin, and re-
posing on a poor subsoil, a speedy change may
be effected in the following manner, although
from the great cost of labor in this countrj', it
may not be advisable to adopt it except on a lim-
ited scale : Along the margin of the piece to
be improved, be it more or less, throw the soil,
subsoil, sods and all, into si winrow on one side,
to the depth which is desired, say twelve or twen-
ty-four inches. Then commence on the side in
the direction the improvement is to proceed, and
deposit all the mould and sods taken from the
top in the bottom of the first trench, throwing
that taken from the bottom of the second trench
over on to the top of the first, and in this man-
ner, proceed till the work is done. Then cart
on old, well-decomposed compost, mixed with
an equal volume of green, unfermented stable
manure, and work the whole thoroughly into the
yellow earth until the virgin soil is approached.
A liberal allowance of manure is requisite in or-
der to hasten the decomposition of the soluble
silicates contained in the fresh earth, as well as
to ensure the more ready absorption of the fer-
tilizing gases from the atmosphere which are
necessary to impart vigor and activity to its la-
tent powers. A small quantity of fresh manure
sprinkled in lightly as the filling goes on, will
be of great service, and, indeed, any kind of veg-
etable matter, such as straw, forest leaves, or
chip manure, will materially assist the process
of enriching, and furnish food for the plants.
Lands treated in this manner stand the drought
much more successfully than untrenched grounds,
and are always found to be more productive, with
the same amount of manure, than the deepest
soils in their natural and unimproved state.
On gardens we have seen it tried repeatedly.
It is well known that the sand and coarse gravel
excavated from wells and cellars, will, when ex-
posed t atmospheric influences, imbibe princi-
NEW ENGLAND FARMER.
pies of fertility rapidly, where no manure is used,
and become in a short time covered with verdure.
We have known the common yellow sandy loam
taken from the pit and spread upon upland mow-
ing fields with the happiest results. This loam
is full of fertilizing salts, which, upon being
brought to the influence of the air and rains, im-
part them to the roots of the grass with surpris-
Plaster and charcoal each have a powerful ten-
dency to absorb enriching principles from the
air, and in all experiments like the one we have
suggested, they can be profitably employed. The
second year after digging, a very decided im-
provement will be apparent, and a single opera-
tion will have a decided influence for many years.
Those who have but little land should attend
to this suggestion if they wish to make it highly
productive. We have tried it on garden lands,
accompanied with thorough draining, and think
we have doubled the crop, â€” using no more ma-
nure than we did before the trenching.
For the New England Farmer.
THE FABMER AND HIS SUBBOUNDINGS.
I often think, while at work in the fields, that
if I am thankful for one thing more than another
â€” in temporal affairs â€” it is that I was born & far-
mer, and the son of a farmer ; that I have been
brought up among rural scenes and rural people,
and have been taught to labor in agricultural pur-
suits, and thus brought into intimate connection
with the wonderful and mysterious workings of