(lerstood all through my communication ; and
this I fully believe can be done better out of the
cellar than in. Mr. C. is informed in this, as well
asmyformer communication, that I have "learned
that the caustic qualities of powerful manures
ill prevent the germination of seeds." He in-
quires if I am in earnest in recommending this
theory ; if he will take away the word "ruinous,"
I answer I am in earnest, and have practiced it
for forty years. I think my labor has not been
wholly vain in the corn-field , and should I be
permitted to slumber, as did Van Winkle, I fully
believe that when I awake, I shall find the barn
cellars occupied for a diflTerent purpose than the
composting of manures.
What surprises me the most, is his first paren-
thesis, "And I think you, Mr. Editor, must have
a large share of moral courage to publish it."
Was Mr. C. serious, when he penned that ? Did
he think an editor had no other attribute than
courage ? and if he has other attributes, does he
think that the reason of his publishing my arti-
cle was to try his courage ? If farmers acted
from a sense of duty, I believe we should often
record our failures, for the benefit of others. I
hope we shall have both sides of this subject dis
cussed in the Farmer, as the sooner we know the
truth, the better. Robert Mansfield.
West Needliam, Mass., Dec, 1858.
For the New England Farmer.
CUTTING STALKS OF CORN.
Mr. Editor : — I am pleased to have my re-
marks on the "cutting of corn-stalks" noticed by
a man so sensible as Mr. Emerson, of Hollis,
appears to be. Without the honor of his per-
sonal acquaintance, I judge him to be a man of
good sense, fi'om his style of writing. In years
gone by I have known many reliable men of Hol-
lis, and among others I presume I knew the fa-
ther of Mr. Emerson, when he attended market
at Salem, as many of the inhabitants of that
town were accustomed to, with their loads of
barrels ; and when these loads came together,
we were accustomed to look upon it as a sign of
His experiment of cutting eight rows of stalks,
and leaving other eight rows similarly situated
uncut, is a perfectly fair one. And if he found,
as he says he did, more soft, unripe corn where
the stalks were not cut than where they were
cut, this would go far to show that it is best to
cut them. Another reason why it is better to
cut them than not, is, the stalks themselves are
more valuable. But the chief reason is, that
the corn ripens better; the ear being the object
for which it is grown, and not the stalk. I have
heard it said if the stalks were left on, the juice
of it would settle into the kernel and increase
the weight of it ; but this is theory only ; I have
no confidence in the fact. Essex.
December 25, 1858.
Grinding Feed. — "If a machine was invented
to grind hay," says the London Farmers^ Maga-
zine, "the ground article would approximate in
value to ungro^ind oats in producing fat and
muscle." Chopping hay and stalks is the pro-
cess that comes nearest to grinding, and relieves
the animal of just so much labor as it takes to do
it. Twenty-five pounds of dry hay a day is a
good deal of work for the muscles of one pair of
jaws, if they have the whole burden of its reduc-
tion to small bits and powder ; this labor afl'ects
the whole system, like other labor, retarding the
animal's growth and rendering more food neces-
sary to supply the waste of its tissues. The same
reasoning applies to grinding other food for
stock. — Country Gentleman.
Fur the New England Farmer.
MOTH FARM COMPANY.
Messrs. Editors :— In the N. E. Farmer of
the 18th Dec. is a communication with the above
caption by Wilson Flagg. Notwithstanding Mr.
Flagg's able and well-written article, he does not
convince me that there is danger to the small,
independent farmer, growing from the formation
of the "Mammoth Farm Company," in V/estern
New York. How that operating with steam im-
plements on the prairies at the West, can prove
"destructive to the prosperity of individual farm-
ers" at the East, or any where else, I have not
the sagacity to see. The productions of the
West are generally the very articles which New
England does not produce in sufficient quanti-
ties for her own consumption. From the West
and South very few articles are transported to
New England which are produced in it as sur-
plus. The more grain, pork, cotton, sugar, mo-
lasses, rice, sweet potatoes and other articles of
warm climates, and the cheaper they come to us,
the better, if the raisers are remunerated. And
for me, I am under the least apprehension that
this "Mammoth Company" can monopolize the
farming business, in the least degree to the in-
jury of the small, independent farming interest
in the Eastern and Northern States, however it
may operate upon them on the prairies at the
The plov/ is the only "mammoth implement"
to which steam could be advantageously applied ;
that being the case, other farm operations must
be conducted in the usual way, as on small farnvs,
with horses, oxen and hand laborers. I hope,
for the benefit of the farmers at the West, and
all the consumers at the East, West, North and
South, that the steam plow will prove successful
in capsizing the surface of the indurated prairies,
and fully realize the expectation and confirm the
hopes of the "Mammoth Farm Company," in
plowing those stubborn prairies which require
so much animal power to perform. The fear of
injury to the small, independent farmer in the
Eastern and Northern States, that creates such
apprehensions in the mind of Mr. Flagg, I think
must subside, when he takes into consideration
the difficulty and expense of purchasing the small
farms, leveling the ground, clearing away the
rocks, straightening the brooks, draining the
swamps, and above all, of procuring manure to
enrich this chaos of gravel, clay, sand, mud and
other mineral matter, to make it productive.
For one, I would as soon invest my capital in
Vermont Central Railroad bonds, or go into a
South Sea speculation, as invest money as a stock-
holder in a "mammoth farm" in any part of the
Union. Silas Browk.
North Wilmington, Dec, 1858.
NEW ENGLAND FARMER.
For the Ncic England Farmer.
MATSEIALS FOB HOOFING.
I notice in the Farmer of Oct. 16th a •well-
written article on this subject; also, another in
the number dated Dec. Uth, in which are set
forth some facts, and in my opinion some errors ;
and as but few, comparatively, are well acquaint-
ed with the article of roofing slate, the public
mind might be led astray, from some remarks
that have been made in previous articles on this
subject, and more especially those in the October
number, from the pen of llusticus. I deem it
my duty to at least give my opinion, and the
reasons for the same, and let the people judge
That slate is the best material for roofing,
there is no doubt in my mind, reasons for which
were given by my brother llusticus.
In regard to the strength of slates, Rusticus
sets forth that a slate to have strength must ne-
cessarily be composed of such properties as will
fade, which theory must be carried out, if we ad-
mit that the Glen Lake and the Eagle slate are
the best. I admit, as Rusticus says, that there
are slate that are soft, brittle, and do not fade,
which cannot be split thin on account of their
tenderness. I mean more particularly those he
mentions, or the Western Vermont. There are
also hard slate, so brittle that they cannot be
split thin, A slate need not necessarily be hard
or soft to split well. I am more or less acquaint-
ed with the slate from more than twenty quar-
ries in the vicinity of Hydeville and Fairhavenj
and this fact I have observed among these slate,
that both the hard and soft have their good and
bad qualities for splitting. Slate, to split well,
must not be soft, like clay, or chalk, nor hard
and brittle, like cast iron, or glass, but be
of pure, fine quality, solid and elastic. Good
splitting slate, both hard and soft, will bend
apart in splitting some of the largest sizes, some
six inches or more.
As to the question whether the color has any
thing to do with the strength of slate, I am will-
ing to take Rusticus on his own ground. He
says the Welsh slates are a standard, and the
Glen Lake are equal to them except in color.
Why must the Vermont slates fade in order to
give them strength, any more than the standard
Welsh slates ? Slates fade in consequence of the
metallic properties of which they are composed.
Those composed of iron will fade and rust, while
those composed of lead or copper will remain for
A good splitting slate that fades is better than
a tender slate that will not fade, but a slate that
is both strong and never fades is better than
either. Such as these are made at a quarry
within two miles of Hydeville and Fairhaven de-
pots, and within one mile of the quarries of the
Eagle and Forest Slate Co., owned by William
L. Farnam ct Son. This quarry yields a variety
of colors, the t^^p layers are beautiful, light varie-
gated colors, while those below are dark variega-
ted or clouded purple, and still farther down are
a fine purple, capable of being split sixty or sev-
enty to the foot.
As another instance of the splitting properties
of this stone, blocks from six to ten feet long by
two or more in width, can easily be split the
thickness of one-fourth of an inch or less. These
are softer than those of Glen Lake, the Eagle or
the Forest Slate Co.'s, equal in strength and su-
perior in fineness of texture, evenness of surface
and duration of color, and in no respect inferior
to any Welsh slate. Another Subscriber.
MILK STAND AND BUTTER-WOKKEE.
We are permitted again to copy from Flint's
admirable work on "Milch Cows and Dairy
Farming," and place before the dairyman or wo-
man a representation of an excellent mode of
setting away milk, and also a convenient form
of a butter worker.
Milk should never be set on the bottom of a
cellar, if the object is to raise the cream. The
cream will rise in time, but rarely or never so
quickly as on shelves from five to eight feet from
the bottom around which a free circulation of
pure air can be had from the latticed windows.
It is, perhaps, safe to say that as great an amount
of better cream will rise from the same milk in
tweleve hours on suitable shelves, six feet from
the bottom, as would be obtained directly on the
bottom of the same cellar in twenty-four hours.
Fio. I. — Milk Stand.
One of the most convenient forms for shelves
in a dairy-room designed for butter-making is
represented in Fig. 1, made of light and seasoned
wood, in an octagonal form, and capable d hold-
ing one hundred and seventy-six pans of the or-
dinary form and size. It is so simple and easily
constructed, and so economizes space, tfeat it
may readily be adapted to other and smaller
rooms for a similar purpose. If the dairy-house
is near a spring of pure and running water, a
small stream can be led in by one channel and
taken out by another, and thus keep a constant
circulation under the milk-stand, which may be
so constructed as to turn easily on the central
post, so as often to save many footsteps.
The pans designed for milk are generally made
NEW ENGLAND FARMER.
be, on the whole, the best and most economical,
and subject to fewer objections than most other
materials. 'Jlazed earthen ware is often used,
the chief objection to it being its liability to
ureak, and its weight. It is easily kept clean,
however, and is next in value to tin, if not, in-
deed, equal to it. A tin skimmer is commonly
used, somewhat in the form of the bowl of a
spoon, and pierced with holes, to remove the
cream. In some sections of the country, a large
white clam-shell is very commonly used instead!
of a skimmer made for the purpose, the chief ob-j
jection to it being that the cream is not quite so]
carefully separated from the milk. I
The butter-worker with a marble top, is an im-
portant addition to the implements of the dairy.
It effects the complete removal of the butter-
milk, without the necessity of bringing the hands
in contact with it.
Applf. Grove Family School, Sandwich,
Mass. — We feel quite confident that parents who
place their children under the charge of Mrs. E.
Gould Wing, the Principal of this School, will
find every advantage for them in the way of ac-
quiring an education for them that they desire.
EXTRACTS AND HEPLIES.
BAKNS — CLAPBOARDS OR BATTENS — TIE-UPS.
I am about building a barn, and am puzzled
to know whether to clapboard it, to have my
boards matched or baitened with strips some three
or four inches wide. Those who have buildings
covered with matched boards complain that the
tongues shrink from the grooves. I am inclined
to try the battens, but am assured that, being ap-
plii-d to the sappy edges of the boards, they pre-
vent them from drying when wet, and thus cause
them to rot. What advice have you, or any of
your corresjjondents, for me ?
Furthermore, shall I locate my cattle tie-up
upon the north side of my barn, from whence the
manure will fall into the back part of the cellar,
or shall I place it in the south side, where the an-
imals it would seem might l)e more comfortable,
but the manure more exposed to the weather ?
Upon examining several barns in a part of the
country where greater care is manifested in the
selection of good models than in this vicinity, I
find that a great diversity of opinion prevails up-
on these points.
I notice, however, that when any pnrticular
plan is adopted, it having cost the projector no
little head work, he is very reluctant to admit
that the child of his adoption is not pretty near
perfection, at least as good as any of his neigh-
bors. A Subscriber.
JDanvers, Bee. 28, 1858.
Remarks. — We should use the battens, but
not upon "wany-edged" boards. We have never
known the edges of boards to decay under the
batten to make such a course objectionable.
Tie the cattle on the north side, by all means ;
otherwise you so obstruct the barn cellar as
to make it almost valueless for any purpose
but that of keeping the manure.
There is no settled opinion yet, as to what
the best arrangement for a barn is.
Will you or any of your subscribers Inform
me whether a horse receiving a cut by a dull
instrument, like the step of a wagon, one of
the cords being cut oft', will recover so as to
be fit for future use ; and also, whether a horse,
with sprung forward ankles, will recover and
if any of you know of any thing to assist na-
ture in the recovery of each.
R,EMARKS. — We do not think a horse so in-
jured will recover so as to be of any service. A
horse with "sprung ankles" or knees, is able to
perform a good deal of slow work.
SULPHUR FOR CATTLE.
I was gratified to see an article in your paper
of Nov. 13th, on the use of stdpliur for stock, ta-
ken from the Ohio Valley Farmer, which I con-
sider worth to a common farmer what he pays
for the paper, (if properly used.) There are many
things rendered valueless by misapplication. I
use quite a quantity of sulphur every season
among my stock. My way of using sulphur
among my cattle is as follows : I melt lard with
a little sulphur, double a piece of candle wicking
a few times, draw it through the melted lard and
tie it round my calves' necks, and let them wear it.
I give my cattle sulphur once a day for three
days, then omit three days, so continue to do un-
til I give it nine days, then omit two weeks. One
teaspoonful a dose for a calf, a large spoonful for
a full-grown animal. I give it at night on their
provender, and keep my stock housed, that it
may better operate on the surface of the animal.
I find by giving it a little more freely for a few
weeks, before turning to pasture, it supersedes
the necessity of bleeding, and makes the ca'tle
more healthy during the season.
Deerfield, Mass., 1858. Apollos Clary.
Remarks. — The reference which our corres-
pondent makes to the old practice of bleeding
cattle in the spring, and of cidting offtlieir tails,
NEW ENGLAND FARMER.
at any time when fancy suggests it, affords us the
opportunity of asking again, what this blood-let-
ting and mutilation are for ? It is said the end
of the animals' tail is soft, and therefore, un-
healthy. Is it so ? We are inclined to think it
will be found diseased when it it is as hard as a
rake tail and as unbending as a hoe handle. It
was made soft and flexible, or it would not have
answered the purpose for which it was intended
It is just as sensible to cut off a teat, or an ear,
as the tail. If the animal is sick, administer prop-
er remedies, but do not deprive it of those parts
of its body which its Creator intended should be
used as one of its means of protection, as well as
give it those fair proportions which make it pleas-
ant to the eye of man.
So of the barbarous custom of bleeding cattle
in the spring. What is it for ? Cattle are not
usuflly sick in the spring, that have been well
fed and tended during the winter, and if they
have not received this treatment, and are thin
and lousy and weak, do not deprive them of what
little vitality they have by bleeding them '. but
rather administer in liberal doses, good red-top
hay, a few sliced roots daily sprinkled with a
quart of sweet corn meal, and let the patient par-
take freely of good cold water, and bathe fre-
quently in the warm beams of the sun, and out
of the wind. Then apply gentle friction frequent-
ly with a soft card and brush, and you Mill soon
become sensible of a rapid improvement. That
gallon of blood ivhich you did not take away, has
been stimulated to action by your generous diet,
so that the hair has become sleek, the skin soft
and eyes bright, and every part of the animal
would say to you if it had a tongue — "I thank
you, sir ; I thank you, sir ; I had no blood to
spare, I merely wanted something to eat."
BUCKWHEAT AND CLOVER ON SANDY LAND.
I have a piece of plain land that I wish to
break up next spring, as it is infested with that
plague, the ox eye daisy. I should like to sow
buckwheat. Will it do to sow clover with the
buckwheat, harvest the buckwheat, and plow the
clover in another year, and repeat ? AVill it ex-
terminate the daisy ? R. Butler.
Spencer, Mass., 1858.
Remarks. — The operation you describe will
probably keep the daisy down, so long as you
continue to cultivate — but would not exterminate
the seed. If you get a good crop of clover, it
will be much better to cut it and let it wilt be-
fore plowing it under. The principal value which
the clover contains, is in its sugar and starch.
When it is plowed under in its green state, it
•goes into rapid fermentation and decomposition,
and the sugar and starch are thrown off in the
form of gas. But if wilted, the process will be
slow, and all that is valuable in it secured to the
fatal disease among cattle.
As I have a disease amongst my stock, I would
like some information, what it is, and the cure for
it. I have lost four cows since they came up to
hay ; the ones that have died all ran together in
the fall feed, in which there was some swamp.
Those that did not run in the same mowing, are
now well. In the first place, their bags are hot
and their milk dries up ; they are dumpish, run
at the eyes and nose a corrupted matter of a yel-
lowish color ; their eyes turn white when they
are first taken, but before they die they are blood-
shotten. They live three or four days, and some-
times a week, from the time they are taken, and
then die. The same disease is amongst other
stock in the neighborhood.; there has been fif-
teen head of cattle that have died near by me
within a short time of this disease.
Windham, Dec, 1858. Benjamin S.Bemis.
Remarks. — We cannot tell from the symp-
toms described, what the disease is that is tak-
ing off the cattle at such a rate. Perhaps some
of our readers may recognize it, and be able to
recommend a remedy.
SOUTH DOWN SHEEP.
Mr. E. K. Danfortii, of South Newberry,
Vt., wants to purchase some pure South Down
floors of horse stables.
Will you, Mr. Editor, or some of your corres-
pondents, inform me whether the floor of a horse
stable should be level or incline ? If incline, how
much ? w. D. L.
For the New England Farmer.
THE WORLD OF THOUGHT.
The intelligence of man, which forms his
crowning excellence, is an emanation from the
Divine JNlind, and thus of characteristic cl'^vnents
and always active. Ever during his conscious
existence are its powers employed in thought ;
thought succeeding thought without perceivable
connection, yet each suggested by its relation to
the one preceding. The ti ains of ideas or thought
depend much on the culture and development
of mind, with its habits and peculiarities, and
circumstances in life. 'The thoughts of the ig-
norant man are grovelling ; tending to animal-
ism. Nature, in all her glorious forms, he ad-
mires only as ministering to sensual wants.
Thought is limited to the narrow circuit which
forms his sphere in life. But the educated mind,
on thought's airy wings, finds throughout Na-
ture's limitless domain, beauty and happiness.
No two minds are alike constituted, nor there-
fore of the same thoughts. But this difference,
with the degrees of mental culture, the influence
of various occupations and circumstances in life,
forms a world-wide diversity. A case of murder
presented to a lawyer, physician, and clergyman,
would suggest to each a train of thought in har-
mony with his profession. And any subject, pre-
sented to a number of persons, will be viewed by
each from his own stand-point, appearing in differ-
ent form and arrayed in different colors. To this
NEW ENGLAND FARMER.
fact may be traced the cause of many conten-
The mind being ever occupied, considers an
infinite number of subjects, flowing incessantly
through its avenues of communication with the
external world. It may detain, and concentrate
its powers on one, or allow all to float on, find-
ing its pleasures in novelty. Looking inward
it may gaze on memory's stores, or on wings of
imagination soar out in the boundless future.
Youth lives in the future, old age in the past,
and all in both.
Turning our eyes toward that untried world,
we are dazzled by visions of beauty and happi-
ness. The gentle breeze wafts to us pleasing
odors. The star of hope sheds kindly beams on
our pathway, and we fondly dream it winds only
through flowery meads, shady gro%-€s, and by
murmuring rivuiets. Perchance memory comes,
gently takes us by the hand and leads us along
down the past. We review the scenes of child-
hood, visit our early home, the favorite haunts
of youth, and gaze once more on the happy faces
of those we loved. Our first great grief comes
fresh before us, as she leads us to the silent
room, and we gaze on a loved one struggling in
death. We again see the cold form shrouded for
the grave — take the last fond look — and follow
with breaking heart to its last resting-place.
Though the mind meditates on the past and
present ; speculates on the future ; considers the
evil and the good ; things earthly and things
heavenly ; is absorbed in its own passions or
emotions ; or dwells much in the world without ;
yet man has the power of subjecting his thoughts
to his will. Let him, then, beware! For, "as a
man thinketh, so (s he."
Vi/'ayland, Dec. 20. L. H. Sherman.
TO MAKE GOOD "WINTEK BUTTEK.
At the annual meeting of the JefiFerson Coun-
ty Agricultural Society, at Watertown, on the
14th of January, a tub of superior winter-made
butter was exhibited by Mr. Daniel Parker, of
that town, for which a premium was awarded by
the discretionary committee. "The butter," says
the Nortliern Journal, "was quite as yellow as
much of the fall-made sent to market, and the
flavor so fine that we obtained of Mr. Parker the
mode of manufacture. He states that as soon as
he has finished milking, the pails of milk are set
into kettles of boiling water, where they are al-
lowed to remain thirty minutes, then the milk is
strained into pans and allowed to stand until the
cream is ready to be taken off, which will depend
upou the temperature of the room in which it is
set. Before churning, the cream must be kept in
a warm room at least twelve hours ; then it will