their products during the whole of the coming
season will be materially increased both in quan-
tity and quality.
The time saved from the fifteen minutes per
bushel, which it took the hired man of your Mas-
sachusetts correspondent to feed theii out, to-
NEW ENGLAND FARMER.
gether with witnessing the gratitude of the ani-
mals receiving them, amply paid for doing it my-
self. I did not raise them as did your correspon-
dent, who found them an unprofitable crop side
by side of a corn-field, that produced seventy-five
bushels of corn per acre, but on a plot of ground
60 cold and ill adapted to corn, it would not have
produced ten bushels. I hope the present sea-
son, those who hold the turnip culture in the
least esteem, will not fail to raise enough to give
their animals as feed, as often as they provide
their families with fresh fish, or perhaps some
other less frequent change in the variety of food.
Waitsfield, Vt. S. P. Joslin.
Thi-i grass should be cut early. If permitted
to stand till the seed has become fully matured,
the crop not only proves worthless in itself, but
an injury to the soil. By cutting when it is green
and succulent, or before the seed has shattered
out, we obtain an article possessing considerable
value, and which is eagerly devoured by sheep
and horses, besides accomplishing much towards
eradicating it from the soil from which, ordina-
rily, it is expelled not without considerable diffi-
culty when once it has obtained root.
In curing sorrel, care should be had to expose
it as little as possible to the sun. We have found
it an excellent plan to mow in the morning, and
cock in small bunches as soon as the dew is off.
This j)lan prevents the seed, by far the most val-
uable part of the crop, from being wasted, as
well as much useless trouble in spreading and
cocking up. There are few seeds, perhaps, more
tenacious of life than the sorrel. The pericarp
or seed vessel, in which the vital germ is en-
closed, is singularly firm and indurated, and when,
by any chance, it becomes imbedded in the soil
to a depth which excludes it from warmth, it re-
mains dormant, and will retain its vitality, un-
impaired, for years. If a field which has pro-
duced sorrel in large quantities, be turned out to
pasture, it will, on being again plowed and sub-
jected to tillage, even after the lapse of many
years, become filled with sorrel plants, although
not a vestige of that plant has been seen during
the interregnum, or while in pasture. And this
is sometimes the case with other plants. We
once plowed a pasture which had been grazed
for twenty-five successive years, and upon which
scarcely a mullein had been seen during all that
time. Upon disturbing the soil it brought the
long imbedded seed to the solar influences and
the air, and the surface was covered before July
with so luxuriant a crop of mulleins as to make
it necessary to pull up and carry off cartloads of
the plants. By sowing lime, in liberal quanti-
ties, and taking especial care to eradicate and
destroy all the plants that appear, the pest may
be entirely overcome. The lime neutralizes the
peculiar acid which gives life and sustenance to
the weed, and by converting it into a healthy and
salutary pabulum for more profitable species of
vegetable life, deprives it of its appropriate nu-
triment, and thus starves it out. Clayey soils
rarely become infested to any considerable ex-
tent with this production. When it does make
its appearance upon them, it is generally attrib-
utable, as a result, to the seed having been dis-
seminated with the grass seed employed in stock-
ing down, and rarely lasts more than one year,
when it is crowded out by the cultivated grasses,
generally without maturing its first crop of seed.
It requires a high, dry and hot soil, and does
not flourish vigorously except in the very face of
the sun. Sandy lands, of all descriptions, pro-
duce sorrel more or less abundantly. And it is
this description of soils which are always the
most remarkably benefited by ashes and lime.
They are non-calcareous, and to be improved,
and rendered permanently productive, must be
supplied artificially with that of which they ar
Physicians are unanimous in their recommen-
dation of this vegetable. Its nutritive character
has procured it many friends, and perhaps there
is at present no vegetable in this country, which
is more extensively cultivated, or which com-
mands, in our principal markets a more ready
sale, or a more remunerating price. It delights
in a free, warm and rather vigorous soil, and
should be assisted in its development by liberal
and continued applications of old and invigora-
ting manure. It is remarkably prolific, one plant
often producing a bushel of fruit. The matura-
tion of tomatoes does not take place at once, but
the fruit ripens in succession, so that the branches
are burdened with ripe and green fruit at one
and the same time. The methods of cooking
and appropriating tomatoes have been varied to
an almost infinite extent. In all its forms, how-
ever, it has innumerable admirers, and is proba-
bly, at this day, the most popular of all our gar
den edibles. For family use, a few hills, planted
as soon as the soil can be suitably prepared, in
the spring, will be sufficient. Guano and gypsum
have a very favorable eflect on the tomato.
Commissioners on Flowage. — The Board of
Commissioners appointed at the recent session of
the Legislature, will meet at 12 o'clock, noon, on
Monday next, to enter upon their view of the
land flowed. After this examination, which will
probably occupy two or three days, they will give
a hearing to the petitioners at the Town Hall, in
NEW ENGLAND FARMER.
EXTBACTS AND KEPLIBS.
TWO SICK COLTS.
In looking over my last Farmer, I noticed a
piece written by "\V. ]). Searl," concerning a
sick colt, and as I have had two sick, in precise-
ly the same way, one last year, and one this, I
think I can give him a little light on the matter.
The one that was sick last year, got over it after
laying on the barn floor about two months, but
has not done very well since ; the one this year
■was sick about three weeks and died; she had
the appearance of being hurt across the small of
the back, would walk on the end of the hoofs of
the hind feet, with them drawn forward ; they
finally got so stiff, that she lost the use of them
entirely. In the fore part of her sickness, she
would lie and groan terribly; when she died, I
thought, I would learn, if possible, what ailed her,
80 I sent, and got my brother, and we opened
her, and in the maw, we found the trouble. It
was the bots — there was a spot the bigness of a
man's hands entirely covered by them, and caused
such a fever, that the lungs were swelled to more
than twice the usual size. That is what causes
the difficulty in breathing. It was generally
thought she was poisoned. Now I think if friend
Searl will doctor his colt for the bots, he will
cure him. O. T. Willard.
Bolton, Vt., 1859. _
POPPIES VERSUS BUGS.
Last season I had some beautiful vines of dif-
ferent kinds growing in my garden, which prom-
ised a bountiful supply. One morning, I found
them covered with bugs, and, being about to
leave home for several days, hesitated a moment
as to what I should do for the tender plants.
My eyes immediately rested upon some poppies,
and the thought occurred, that the leaves might
be a remedy against the ravages of the bugs. I
instantly gathered some, and laid the leaves up-
on the hills, around the plants, and under the
leaves. After an absence of several days, I return-
ed, and immediately repaired to the garden, to
learn the fate of my vines. They were looking
finely, and not a bug to be seen of any kind.
Whether the poppies had any thing to do in driv-
ing away the devouring insects, some may ques-
tion. Suffice it to say, they decamped instanter,
and my opinion is, they are not partial to the
opium quality of poppies. If this will serve the
interests of the gardeners, you are at liberty to
publish it. N. R. Wright.
Paper Mill Village, N. H., April 21, 1859.
TO CURE KICKING COWS.
Place the animal by the side of a stall, or plank
partition, and confine her head in stanchions, or
by a chain, so that she can neither move side-
ways or forward and back. Pass a rope, having
a slip-noose on the end, around both hind legs,
just above the gambrel. Draw this pretty tight,
and the cow will soon find that the more she
kicks, the more she hurts herself, and will gen-
erally be cured of the propensity in a short time.
The pain of this operation, if the animal struggle
violently, is quite severe, and will render the
cords of the legs stiff for a time, but the cure will
be permanent. Care must be taken not to let the
rope get below the gambrel joint, as the cow will
then throw herself down. J. Y. N.
Norton, May, 1859.
Please inform me how I can make my quince
bushes bear? They blossom well, but yield no
fruit. Aaron Brigham.
Holliston, April, 1859.
Remarks. — There is no prescription specially
applicable to your question. Perhaps the soil is
too rich, and they make too much wood ; per-
haps it is not rich enough. If they appear very
luxurious, head them in, and remove some of the
soil about one of them, and supply it with sand
HOW TO PREVENT CROWS FROM PULLING CORN.
Take two ounces of nitre to a peck of corn,
dissolve the nitre in half the quantity of boiling
water wanted to cover the corn, then add as
much beef brine, and soak the corn from twelve
to twenty-four hours, then roll in plaster, or dry
•ihes. I have followed this method for more
than five years, and have suffered no loss from
crows. R. A. Damon.
Fiipton, April, 1859.
In your last issue, I noticed an account of
Wm. Richards raising Hungarian grass, but he
gave no account of the quantity of land he sowed.
Will Mr. R. give us all the information he can
about sowing and harvesting it ; and what stock
he thinks best to feed it to, and whether he will
feed the seed clear or mixed with other grain,
and what he thinks it worth compared with corn
or oats, and oblige A YouNG Farmer.
Brandon, Vt., April 23, 1859.
H. E. Fitch, Clarence, Nova Scotia. — We are
not able to give you the information you desire,
without occupying an amount of time which we
cannot at present command.
Fur the New England Farmer.
SUPERPHOSPHATE OP lilME FOR
As the time is near at hand for planting, I deem
it advisable to tell my experience in relation to my
use of the superphosphate of lime in preserving
the vines of the autumn marrow squash. I have
used the superphosphate lime for two years with
perfect success, and obtained large crops of that
delicious vegetable without losing a vine. Be-
fore I put on the superphosphate I could not
raise a single squash, on account of the worm in
the vine near the root. It usually commenced
its ravages about the time that it fruited. The
vines would look well, yet in two days they would
all wilt away, but by the use of the superphos-
phate of lime I am able to save every vi;ie, and
get full crops of squashes. I commence putting
it on them as soon as the seed comes up, to keep
off the small black beetle, which is does to per-
NEW ENGLAND FARMER.
fection, and then to keep off the striped bug, al-
so to keep off the stinking pumpkin bug, which
it is sure to do. I put on a small quantity after
every rain and every hoeing and when they be-
gin to put forth runners, I put about a table-
spoon ul around the root, and in all cases, where
it has been used properly, it has insured a good
Be sure and get that which is good ; there has
been a great quantity of poor stuff in the market
which has disappointed the expectation of the
consumer. I have used it on tomatoes with great
success. It should not be put on melons nor
cucumbers, it is too caustic for them, and kills
the tender plants.
Farmer James, by the use of the superphos-
phate of lime, raised acres of fine marrow squash-
es where he had totally failed for years, before
he knew of this infallible remedy. Farmers try
it. S. A. Shurtleff.
Spring Grove, April 13, 1859.
LIVE FOB SOMETHING.
Live for something, be not idle,
Look about thee for employ ;
Sit not down to useless dreaming —
Labor is the sweetest joy.
Folded hands are ever weary.
Selfish hearts are never gay ;
Life for thee hath many duties —
Active be, then, while you may.
Scatter blessings in their pathway 1
Gentle words and cheering smiles
Better are than gold and silver,
With their grief dispelling wiles.
As the pleasant sunshine falleth,
As the dew descends on earth,
So let thy sympathy and kindness,
Gladden well the darkened hearth.
Hearts there are oppressed and weary ;
Drop the tear of sympathy —
Whisper words of hope and comfort —
Give, and thy reward shall be
Joy untj the sou! returning
From this perfect fountain head.
Freely, as thou freely givest ;
Shall the grateful light be shed.
For the New Enand Farmer.
HOAAT TO TKEAT A YOUNG ORCHABD.
Mr. Editor : — I have read your remarks in
the last Farmer, (weekly,) with much interest,
on the manner of treating a young orchard. If
manured sufficiently to protluce two crops of
clover and a crop of rowen to turn in after the
second year's cutting is remo\ed, a fine growth
of the trees may be expected.
But let us suppose the soil is very gravelly and
poor ; the orchard large, and only manure enough
for a very moderate dressing can possibly be
scraped together, might not the ti ees be kept in
a growing condition by applying lo each tree, of
eight or ten years' growth, say one-eighth of an
ox-cart load of a good compost manure ? Let
this manure be spread at some distance from the
body of the tree ; little or none of it coming with-
in 3 or 4 feet of it, but the main part of it above
and a little beyond the extremities of the roots.
Let the ground between the trees be plowed,
cultivated with cultivator, and harrowed to keep
down the weeds. No crops taken off until more
manure can be spared.
Might not such tieatment as this be more eco-
nomical than purchasing manure enough to fill a
very i)oor soil with clover roots ? In very poor
soils, by digging holes 7 feet in diameter and 2
feet deep, and filling with loam and meadow mud,
trees may be kept in good condition two or three
years, with no other application than a little
coarse, straw, yard manure, put around the body
at setting, (if set in the spring,) and dug in next
season. If then, after that, a moderate quantity
of manure is spread near the trees, each year, to-
gether with a liberal supply of swamp muck,
plowing and harrowing without cropping, and an
occasional liberal supply of manure with crop-
ping ; I say, if by these means, trees can be kept
growing, might not much land, especially in the
vicinity of villages, now comparatively useless,
be profitably turned to orcharding, thus increas-
ing its value, improving its appearance, inviting
new settlers, and paving the way for a plentiful
supply of fruit ?
One question more : Would occasionally turn-
ing in a green crop of oats or buckwheat be eco-
nomical where a yearly supply of manure is with
difficulty obtained ? K.
Framingham, March, 15, 1859.
Remarks. — The suggestions of our corres-
pondent are valuable, and do not seem to require
any special comments or replies from us. If he
plows in a crop of oats or buckwheat, he will de-
rive much more benefit from it by mowing the
crop and allowing it to partly dry before plowing
For the New England Farmer.
EXPERIMENT "WITH POTATOES.
Mr. Brown : — Nothing at the Lunenburg
Cattle Show, last year, interested me so much as
the exhibition of fine specimens of potatoes.
And nothing in this department seemed so val-
uable as an account of an experiment in raising
them, given by Daniel Putnam, Esq., a mem-
ber of the Lunenburg Farmers' Club. The fol-
lowing is the result of the experiment:
Lot 1.— 8 large potatoes, weighing 2 lbs. 12 ozs. Whole po-
tatoes in the hill; product of 8 hills, 36^ lbs.
Lot 2.-8 large potatoes wtipliing 2 lbs. 12 ozs. Cut 4 pieces
each, 4 pieces to a hill ; produce, 42 lbs.
],ot 3. — 4 large potatoes, weighing 1 lb. 6 ozs. Cut 4 pieces
each, 2 pieces to a hill ; produce, 32 lbs.
I^ot 4. — 2 large potatoes weighing 11 ozs. Cut 4 pieces each,
1 piece to a hill ; produce, 25 lbs.
Lot 5. — 8 small potatoes weighing 13 ozs. Whole potatoes in
the hill ; produce, 25 lbs.
Lot 6. — 8 small potatoes weighingl3 ozs. Cut2 pieces, 2 pieces
in a hill ; produce 33 lbs.
lots 7 and 8 — Planted with the eyes cut ouf, proved failures.
Kind of potatoes used, Jenny Linds.
This experiment needs to be analyzed, in or-
der to communicate fully its valuable lessons.
In lot No. 1, 44 ozs. produce 584 ozs., equal to
13 bushels for one ; rather a small yield. An
acre, planted in rows 3 feet, and hill 2k feet
apart, would produce 470 bushels, requiring 36
bushels of seed.
In lot 2, 44 ozs. produce 672 ozs., equal to 15
NEW ENGLAND FARMER.
bushels for one. An acre planted at the same
distances as the >ast, would produce 540 bushels,
requiring 3G bushels of seed.
In lot 3, 22 ozs. produce 512 ozs., equal to 23
bushels for one. An acre ])lanted 3x2^ feet
•would produce 412 bushels, requiring 18 bushels
In lot 4, 11 ozs. produce 400 ozs., equal to 3G
bushels for one. An acre, planted 3 f^ 24- feet,
would produce 322 bushtls, requiring 9 bushels
In lot 5, 13 ozs. produce 400 ozs., equal to 30
bushels for one. An acre planted 3 ^124 would
produce 322 bushels, requiring 13 bushels ©f
In lot 6, 13 ozs. produce 528 ozs., equal to 40
bushels for one. An acre planted 3x24 would
produce 425 bushels, requiring 10 bushels.
It will be seen, therefore, that potoates plant-
ed as in lots 1st and 2d, the entire produce is
greatest, but the amount of seed demanded is
enormous. In lots 4th and 0th, the produce is
quite large, and the amount of seed is the small-
Shall we, then, use the large potatoes or the
small ? I answer, if a man has little land and a
plenty of large potatoes for seed, let him plant
them, either whole or cut in four pieces, and four
pieces put in the hill. If, however, he has much
land and but few seed potatoes, let him use the
small ones, cut in two pieces, and two pieces put
in the hill. w. c.
Clinton, Ms., 1859.
Remarks. — The attention of Mr. Baylies, of
Taunton, is respectfully called to this article.
For the Netc England Farmer.
MIGRATION OF SWALLOWS.
Quite a number of articles have appeared in
the Farmer within the last few years, relative to
the habits of swallows, and the time of their mi-
gration, but I do not recollect that any account
from this region has appeared. I will therefore
relate the result of my own observations, made
About the 21st of the 7th month, 1858, these
lively summer birds began to congregate in con-
siderable numbers upon the telegraph wires, and
the roofs of barns. These meetings were held
daily, and their numbers continued to increase.
Soon it became apparent that some important
event was about to take place. Sometimes large
companies would commence an incessant chatter-
ing, very much resembling a set of politicians
when discussing some momentous question, in
the result of which all are expecting to be bene-
fited. Presently all would rise, and after per-
forming certain gyratory evolutions, would re-
turn to their places.
The multitude then assembled were nearly all
common barn swallows, and about the 30th of
the month they left for parts unknown.
The 13th of the 8th month I saw large num-
bers of the white-bellied swallows assembled on
the "wires," but on the 14th very few were seen.
All did not leave, however, for some of this va-
riety, and a few of the former, were seen as late
as the Glh of 9th month, though they were evi-
dently young ones. A few chimney swallows
were observed the 16th of 8th month.
The 2nd of 9th month I saw from fifty to sixty
white-bellied swallows in a distance of about two
and a half miles, 23 in one flock, and upwards
of 30 in another ; a few barn swallows were with
them. A considerable portion of the whole were
scarcely full-fledged. In another place I saw a
large number, probably more than a hundred, on
a dead tree by the side of a mill-pond. Thty
performed various evolutions, such as they usu-
ally do when collected in other places. I have
no idea that they were preparing to take a dive
into the mud. They are too lively and too beau-
tiful to hybernate in such quarters. It is much
more reasonable to suppose they were preparing
for a long journey, and that they soon took their
flight to more genial climes. The 6th I saw thir-
teen swallows of the same variety as the last, and
I do not recollect that I saw any after that day.
Bloonifield, C. W., 1859. L. Vaknet.
For the New England Farmer.
Mr. Editor : — Among all I have read on this
subject, I do not recollect any description of the
attending circumstances, or, as a physician would
say, any statement of the "symptoms." And, it
appears to me that it is misapprehending or over-
looking these, which has led to such a variety
of opinions relative to the cause ; I mean, when
the rot prevails so as to constitute an epidemic.
[ have observed, somewhat particularly, these
attending circumstances, and I have noticed that
they were essentially alike, every year the rot
has prevailed. The disease commences its rav-
ages the last half of August, usually ; sometimes,
between the first and tenth of September. The
potato vines are green and luxuriant, and the tu-
bers unripe. The thermometer ranges from sev-
enty-six to eighty degrees in the shade ; the wind
southerly, usually south-west, and blows very
briskly ; there is more or less rain — not often a
great quantity ; frequently only a heavy mist,
sometimes attended with fog. Such, according
to my observation, have uniformly been the symp-
toms attending the potato disease. If we have
a cold rain, or hot, dry weather, or if the potato
vines are dead and the tubers ripe, I have never
known the rot to prevail. In the same field I
have had early potatoes by the side of late ones;
the former were uninjured, the latter rotted bad-
ly. Last year, I planted a part of my early po-
tatoes quite late, the last of May ; the last of
August, when the rot commenced, the vines were
growing, were very green, the tubers were un-
ripe, and they were diseased worse than any
other kind I raised ; while those that were plant-
ed early, were unaff'ected ; and, indeed, I had
never had this kind, (early blues,) rot before.
The mischief to the potato, under the above
circumstances, is done very suddenly. I have
noticed the tops to begin to wilt and turn black
in a few hours, and the tubers to be afi'ected,
after the first indications appeared. The conclu-
sion to which I came, the second year the rot
prevailed, was, that it was produced by atmos-
pheric influence, combined with the circumstan-
ces mentioned above ; the juice of the top is poi-
NEW ENGLAND FARMER.
soned, or converted into a gangrene, which kills
the top, and descends to the tuber, producing
disease and decay.
If the above is correct, then it overthrows the
bug theory, which has been so confidently ad-
vanced. But the advocates of that theory will
ask me, probably, why we never witnessed such
effect from the atmosphere prior to 1843 ? I can
answer them only in the Yankee fashion, by ask-
ing them why we never had such bugs before
that year ? Was that bug created then ? Or was
it bioui;ht into existence by a cross between two
previously existing genus? Or if the bug exist-
ed previously to 1843, were its habits so changed
that it teased to feed on what it could not poison,
and con.menced living on the potato? But it
seems this is only a microscoj)ic bug, i. e., im-
perceptible to the naked eye. Every efiect must
have an adequate cause. Can so small a bug
produce such effects as to cause thousands of
busheKs of potatoes to rot? I have no doubt
the microscope reveals animaleula? living on po-
tatoes ; it does preying upon the thigh of a gnat,
and floating in the purest water. But I would
as soon believe that the ox, which died after
drinking, was killed by the animalculte, which
the microscope revealed in the water from which