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HISTORY

of the

Kansas State Council
of Defense




Edited by
FRANK W. BLACKMAR



IMilMIEl) V.X KANSAS STATE PRINTINO 1>I,AN 1'
E. E. KELLKY. ACTINr; SxATK PHINI'KK .
TOI'EKA, KAN. 1931

.S-54.S7



HISTORY



OF THE



Kansas State
Council of Defense




EDITED BY

FRANK W. BLACKMAR



December, 1920



PEINTED BY KANSAS STATE PRINTING PI/ANT

E. E. KEIiliET, ACTING State Pkinteu

TOPEKA, KAKT. 19 21

8-5487



11 ^^ '



»)»llil . ><il ^ M» < M» t lll| —



"" UMASV OF eONSRESS

N0V25T921



PREFACE.



It is a very difficult matter to recount all of the activities and services
of the Kansas State Council of Defense. It was so busy in trying to
make world history that it failed to take note of its own records, so that
when the Council of Defense closed its work in December, 1918, although
a vast deal of work had been done, many things had been begun which
were stopped in their midst on account of the sudden closing of the war.
As soon as possible people dropped warlike pursuits and devoted them-
selves to the work of peace. This left the records of the work of many
committees, and especially of the counties, in considerable confusion.

The editor of this report, which attempts to give a portrayal of the
organization and activities of the State Council of Defense, has found
great difficulty in collecting the facts regarding the work actually done.
In some counties, for instance, where they did persistent and vigorous
work careful records were not kept, while in others where not any more
work was done everything was carefully recorded. The same is true of
the general committees; some of those who were most active did not have
elaborate reports, while others reported everything in full. Under such
circumstances it has been very difficult to obtain a complete record of
service and to give proportionate space to the work of the counties and
to the general committees. Some of the committee reports necessarily
had to be abbreviated to keep them from being out of proportion, and
others were necessarily brief; otherwise the volume would be extended
to great length.

The editor is very grateful to those who assisted him in furnishing
information and records of the transactions of the county organizations
and of the state committees. If in the analysis of material an apparent
injustice has been done to certain groups of people and certain localities,
it has been entirely unintentional; the editor has done the best he could
under the circumstances. It must be kept in mind that it was difficult
to get the cooperation of people in certain sections of the state in furnish-
ing material.

No such organization had ever been established in the state before,
because no such need had ever occurred, and the shifting scenes of war
gave constant changes in organization and activities of the Council of
Defense, although its purpose, that of support of the war in general, and
the boys at the front in particular, was never lost sight of. Every
individual member of the Kansas Council of Defense held himself in
readiness to do everything in his power to forward the movement, and
there was complete unanimity of purpose, perfect cooperation and abso-
lute consecration to the cause by every member of the Council.

It is a pleasure 'to record this, and an equal pleasure to write of the
untiring efforts of Governor Arthur Capper and President Henry J.
Waters, as well as members of the many committees who spent their en-
tire time and energy freely for the great purpose of the Council in the



4 History of Kansas Council of Defense.

support of the war. Not in the history of the state, and I am inclined to
think in the history of any other state, was shown greater zeal or more
faithful cooperation of a distinguished body of citizens working for the
common good without any compensation. The small expense attached to
the' Council of Defense compared with the amount of work it accomplished
is a most commendable phase of the services of the men and women of
the state over a period of nearly two years.

This could not have been accomplished without the hearty cooperation
of the State Board of Agriculture, the State Agricultural College at
Manhattan, the University of Kansas at Lawrence, the State Board of
Health, women's clubs, and other organizations.

It is important to note that the State Council of Defense received the
hearty cooperation of the Woman's Committee of the State Council, which
was organized under the Council of National Defense, and of various
other national organizations.

The editor hopes that this report will be a worthy chapter in the his-
tory of the state and an inspiration to people in the future should any
similar service be required of her people to defend their citizenship.

F. W. B.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PAGE

Preface 3

List of Officers 8

List of Members 8

List of Standing Committees 9

Kansas in the Great War, Ex-Governor Arthur Capper 13

An Over-Seas View of Kansas in the War, Governor H. J. Allen 15

The Work of the Kansas Council of Defense, H. J. Waters 17

Organization of the State Council of Defense, F. W. Blackmar 20

Summary of the Work on Agricultural Production, W. M. Jardine 36

Reports of Sub-Committees on Agricultural Production:

Fruit, 0. F. Whitney ." 49

Gardening and Canning, Edward C. Johnson 48

Horse and Machine Power, J. C. Mohler 52

Insects, George Dean and S. J. Hunter 50

General Report of State Board of Agriculture 53

Committee on County and Community Organization, Edward C.

Johnson and Walter Burr 55

Committee on Highways Transport, W. C. Markham 60

Committee on Labor, A. J. Johnson 62

Committee on Legislation, L. H. Wulfekuhler 63

Committee on Mineral Resources, Robert A. Gray 62

Committee on Public Defense, Frank W. Blackmar 64

State Committee of Research 66

Legal Advisory Committee of State and Counties, Frank W. Blackmar . . 66

Committee on Publicity, Frank P. MacLennan 68

Committee on Public Relations, Frank Strong 68

Committee on Priority, H. J. Waters 74

Committee on Social Hygiene. S. J. Crumbine 76

Committee on Speakers' Bureau, Walter Burr 78

Committee on Seed Wheat, L. H. Wulfekuhler 86

Committee on Utilization and Economy, Mrs. Mary Belleville-Brown. . 89
County Activities:

Allen County 91

Anderson County 91

Atchison County 91

Barber County 91

Barton County 92

Bourbon County 92

Brown County . 93

Butler County 93

Chase County . . . .' 93

Chatauqua County 94

Cherokee County 95

Cheyenne County 95

Clark County 95

Clay County 95

(5) •



History of Kansas Council of Defense.

Cloud County 95

Coffey County 95

Comanche County 95

Cowley County 96

Crawford County 96

Decatur County 97

Dickinson County 98

Doniphan County 98

Douglas County 98

Edwards County 99

Elk County 99

Ellis County 100

Ellsworth County 100

Finney County 100

Ford County 101

Franklin County 101

Geary County 101

Gove County 101

Graham County 101

Grant County 101

Gray County 101

Greeley County 103

Greenwood County 103

Hamilton County 104

Harper County 104

Harvey County 104

Haskell County 104

Hodgeman County '. . 104

Jackson County 104

Jefferson County 104

Jewell County 104

Johnson County 105

Kearny County 105

Kingman County 105

Kiowa County 105

Labette County 105

Lane County 105

Leavenworth County 105

Lincoln County 106

Linn County 108

Logan County 108

Lyon County 108

Marion County 110

Marshall County 109

McPherson County 109

Meade County 109

Miami County 109

Mitchell County 109

Montgomery County 110

Morris County 1 10



History of Kansas Council of Defense. 7

Morton County HO

Nemaha County ." HO

Neosho County , HO

Ness County HI

Norton County H4

Osage County H5

Osborne County H5

Ottawa County H6

Pawnee County H'^

Phillips County H7

Pottawatomie County 117

Pratt County H7

Rawlins County 118

Reno County 118

Republic County 119

Rice County 119

Riley County "... , , H9

Rooks County 119

Rush County 124

Russell County 125

Saline County , 127

Scott County : 127

Sedgwick County 127

Seward County 128

Shawnee County 128

Sheridan County 128

Sherman County 128

Smith County 129

Stafford County 129

Stanton County 129

Stevens County 129

Sumner County 129

Thomas County 129

Trego County 129

Wabaunsee County 130

Wallace County 130

Washington County 130

Wichita County 130

Wilson County 130

Woodson County ^ 130

Wyandotte County 130

Woman's Council of Defense for Kansas 131

Food Administration for Kansas 134



History of Kansas Council of Defense.
OFFICERS STATE COUNCIL OF DEFENSE.



Governor Arthur Capper, Honorary President.

April 17, 1917 — December 31, 1918.

Governor Henry J. Allen, Honorary President.

January 1, 1918 — -

Henry J. Waters, President Manhattan.

J. C. Mohler, Secretary Topeka.

T. D. Hammatt, Assistant Secretary Topeka.

Walter L. Payne, Treasurer Topeka.

VICE PRESIDENTS.

First District CoRA Wellhouse Bullard. . Tonganoxie.

Second District Charles F. Scott lola.

Third District E. V. Lanyon Pittsburg.

Fourth District William Allen White.... Emporia.

Fifth District Maurice McAuliffe Salina.

Sixth District W. A. Lewis Hays.

Seventh District Emerson Carey Hutchinson.

Eighth District Henry Lassen Wichita.

members.

W. M. Amos Topeka.

F. W. Blackmar Lavirrence.

O. A. Boyle Wichita.

W. A. Brandenburg Pittsburg.

Mrs. May Belleville Brown Salina.

W. E. Brown Augusta.

Thomas W. Butcher Emporia,

J. F. Cochrane Kansas City,

J. N, DoLLEY ; . , Topeka,

D. J. Fair Sterling.

F. C. Fox Topeka.

Charles S. Gleed Topeka.

Robert A. Gray Weir City.

A, H, GuFLER Emporia,

W, M, Jardine Manhattan.

A, J, Johnson Wichita, •

Ed, C, Johnson Manhattan,

Frank P, MacLennan . , , Topeka,

Charles I. Martin Topeka,

Clyde W, Miller Osage City,

B, Needham Lane.

Mrs, Noble Prentis Topeka.

W, D, Ross Topeka,

Mrs, Theodore Saxon Topeka.

Frank Strong Lawrence.

W. R. Stubbs Lawrence.

Edwin Taylor Edwardsville.

O, F, Whitney Topeka,

L. H. Wulfekuhler Leavenworth.



History of Kansas Council of Defense.



STANDING COMMITTEES.

Agricultural Production.



A. M. Jardine, Chairman, Manhattan.
Ex-Gov. W. R. Stubbs, Lawrence.

D. J. Pair, Sterling.

B. Needham, Lane.
Maurice McAuliffe, Salina.
O. F. Whitney, Topeka.
Edwin Taylor, Edwardsville.



W. A. Lewis, Hays.

Mrs. Theo. Saxon, Topeka.

Mrs. Cora Wellhouse BuUard, Tonganoxie.

F. D. Coburn, Topeka.

W. J. Tod, Maple Hill.

J. H. Mercer, Topeka.

Francis D. Farrell, Manhattan.



Subcommittees of the CoTnmittee on Agricultural Production.



Field Crops, Seeds and Soils.
C. J. Fair, Chairman, Topeka.
L. E. Call, Secretary, Manhattan.
W. A. Lewis, Hays.
Charles W. Weeks, Hays.

B. Needham, Lane.

J. M. Gilman, Leavenworth.
Barteldes Seed Co., Lawrence.
Ross Bros. Seed House, Topeka.
Hayes Seed House, Topeka.
Mangelsdorf Bros., Atchison.
Rule Seed House, Kansas City, Mo.
G. E. Thompson, Manhattan.
Harry Umbarger, Manhattan.
H. M. Bainer, Topeka.
W. J. Miller, Topeka.

Live Stock.
W. R. Stubbs, Chairman, Lawrence.
W. A. Cochel, Secretary, Manhattan.
W. J. Tod, Maple Hill.
J. H. Mercer, Topeka.
L. W,. Goss, Manhattan.

E. C. Johnson, Manhattan.
W. H. Murphy, Topeka.

F. D. Coburn, Topeka.

L. E. Hobbs, Manhattan.

J. F. Cochrane, Kansas City, Kan.

C. 0. Cochrane, Hays.

J. A. Hineman, Dighton.
John A. Edwards, Eureka.

Potatoes and Truck Crops.
Edwin Taylor, Chairman, Edwardsville.
Fred Merrill, Secretary, Manhattan.
Scott Kelsey, Topeka.
E. B. Matthews, Hays.
Mrs. Theo. Saxon, Topeka.

Fruit.
O. F. Whitney, Chairman, Topeka.
Geo. O. Greene, Secretary, Manhattan.
Albert Dickens, Manhattan.
Geo. R. Groh, Wathena.
Geo. W. Holsinger, Rosedale.
E. G. Hoover, Wichita.
E. E. Yaggy, Hutchinson.
Jas. Homer Sharps, Council Grove.



Dairying.
O. E. Reed, Chairman, Manhattan.
A. S. Neale, Secretary, Manhattan.
W. R. Stubbs, Lawrence.
Wm. Newlin, Hutchinson.
E. E. Fitter, Sterling.
Lewis Crouse, Hays.

Plant Diseases.
L. E. Melchers, Chairman, Manhattan.
A. J. Mix, Secretary, Lawrence.
J. D. Morrill, Manhattan.
C. E. Thompson, Manhattan.

Gardening and Canning.
E. C. Johnson, Chairman, Manhattan.
Otis E. Hall, Secretary, Manhattan.
Mrs. Hattie Moore Mitchell, Pittsburg.
E. B. Matthews, Hays.
0. P. Whitney, Topeka.
M. F. Ahearn, Manhattan.
Miss Elizabeth Bye, Emporia.
Mrs. J. M. Timmons, Bonner Springs.

Poultry.
George Beuoy, Chairman, Cedarvale.
Ross M. Sherwood, Secretary, Manhattan.
H. A. Perry, Seymour Packing Co., Topeka
Thomas Owen, Topeka.
G. D. McClaskey, Topeka.
W. Hanna, Atchison.
W. H. Ward, Nickerson.

Live Stock Diseases and Control.
J. H. Mercer, Chairman, Topeka.
Dr. B. W. Murphy, Secretary, Topeka.
Dr. O. O. Wolf, Ottawa.
Dr. C. W. Hobbs, Manhattan.
Dr. L. W. Goss, Manhattan.
E. C. Johnson, Manhattan.

Horse and Machine Power.
J. C. Mohler, Chairman, Topeka.
K. J. T. Ekblaw, Manhattan.
W. E. Grimes, Manhattan.
T. M. Wood, Hays.
O. E. Wright, Topeka.
H. Umberger, Manhattan.



10



History of Kansas Council of Defense.



Dr. C. W. McCampbell, Manhattan.
W. H. Sanders, Manhattan.
F. A. Wirt, Manhattan.
Hugh McVey, Topeka.

Insects.
George A. Dean, Chairman, Manhattan.
S. J. Hunter, Secretary, Lawrence.
O. F. Whitney, Topelca.
J. H. Merrill, Manhattan.
O. E. Kelley, U. S. D. A., Wellington.



Dr. Milligan, U. S. D. A., Wichita.
T. H. Parks, Manhattan.
P. W. Classen, Lawrence.

Injurious Mammals {gophers, rats, etc.).
R. K. Nabours, Chairman, Manhattan.
Dr. Lee R. Dice, Secretary, Manhattan.
Dr. B. M. Allen, Lawrence.
Dr. O. P. Dollinger, Pittsburg.
Dr. J. E. Ackert, Manhattan.
W. C. Tegmeier, Manhattan.



County and Conmnunity Organization.

Edward C. Johnson, Chairman, Manhattan. L. H. Wulfekuhler, Leavenworth.

Maurice McAuliffe, Salina. Henry Lassen, Wichita.

B. Needham, Lane. Mrs. Cora Wellhouse Bullard, Tonganoxie.

W. D. Ross, Topeka. Mrs. Theo. Saxon, Topeka'.

Dr. W. A. Lewis, Hays. Mrs. H. O. Garvey, Topeka.

Emerson Carey, Hutchinson.



Educational Cooperation.



W. D. Ross, Chairman, Topeka.
Thomas W. Butcher, Emporia.
W. A. Brandenburg, Pittsburg.
W. A. Lewis, Hays.
F. J. Kelly, Lawrence.
E. L. Holton, Manhattan.



C. F. Scott, lola.

0. P. Whitney, Topeka.

Mrs. H. O. Garvey, Topeka.

J. O. Ha'll, Hutchinson.

Anna Crouch, Co. Supt., Alma, i



Subcomonittee on Educational Cooperation.

Educational Efficiency.
E. T. Hackney, Chairman, Wellington. P. Caspar Havey, Hays.

Kate S. Herman, Olathe. W. A. Brandenburg, Pittsburg.

Lee Harrison, Kansas City. Charles Salser, Emporia.

Albert Dickens, Manhattan.

Emergency.

Gov. Arthur Capper, Chairman, Topeka.
H. J. Waters, Manhattan.
Gov. W. R. Stubbs, Lawrence.

Finance.

Gov. Arthur Capper, Chairman, Topeka'.



Henry Lassen, Wichita.
Dr. W. A. Lewis, Hays.



L. H. Wulfekuhler, Leavenworth.
W. R. Stubbs, Lawrence.



Emerson Carey, Hutchinson.
Henry Lassen, Wichita.



Financial Aid.



Gov. Arthur Capper, Chairman.

Topeka.
First District, L. H. Wulfekuhler,

Leavenworth.
Second District, Gov. W. R. Stubbs,

Lawrence.
Third District, E. V. Lanyon,

Pittsburg.
Fourth District, Charles W. Thompson,

Marion.

Highways Transport.

W. C. Markham, Chairman, Topeka.



Fifth District, Walter E. Wilson,

Washington.
Sixth District, C. G. Cochrane,

Hays.
Seventh District, Emerson Carey,

Hutchinson.
Eighth District, Henry Lassen,

Wichita.



History of Kansas Council of Defense.



11



Labor.



A. J. Johnson, Chairman, Wichita.

Paul McBride, Topeka.

W. M. Amos, Topeka.

R. L. Hopkins, Garden City.



D. J. Fair, Sterling.

C. D. Resler, Chanute.

M. M. Sherman, Crawford.



Legislation.



L. H. Wulfekuhler, Chairman, Leavenworth. S. M. Brewster, Topeka.
Arthur Capper, Topeka. Mrs. D. W. Mulvane, Topeka.

Fred Voiland, Topeka.

Manufactures.



J. F. Cochrane, Chairman, Kansas City.
E. V. Lanyon, Pittsburg.
Henry Lassen, Wichita.
John Seaton, Atchison.
Harry Darby, Kansas City.



J. D. Bowersock, Lawrence.
H. J. Helmers, Leavenworth.
H. N. Strait, Kansas City.
A. E. Shulthie, Independence.
J. F. Haskell, Topeka.



Mineral Resources.



Robert Gray, Coal, Weir City.
W. E. Brown, Oil, Augusta.



Emerson Carey, Salt, Hutchinson.
F. V. Lanyon, Zinc, Pittsburg.



Public Defense.



Prof. P. W. Blackmar, Chairman, Lawrence. Clyde Miller, Topeka.
Charles S. Huffman, Topeka. J. K. Codding, Lansing.

H. A. Mendenhall, Kansas City. J. N. DoUey, Topeka.

Sub-Committees of Covimission on Public Defense.



Hospitals, Physicians and Surgeons.
Charles F. Huffman, Colu^cibus.
Dr. J. R. Everhardy, Leavenworth.
Dr. M. T. Sudler, Rosedale.
Dr. 0. D. Walker, Salina.
Dr. W. W. Basham, Wichita.
Dr. John S. Sundwall, Lawrence.
Dr. Chas. Silverthorne, Topeka.
Dr. Sherman L. A.xford, Dodge City.
Dr. Henry Smith, Washington.
Dr. George M. Gray, Kansas City, Kan.

Home Guard.
Jas. A. Kimball, Salina.
John Forrest Dillon, Topeka.
Samuel F. Woolard, Wichita.
Col. N. R. Rahn, Topeka.
J. K. Codding, Lansing.
J. M. Dolley, Topeka.
W. Y. Morgan, Hutchinson.
C. K. Poindexter, Kansas City, Kan.

Chemical Products.

Prof. H. B. Dains, Chairman, University of
Kansas, Lawrence.

Prof. J. C. Willard, Agric. College, Man-
hattan.

Prof. D. L. Randall, Baker Univ., Baldwin.

Prof. F. H. Debenkelear, Washburn Col-
lege, Topeka.

Prof» S. Dunlavy, Southwestern College,
Winfield.



Vagrancy.
J. K. Codding, Chairman, Lansing.
W. D. Bodenhofer,. Lawrence.
J. N. Herr, Hutchinson.
Mrs. J. M. Miller, Council Grove.
Judge J. T. Ruppenthal, Russell.
F. W. Blackmar, Lawrence.

Central State Legal Committee.

Judge T. F. Garver, Topeka.
J. A. Troutman, Topeka.
Robert Stone, Topeka.
Jas. F. Getty, Kansas City, Kan.
Prank Nighswonger, Wichita.

Red Cross Work.

Miss Conklin, Chairman, Topeka.
John N. Vandervries, Lawrence.
Chas. A. Dodd, Waverly.
Miss Marguerite Koontz, Topeka.
Miss Loula Kennedy, Manhattan.

Recruiting for Volunteer Service.

Hon. A. M. Keene, Chairman, Fort Scott.
Senator R. B. Barr, Secretary, Fort Scott.
Members of 1917 state legislature.

American Protective League.^

F. W. Blackmar, Lawrence.
Fred Voiland, Topeka.



12 History of Kansas Council of Defense.

Publicity.

N. A. Crawford, Piihlicity Agent, Manhattan. Charles J. Dillon, Topeka.
Frank P. MacLeniian, Chairman, Topeka. George C. Wheeler, Topeka.
William Allen White, Emporia. J. K. Codding, Lansing.

Henry Allen, Wichita. J. N. Dolle.v, Topeka.

Charles F. Scott, lola. Mrs. H. O. Garvey, Topeka.

Public Relations.

Chancellor Frank Strong, Chairman, Supt. W. D. Ross, Topeka.

Lawrence. Thomas W. Butcher, Emporia.

Victor Murdock, Wichita. Sheffield Ingalls, Atchison.

George H. Hodges, Olathe. W. A. Brandenburg, Pittsburg.

E. W. Hoch, Marion. W. N. Mason, Baldwin City.
Ed. T. Hackney, Wellington.

Priority.
Dr. H. J. Watei's, Chairman, Kansas City, George H. Hodges, Olathe.

Kan. Henry Bennett, Topeka.

W. C. Edwards, Wichita.

Resolutions.
Gov. Arthur Capper, Chairman, Topeka. Mrs. Noble Prentis, Topeka.

W. D. Ross, Topeka. Chancellor Frank Strong, Lawrence.

Mrs. Theo. Saxon, Topeka. O. A. Boyle, Wichita.

Social Hygiene.

S. J. Crumbine, Chairman, Topeka.

Seed Wheat.

P. W. Goebel, Chairman, Kansas City, Kan. T. D. Kennedy, Junction City.

L. H. Wulfkuhler, Leavenworth. Henry Lassen, Wichita.

Arthur Capper, Topeka. * Maurice McAuliffe, Salina.

Walter E. Wilson, Topeka. H. J. Waters, Manhattan.
T. J. Sweeney, Lawrence.

Seed Office.

C. V. Topping, Chairman, Wichita. G. D. Estes, Stafford.

T. D. Hammatt, Vice Chairman. P. A. Derby, Topeka.

Ti^ansportation.

F. C. Fox, Chairman, Topeka. R. W. Blair, Topeka.
Charles Gleed, Topeka. A. DeBernardi, Atchison.
Paul Walker, Topeka.

Utilization and Economy.

Mrs. May Belleville Brown, Chairman, Mrs. Noble Prentis, Topeka.

Topeka. Mrs. Mary P. VanZile, Manhattan.

Mrs. D. W. Mulvane, Topeka. Miss Elizabeth Sprague, Lawrence.

J. F. Cochrane, Kansas City, Kan. Miss Elizabeth Bye, Emporia.

A. R. Gufler, Emporia. Miss Elizabeth Agnew, Hays.

O. A. Boyle, Wichita. Miss Alba Bayles, Pittsburg.
Dr. F. W. Blackmar, Lawrence.



KANSAS IN THE GREAT WAR.

Arthur Capper, War Governor of Kansas.

Every loyal Kansan is proud of the record Kansas made in the Great
War. He has reason to be. Kansas responded promptly to every call for
men, for money, for food and other supplies.

Her sons were among the first to volunteer by the thousands. The
later thousands who swelled the ranks of the national army went cheer-
fully, gladly, proudly, filled with the same patriotism that inspired those
who went before.

And while they fought and sacrificed and died in France to stay the
aggression of Prussianism and save the world to civilization, their
fathers, mothers, sisters and sweethearts toiled and saved and gave
until it hurt.

It is not the purpose of this report to try and tell what the Kansas
boys did in France. That is history. Their deeds are immortal. They
offered their lives for the right. They laid down their lives for their
country. They did their duty courageously, patriotically, unfalteringly.
Their soul is the soul of Kansas and the nation. Their sacrifice is the
glory of mankind. Words cannot do them justice, nor monuments, nor
memorials. We who are left can only attempt to perpetuate their ideals.

But while her loyal sons were fighting and dying for their country,
those who remained at home were living and working and saving for the
same country. Kansas, as a state, was in the forefront of home activities
that made it possible for the boys abroad to break down the morale of
the Huns and finally crush those enemies of mankind.

Kansas went over the top in every drive. She accoinplished what was
declared impossible in producing foodstuffs. She furnished money and
provisions for the boys at the front and did her share for the helpless
victims of a world gone mad.

Even before war was declared Kansas caught the vision of service
that was to be required. The first state council of defense in the nation
met in the governor's office at Topeka a month before the nation entered,
the conflict. Kansas buckled on her armor at the next formal meeting
on April 17 and outlined a program so comprehensive and practicable
that it afterwards was adopted, with few modifications, in the organiza-
tion of the National Council of Defense and served as a model for the
organization of other state councils.

The State Council of Defense was organized on the principle that
every man, woman and child could and would do his and her full share
toward winning the war. They did. What work was done, how it was
done, and who led in the doing, is related in more detail in the reports
of the different officers and committees in this volume.

The spirit of self-sacrifice and loyalty that dominated the work of the
State Council of Defense permeated the entire citizenry of Kansas. I
came in touch with it day after day, week after week, thru the weary
months of the war. It was evident in every city and town, in every comT

(13)



14 History of Kansas Council of Defense.

munity, on the lonely farms and in the depths of the mines, in every
home, and I believe in every heart and mind and soul in the state. It
was a period of anxiety and grief, of trouble and travail, of heartaches
and sleepless nights, but so far as I could discover from the governor's
chair never of despair or faltering.

Kansas, of course, had a few slackers — not as many as other states —
those who desired to reap the benefits but not share the responsibilities
of the American government. There were some who tried to evade their
duties. There were some who tried to obtain exemptions, when they
were not entitled to exemptions. But this much must be said for the
young men of Kansas: there were only a very few of them, comparatively,
who tried, themselves, to get exempted from the draft. Generally it
was a near relative, or even in some cases an employer who, for the
moment, magnified his business until it shut off his view of the needs of
his country, who asked exemption. Little did such employer realize that
unless the war was won no longer would there be any business for him
to do, except as a slave of the Hun. In respect to the draft, there is one
point that should be preserved in history in justice to the colored race.
There were of white men, who asked for exemption, a few; of white men,
whose fathers or mothers or other relatives or employers who asked for
their exemption, more than a few. But during the entire war I never


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