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From the collection of the
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San Francisco, California
2007



THE

Kansas Historical
Quarterly



KIRKE MECHEM, Editor

JAMES C. MALIN, Associate Editor

NYLE H. MILLER, Managing Editor




Volume XV
1947

(Kansas Historical Collections)

VOL. XXXII



Published by

The Kansas State Historical Society

Topeka, Kansas

22-102



Contents of Volume XV



Number 1 February, 1947

PAGK

WILLIAM ALLEN WHITE: COUNTRY EDITOR, 1897-1914 Walter Johnson, 1

A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE PUBLISHED WORKS OF WILLIAM

ALLEN WHITE Walter Johnson and Alberta Pantle, 22

A HOOSIER IN KANSAS; THE DIARY OF HIRAM H. YOUNG, 1886-1895,

PIONEER OF CLOUD COUNTY : Part Four, 1893. . .Edited by Powell Moore, 42

THE ANNUAL MEETING : Containing Reports of the Secretary,
Treasurer, Executive, Nominating and Membership Com-
mittees; Annual Address of the President, NEWSPAPER
ADVENTURE, Jess C. Denious; Remarks on Retirement,
George A. Root; Election of Officers; List of Directors of
the Society Kirke Mechem, Secretary, 81

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 104

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 105

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES . 109



Number 2 May, 1947

PAGI

SHIPS IN WORLD WAR II BEARING KANSAS NAMES,

Compiled by Harold J. Henderson, 113

With photographs of the following vessels (between pp. 120, 121) :
U. S. S. Hawkins, U. S. S. Kendall C. Campbell, U. S. S.
Ottawa, and the launching of the U. S. S. Topeka.

LETTERS OF JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY, 1856-1864 : Part One, 1856 127

DIFFERENCES IN WICHITA INDIAN CAMP SITES AS REVEALED BY

STONE ARTIFACTS Arch 0' Bryant, 143

A HOOSIER IN KANSAS; THE DIARY OF HIRAM H. YOUNG, 1886-1895,
PIONEER OF CLOUD COUNTY: Part Five, 1894-1895 Concluded,

Edited by Powell Moore, 151

With photographs of Hiram H. Young, facing p. 152, and other
members of the Young family, facing p. 153.

RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY,

Compiled by Helen M. McFarland, Librarian, 186

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 211

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 215

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES 221

(iii)



Number 3 August, 1947

PAGE

THE BUILDING OP THE FIRST KANSAS RAILROAD SOUTH OF THE

KAW RIVER Harold J. Henderson, 225

FOLLOWING PIKE'S EXPEDITION FROM THE SMOKY HILL TO

THE SOLOMON Theo. H. Schefier, 240

With map of Pike's route through Saline and Ottawa counties, facing
p. 240, and photographs of Sentinel Rock and Rockyfern creek,
Ottawa county, facing p. 241.

THE REPORT OF THE WTANDOT EXPLORING DELEGATION, 1831,

Edited by J. Orin Oliphant, 248

THE EARLY WORK OF THE LORETTINES IN SOUTHEASTERN

KANSAS Sister M. Lilliana Owens, S. L., 263

With sketches of the Catholic Osage Mission in 1865, facing p. 272,
and Saint Francis Parish in the 1890's, facing p. 273.

LETTERS OF JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY, 1856-1864 : Part Two, 1857 277

With a sketch of the governor's mansion at Lecompton, facing
p. 288.

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 320

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 325

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES . . .332



Number 4 November, 1947

PAGE

CHARLES CURTIS AND THE KAW RESERVATION Berlin B. Chapman, 337

With portraits of Wah-Shun-Gah, Chief of the Kaw Indians, facing
p. 344, and Vice -President Charles Curtis, facing p. 345.

A REPORT AND REMARKS ON CANTONMENT LEAVEN-
WORTH .- Edward R. DeZurko, 353

With drawing, "Plan of Cantonment Leavenworth, 1828," facing
p. 352, and portrait of Gen. Henry Leavenworth, facing p. 853.

WILLIAM E. BORAH'S YEARS IN KANSAS IN THE 1880's Waldo W. Braden, 360

With portraits of William E. Borah and Frank Lasley (1885),
facing p. 360, and Mr. and Mrs. William E. Borah (1895),
facing p. 861.

LETTERS OF JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY, 1856-1864 : Part Three, 1858 368

With reproduction of advertising lithograph of Sumner, Atchison
county (1858), facing p. 384, and photographs of "Home of
Gen. James H. Lane," and "House and Well Where Jim Lane
Shot Capt. Jenkins," facing p. 885.

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 404

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 406

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES 413

INDEX TO VOLUME XV 415

(iv)



THE

KANSAS HISTORICAL
QUARTERLY

February 1947




Published by

Kansas State Historical Society

Topeka



KIRKE MECHEM JAMES C. MALIN NYLE H. MILLER

Editor Associate Editor Managing Editor



CONTENTS



WILLIAM ALLEN WHITE: COUNTRY EDITOR, 1897-1914 Walter Johnson, 1

A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE PUBLISHED WORKS OF WILLIAM

ALLEN WHITE Walter Johnson and Alberta Pantle, 22

A HOOSIER IN KANSAS; THE DIARY OF HIRAM H. YOUNG, 1886-1895,

PIONEER OF CLOUD COUNTY: Part Four, 1893. . .Edited by Powell Moore, 42

THE ANNUAL MEETING : Containing Reports of the Secretary,
Treasurer, Executive, Nominating and Membership Com-
mittees; Annual Address of the President, NEWSPAPER
ADVENTURE, Jess C. Denious; Remarks on Retirement,
George A. Root; Election of Officers; List of Directors of
the Society Kirke Mechem, Secretary, 81

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 104

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 105

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES 109

The Kansas Historical Quarterly is published in February, May, August and
November by the Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kan., and is dis-
tributed free to members. Correspondence concerning contributions may be
sent to the editor. The Society assumes no responsibility for statements made
by contributors.

Entered as second-class matter October 22, 1931, at the post office at Topeka,
Kan., under the act of August 24, 1912.



THE COVER

William Allen White of Emporia, a distinguished native Kansan whose
voluminous writings during his fifty years as a "country editor" brought him
world fame. He was born in Emporia February 10, 1868, and died there
January 29, 1944.

Photo by Bernard Hoffman for Life magazine through whose courtesy it
is here reproduced.



THE KANSAS
HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Volume XV February, 1947 Number 1

William Allen White: Country Editor,
1897-1914

WALTER JOHNSON

WHEN two run-away Emporia boys were apprehended by the
police of Kansas City in 1913 and queried as to their reason
for leaving Emporia, the older boy stated thoughtfully: "Well,
there's nothing there but William Allen White, and we got tired
of hearing of him." l Long before this event, Emporia was
known to the outside world as the home of Bill White. His politi-
cal success on the national and state scene and his ability to write
editorials that sparkled with excellent prose and pungent phrases
had made him the leading citizen of the town within a few years
from the day that he had acquired the Gazette on borrowed money.
White's great asset was his ability to express himself in a distinctive
editorial style. "Taking the hide off somebody" was his particular
delight. "We're all beef eaters, especially Bill White," an Em-
porian told Sam Blythe in 1907, "and that's what makes him the
first-class fighting man he is. ... He's a good deal of an ideal-
ist, but he can dream and fight at the same time, which, I take it,
is a good mixture for any man. He does things and says things in
his paper that make us hopping mad, but nobody ever accuses him
of doing anything for any motive except that of his own con-
science. He gets preachy, and that makes me tired. He gets per-
sonal, and that makes some others tired. Still, he's a vital force in
Kansas, and Kansas knows it. Besides, what bully stories he can
write ! How I wish he would write more of them and let somebody
else do the preaching." 2

EDITOR'S NOTE: This article is a chapter of Dr. Walter Johnson's biography William
AUen White and His America to be published by Henry Holt March 15, 1947.

Dr. Johnson is assistant professor of history at the University of Chicago. He is editor
of The Selected Letters of William Allen White, published by Holt in January, 1947.

1. The Advance, Chicago, v. 66 (November 27, 1913), p. 403.

2. Samuel G. Blythe, "William Allen White," The Saturday Evening Post, Philadelphia,
v. 179, June 15, 1907, pp. 20, 22.



2 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

The Emporia editor remarked in 1926 that the years from 1895 to
World War I were "the most fruitful and happy years of my life." 3
A considerable portion of the money that he received from his
countless magazine articles and books was poured into improving the
Gazette, constructing an office building, and buying a home for his
family. For all of White's belief that small town papers, which
devoted themselves to local news and local color would be a success,
he had to pour a share of his outside earnings into the Gazette. If
he had spent his full time running the paper, he undoubtedly could
have earned a moderate yearly income. But to travel as extensively
as he did, to take lengthy vacations in Colorado, to own a comfort-
able home and entertain out-of-town guests with great frequency
necessitated a far larger income than the Gazette could have pro-
duced. The twentieth century trend toward more and more ex-
pensive machinery for the back shop, too, required a larger sum of
money than an ordinary Emporia editor might have had at hand.
The purchase of such machinery would have forced most editors
to borrow from the banks, but White had sufficient outside income
to free himself of any bank control of the paper.

By 1904 the Gazette, now the principal paper of Lyon county, had
a circulation of 2,000 daily and 2,000 weekly copies. Six years
later, when White was in the thick of the progressive fight, the paper
reached a 3,000 circulation. After the failure of the Emporia Re-
publican, no other daily was able to threaten White's newspaper su-
premacy. Not only did White have money coming in from outside
writing, but he was a hard working, shrewd newspaper man. "Look
at that face, pink and white, fat and sweet, as featureless and inno-
cent as a baby's bottom!", remarked a town enemy in 1899. "But
by God don't let that fool you!"

During the bitter days of the insurgent revolt against Taft,
White's political enemies, both in Emporia and in the state backed
a rival paper, the Emporia Journal. On January 16, 1909 ; the fol-
lowing editorial appeared in the Gazette:

There is something sad in the announcement of the Emporia Daily Journal
that it has printed its "last copy." Because, on the whole, Emporia has never
had a more sincere, conscientious attempt to establish an independent, uncon-
trolled daily newspaper. Editor Mickey has done his best, and his best has
had this immense advantage over the best of many other predecessors it has
been clean, honest, and unprejudiced. No one controlled him. And his in-
ability to make it go, carries with it no stigma of failure. He has fought a
\manly fight, and insofar as one wins who maintains his integrity, he has

3. To Helen Mahin, October 7, 1926.



WHITE: COUNTRY EDITOR, 1897-1914 3

won. But those who tempted him into this venture, by telling him what
marvelous success he might achieve fighting the Gazette, deserve censure for
their treachery. They abandoned him cruelly. They gave no support to his
venture. They saw him spending his own good money and offered no help.
They should bear whatever of opprobrium attaches to his failure not he; for
his is no failure. He was talked into a foolish venture by men with axes to
grind. They found an honest man, and they left him to find out their per-
fidy. But what an old story this all is in this profession. No American town,
north, south, east or west, is too large or unfortunately too small to have
this very tragedy enacted. Every newspaper, in the nature of things, makes
enemies. To tell the truth it must make enemies. But its enemies, often, are
the best thing about a newspaper. They are its assets. They are its chief
source of strength in a town. But when they see a newspaper man about to
enter a town, they flock to him with stones, and tell him what a snap it will
be to do up the other editor. They exaggerate the other man's mistakes.
They make the new man belie v that the town is just naturally yearning
for a bright, newsy, crisp, spicy paper. These adjectives are as old as the
business. Always they are the same. They are the sticky flypaper upon which
a new editor always lights to his sorrow. And then, when once he is down,
the adjectives pull him to his death. If he is bright, his new-found friends
criticise him. If he tries to be newsy, they ask him to suppress items. If
he makes his paper crisp and different, they say he is too fresh, and if he
would make it spicy, they say he is indecent. In the end, he prints his vale-
dictory. . . .

White became convinced from his own experience with these
papers backed by his political enemies that a newspaper did not
succeed upon "its political beliefs, but upon its ability to get reli-
able news quickly to the people." White always discouraged his
progressive friends from launching a paper "as a political and not
as a business venture." When a paper was the only daily in a given
town, White firmly believed that its news columns should be opened
equally to both sides in a controversy. During an important elec-
tion over a street car franchise in 1911, for instance, White adopted
the policy of giving space one day to one side and the next day to
the other side as the only way of being fair to the community.

Although White believed that the news columns should present all
sides of a question, he was absolutely convinced that the editorial
page should have a definite point of view. At a time when many
American papers were starting to neglect their editorial page, White
gave his editorials the very best writing that he could command.
His expressive, vigorous language frequently stirred the wrath of
his opponents. In 1899, for instance, a gentleman named Luther
Severy, failing to secure the Republican nomination for mayor, ran
as an independent. White turned his scathing editorial pen on the
man, and one day as he passed Severy, Severy struck him on the



4 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

back of the head with a heavy cane and knocked him to the
ground. A bystander later called White a coward, and White struck
this fellow in the face. The crowd that quickly gathered broke up
the fight and White and Severy were taken into court for fighting
and using abusive and indecent language. Severy plead guilty,
and his fine was paid through a subscription circulated by White's
enemies. White was acquitted of any guilt in the affair. When
Severy tried to claim, however, that White was facing him when he
struck, White noted in an editorial that

Without desiring to question the veracity of the two gentlemen who swore
that Severy was standing in front of W. A. White when he struck the blow
that felled him, the Gazette desires to offer in evidence, as exhibit "A," one
head, size 7% with a large lump directly in the back, and one $35 suit of
clothes with mud down the front and not a spot behind, as exhibit "B." . . . 4

Although other Kansas editors expressed sorrow over the incident,
the rival Republican announced that it was just what White de-
served since the Gazette was "too free in its criticisms of persons and
things." 5 Then, Severy was presented with a new cane 6 in the Re-
publican office! Such physical mishaps as the Severy affair, how-
ever, never tempered the vigorous language that White used in his
editorials.

When White first started his career in country-town journalism,
papers were usually owned by a particular economic group and the
editor simply served as their mouthpiece. White, always seeking
individual freedom, was wary of placing himself in such a position.
Although he had had to borrow money to buy the Gazette, his out-
side earnings soon freed him of any responsibility to Emporia's
wealthy for the Gazette's editorial position. For the rest of his
lifetime, he carried out the following editorial creed: "What we
want, and what we shall have is the royal American privilege of
living and dying in a country town, running a country newspaper,
saying what we please when we please, how we please and to whom
we please." 7 At about the turn of the century, White was offered
all the printing of a great railroad. "It would have made me inde-
pendently rich," White recalled. But he knew that by taking it he
would have lost his freedom. He would rather work hard at editing

4. Emporia Gazette, April 8, 1899.

5. Emporia Daily Republican, April 7, 1899.

6. Ibid., April 14.

7. Emporia Gazette, December 6, 1911.



WHITE: COUNTRY EDITOR, 1897-1914 5

and writing and be free to speak his mind than to eat the "exotic
food" of the plutocrats and have to execute their policies. 8

White was extremely sensitive to any attempts at influencing his
editorial policy. When there was a fight between two telephone
companies in Emporia, one company tried to use an intermediary
to secure a favorable editorial. In a state of indignation, White
wrote the company on May 25, 1900, that

... if you have any communication to make regarding the policy of the
Gazette, or its editorial announcements, kindly make them directly to me,
and not to some other party in this town whom you may fancy has some
influence with me. ... It is particularly annoying to me, and it must be
very annoying to anyone else, to assume that anyone is responsible for
anything in the Gazette except the man who owns it. ...

White not only believed fc that an editor should be a teacher,
preacher, philosopher, and friend to all, but he told his readers that
no honest newspaperman should truckle to his constituency. When
the readers were wrong on a question, the editor should say so and
not take the easy way out of agreeing with them. "Every paper
that amounts to anything makes people violently angry" was his
firm conviction. 9 When he was asked in 1903 to analyze why his
paper was a success, he observed that

... it seems to me that the essence of success in a newspaper is wisely
directed courage. All the struggles I have had have been due to mistakes I
make in temporizing with evil. Whenever the Gazette has been brave and fair
it has been easy enough to get money to pay off Saturday night, but when the
Gazette has acted the demagogue, it has been hard work to make the paper
go. Character is the one essential to running a successful newspaper, whether
the success is financial or political. The best epigram ever made about a
newspaper was made by the late Secretary of Agriculture Sterling Morton who
said: "A newspaper's foes are its assets and its friends its liabilities." It is
the man who wants you to keep something out that eats the vitality out of the
bank account. . . . 10

Consistency in editorial opinion was no virtue to White. He was
never reluctant to change a point of view when new facts appeared.
What he desired was to reflect the events of the day in the light of
the truth as he understood the truth. But, as he so often demon-
strated, "The Gazette has no policy today, that it will not abandon
tomorrow, if the facts change, upon which yesterday's stand was
taken." n

8. White to Frank Buxton, December 22, 1938; to writer, interview, November 27, 1941.

9. Emporia Gazette, December 27, 1902 ; October 21, 1901.

10. To the Success Company, October 9, 1903.

11. Emporia Gazette, December 19, 1913.



6 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

White could write editorials in many moods. A fellow Emporian
was once quoted as saying that

Bill, you know, considers himself a sort of moral regenerator for the town, the
State, the Republican party and the nation at times, and when he is in one
of those moods he makes the fur fly. . . . You get different lights on Bill
White. Sometimes you think he takes himself so seriously that it must be
painful to him, and at other times he seems to be as frivolous as one of our
society buds. Once in a while he writes an essay that is so solemn and so
full of high lights and uplifts that you think he has taken a running jump
and landed in a pulpit somewhere, and then he sets the town to grinning and
guessing with a paragraph like this one I find on the first page of to-day's
Gazette: "An Emporia man and an Emporia young woman are giving con-
siderable attention to the same vacant house. Their friends are looking every
morning in the mail for the invitations." 12

White frequently used the device of printing a rumor about him-
self, and then editorializing on the subject. On April 8, 1905, he
remarked that there was a rumor that he kept liquor in his cellar.
''This is a malicious and unspeakable falsehood," White declared.
"The liquor is kept in the pantry, between the dining room and the
kitchen. Why not tell the truth? It is also alleged that the editor
of the Gazette has the gout, caused by high living. Yesterday for
dinner he had home-picked sour-dock, mustard, dandelion, horse-
radish and beet-top greens, boiled bacon, and potatoes, corn bread
and onions. Would you call that high living? Another lie nailed!"

A suggestion from Kansas Bull Moosers that he run for governor
prompted the following editorial on January 13, 1914:

A number of Progressives at Lakin, more kind than considerate, yesterday
resoluted in favor of this man White, of Emporia, for governor. They wanted
him to run as a Progressive candidate. To which the Gazette says no a
thousand times no. For we are on to that man White, and without wishing to
speak disrespectfully of a fellow townsman, who, so far as we know, may be
at least outwardly decent in the simpler relations of life perhaps he pays his
debts when it is convenient, and he may be kind to his family, though that's
not to his credit, for who wouldn't be and he may have kept out of jail, one
way or another for some time ; without, as we say, desiring to speak disrespect-
fully of this man, we know that he's not the man either to run for governor
or. if such a grotesque thing could be imagined, to serve as governor.

He can't make a speech. He has a lot of radical convictions which he some-
times comes into the Gazette office and exploits, which are dangerous. He has
been jawing politicians for twenty years until he is a common scold, and he
has set up his so-called ideals so high that the Angel Gabriel himself couldn't
give the performance that this man White would have to advertise on the bills.

So, in the words of the poet, nix on Willyum Allen. The Gazette's nose is

12. S. G. Ely the, loc. cit.



WHITE: COUNTRY EDITOR, 1897-1914 7

hard and cold on the proposition to make him governor. He is a four-flusher,
a ring-tailed, rip-snorting hell-raiser and a grandstander. He makes a big
noise. He yips and kioodles around a good deal, but he is everlastingly and
preeminently N. G. as gubernatorial timber full of knots, warts, woodpecker
holes, and rotten spots. He would have the enmity of more men who have
walked the plank politically than any other man in Kansas, and his candidacy
would issue an irrevocable charter in Kansas for the Progressive party to be
the official minority report world without end. Men and women would be
trampled to death at 7 o'clock election morning, trying to get at the polls to
cast the first vote against him and at night perfectly good citizens, kind fathers
and indulgent husbands, would risk a jail sentence to get in at least ten votes
against him as repeaters. It may be that the Progressive party needs a goat,
but the demand doesn't require a Billy-goat! Now is the time for all good
men to come to the aid of the party. But this man White is a shoulder-galled,
sore-backed, ham-strung, wind-broken, string-halted, stump-sucking old stager
who, in addition to being no good for draft and general purposes, has the
political bots, blind-staggers, heaves, pinkeye and epizootic. Moreover, he
is locoed and has other defects. . . .

This editorial prompted The Literary Digest to remark that ". . .
William Allen White, the well-known Kansas institution, acted
wisely when he defeated himself recently for the Progressive nom-
ination for governor. . . ." 13

White was not only a superb editorial writer, but he was a shrewd
businessman. Gradually, as his earnings increased, he delegated
more and more responsibility to his staff, but at all times he was
aware of what was taking place in the various parts of the office.
His business acumen was revealed when he constructed a new build-
ing for the Gazette on the lot next to where the government planned
eventually to build a post office. This gave the Gazette a vantage
point for collecting news and made its office building space a desir-
able location for rental purposes.

"The country newspaper," White once wrote in Harper's Maga-
zine, "is the incarnation of the town spirit. . . . The newspaper
is in a measure the will of the town, and the town's character is dis-



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