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From the collection of the



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San Francisco, California
2007



THE

Kansas Historical
Quarterly

NYLE H. MILLER, Managing Editor

KIRKE MECHEM, Editor
JAMES C. MALIN, Associate Editor



Volume XX
1952-1953

(Kansas Historical Collections)
VOL. xxxvn



Published by

The Kansas State Historical Society

Topeka, Kansas



72285



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XX



Number 1-February, 1952

PAGE

THE PICTORIAL RECORD OF THE OLD WEST: XV. John M. Stanley

and the Pacific Railroad Reports Robert Taft, I

With the following illustrations:

John Mix Stanley's "Prairie Indian Encampment," cover,

portrait of Stanley and his "Saint Paul" (1853),
"Herd of Bison, Near Lake Jessie" (1853),
"Fort Union, and Distribution of Goods to the Assinni 1 -

boines" (1853);
Gustavus Sohon's "Fort Benton Head of Steam Navigation

on the Missouri River" (Probably 1860-1862),
"Mode of Crossing Rivers by the Flathead and Other

Indians" (Probably*1860-1862);
John E. Weyss' "Brownsville, Texas" (1853);
Arthur Schott's "Military Plaza San Antonio, Texas"
(1853?), between pp. 16, 17.

THE ANNUAL MEETING: Containing Reports of the Secretary,
Treasurer, Executive and Nominating Committees; Annual
Address of the President, THE KAW OR KANSA INDIANS, Frank
Haucke; Memorials to Milton R. McLean and Charles H.
Browne; Election of Officers; List of Directors of the Society,

Kirke Mechem, 24

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 66

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 68

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES . 69



Number 2-May, 1952

PAGE

THE GREAT FLOOD OF 1844 ALONG THE KANSAS AND

MARAIS DES CYGNES RIVERS S. D. Flora, 73

FARMER DEBTORS IN PIONEER KINSLEY Allan G. Bogue, 82

VINCENT B. OSBORNE'S CIVIL WAR EXPERIENCES,

Edited by Joyce Farlow and Louise Barry, 108

RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY,

Compiled by Helen M. McFarland, Librarian, 134

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 150

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 152

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES 159

(iii)



Number 3-August, 1952

PAGE

THE ANNALS OF KANSAS: 1886 161

BACKGROUND NOTES ON THE BOURNE LISTER CULTIVATOR,

Patricia M. Bourne and A. Bower Sageser, 183

With a sketch of the Bourne Lister Cultivator, p. 185.

VINCENT B. OSBORNE'S CIVIL WAR EXPERIENCES Part Two:

September, 1862- July, 1865. .Edited by Joyce Farlow and Louise Barry, 187

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 224

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 227

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES 231



Number 4 November, 1952

PAGE

THE ADMINISTRATION OF FEDERAL LAND LAWS IN WESTERN KANSAS,
1880-1890: A Factor in Adjustment to a New Environment,

George L. Anderson, 233

THE REV. Louis DUMORTIER, S. J., ITINERANT MISSIONARY TO

CENTRAL KANSAS, 1859-1867 Sister M. Evangeline Thomas, 252

With Father Dumortier's map of Catholic mission stations in the St. Mary's
area (1866), facing p. 264.

THE ANNALS OF KANSAS: 1887 271

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 298

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 302

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES . 304



Number 5 February, 1953

PAGE

DR. SAMUEL GRANT RODGERS, GENTLEMAN FROM NESS,

Minnie Dubbs Millbroo^ 305

LIGHT ON THE BRINKLEY ISSUE IN KANSAS: Letters of William A. White to

Dan D. Casement James C. Carey and Verlin R. Fosterling, 350

THE ANNUAL MEETING: Containing Reports of the Secretary, Treasurer,
Executive and Nominating Committees; Annual Address of the Presi-
dent, DANIEL WEBSTER WILDER, by William T. Beck; Election of Offi-
cers; List of Directors of the Society Nyle H. Miller, 354

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 378

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 379

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES 382

(iv)



Number 6-May, 1953

PAGE

ASPECTS OF THE NEBRASKA QUESTION, 1852-1854 James C. Malin, 385

CAPT. L. C. EASTON'S REPORT: Fort Laramie to Fort Leavenworth

Via Republican River in 1849 Edited by Merrill J. Mattes, 392

With the following illustrations:

Captain Easton's map of 1849, facing p. 400;
Sketches of Fort Leavenworth (1849), facing p. 418,
and Fort Laramie (1849), facing p. 417.

KANSAS NEGRO REGIMENTS IN THE CIVIL WAR .... Dudley Taylor Cornish, 417
RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY,

Compiled by Helen M. McFarland, Librarian, 430

.

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 450

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 456

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES . . 461



Number 7-August, 1953

PAGE

JUDGE LECOMPTE AND THE "SACK OF LAWRENCE," May 21, 1856:

Part One, The Contemporary Phase James C. Malin, 465

With a sketch of the ruins of the Free-State Hotel, Lawrence, cover.

MIDWESTERN ATTITUDES ON THE "KANSAS FEVER,"

Edited by Philip D. Uzee, 495

EARLY YEARS AT ST. MARY'S POTTAWATOMIE MISSION: From the Diary
of Father Maurice Gailland, S. J.,

Edited by the Rev. James M. Burke, S. /., 501

With the following illustrations:

Chapel of the Pottawatomie Indian Mission at St. Marys and
portrait of the Rev. Maurice Gailland, S. J., facing p. 512;
Pottawatomie Indians at St. Mary's Mission in 1867 and
St. Mary's Mission, 1867, facing p. 513.

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 530

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 538

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES 543

(v)



Number 8 November, 1953

PAGE

STATE ADMINISTRATION OF THE LAND GRANT TO KANSAS FOR INTERNAL
IMPROVEMENTS Thomas LeDuc, 545

JUDGE LECOMPTE AND THE "SACK OF LAWRENCE/' MAY 21, 1856: Part
Two, The Historical Phase Concluded James C. Malin, 553

With the following illustrations:

Portraits of Judge Samuel D. Lecompte, facing p. 592,

and Col. Daniel Read Anthony, facing p. 593;
Photographs of the original recommendation of the Douglas

county grand jury, May, 1856, concerning the Emigrant

Aid Company hotel and the two newspapers at Lawrence,

between pp. 592, 593.

THE MISSING IMMIGRANT SHIP Gladwin A. Read, 598

With a reproduction of a painting of the American packet ship
Roger Stewart, cover.

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY .- 600

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 601

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES 605

ERRATA AND ADDENDA, VOLUME XX 607

INDEX TO VOLUME XX 609

(vi)



THE



KANSAS HISTORICAL
QUARTERLY

February 1952







Published by

Kansas State Historical Society

Topeka



p| CACC KJf^TF ^ decreased printing appropriation will make it
r LC/\^L INv^ I L necessary to publish The Kansas Historical Quarterly
with fewer pages for several issues. The same standards will be maintained.
It is hoped that the situation which caused this reduction will be remedied in
the next session of the legislature.

Volume XX, now being published, will consist of eight numbers, covering
the years 1952-1953. The index for this volume will appear as part of the

November, 1953, issue.

THE EDITORS.



KIRKE MECHEM JAMES C. MALIN NYLE H. MILLER

Editor Associate Editor Managing Editor



CONTENTS



PAGE

THE PICTORIAL RECORD OF THE OLD WEST: XV. John M. Stanley

and the Pacific Railroad Reports Robert Taft, 1

With the following illustrations:

Portrait of John Mix Stanley, and his
"Saint Paul" (1853),

"Herd of Bison, Near Lake Jessie" (1853),
"Fort Union, and Distribution of Goods to the Assinni-

boines" (1853);
Gustavus Sohon's "Fort Benton Head of Steam Navigation

on the Missouri River" (Probably 1860-1862),
"Mode of Crossing Rivers by the Flathead and Other

Indians" (Probably 1860-1862);
John E. Weyss' "Brownsville, Texas" (1853);
Arthur Schott's "Military Plaza San Antonio, Texas" (1853?),

between pp. 16, 17.

THE ANNUAL MEETING: Containing Reports of the Secretary,
Treasurer, Executive and Nominating Committees; Annual
Address of the President, THE KAW OR KANSA INDIANS, Frank
Haucke; Memorials to Milton R. McLean and Charles H.
Browne; Election of Officers; List of Directors of the Society,

Kirke Mechem, 24

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 66

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 68

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES 69

The Kansas Historical Quarterly is published in February, May, August and
November by the Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kan., and is dis-
tributed free to members. Correspondence concerning contributions may be
sent to the secretary of the Historical Society. The Society assumes no respon-
sibility for statements made by contributors.

Entered as second-class matter October 22, 1931, at the post office at To-
peka, Kan., under the act of August 24, 1912.



THE COVER

John Mix Stanley's "Prairie Indian Encampment.'
Courtesy Detroit Institute of Arts.



THE KANSAS
HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Volume XX February, 1952 Number 1

The Pictorial Record of the Old West

XV. JOHN M. STANLEY AND THE PACIFIC RAILROAD REPORTS

ROBERT TAFT

(Copyright, 1952, by ROBERT TAFT)

IN the preceding number of this series, many of the illustrators of
the Pacific railroad Reports were considered. Two, however, re-
main to be discussed, those who were present on Gov. I. I. Stevens'
survey of the northern route. 1 The principal artist of this survey,
John M. Stanley, deserves more than mere mention for at least two
reasons: he is represented in the reports of the surveys by more
plates than any other artist, and in the second place, no early West-
ern artist had more intimate knowledge by personal experience of the
American West.

Born in New York state in 1814, he spent his boyhood there.
When he was 20 he moved to Detroit and the following year he be-
gan painting portraits and landscapes. No record of any artistic
training exists, but from 1835 until 1839 he apparently made his
living as an itinerant artist in Detroit, Fort Snelling (where he
painted Indians), Galena and Chicago. He then moved East. No

DR. ROBERT TAFT, of Lawrence, is professor of chemistry at the University of Kansas
and editor of the Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. He is author of Photog-
raphy and the American Scene (New York, 1938), and Across the fears on Mount Oread
(Lawrence, 1941).

Previous articles in this pictorial series appeared in the issues of The Kansas Historical
Quarterly for February, May, August and November, 1946, May and August, 1948, May,
August and November, 1949, February, May and August, 1950, August and November,
1951. The general introduction was in the February, 1946, number.

1. The survey of the 32d parallel under Capt. John Pope completed the survey on this
route begun by Lieutenant Parke from Fort Yuma to Fort Fillmore. Captain Pope began
his survey near the latter place on February 12, 1854, and traveled eastward across much
country that was unknown. The survey was completed at Preston, Tex. (near present
Denison), on May 15, 1854 (Reports of Explorations and Surveys to Ascertain the Most
Practicable and Economic Route for a Railroad From the Mississippi River to the Pacific
Ocean, v. 2). As can be seen by an inspection of a map, most of Pope's route lay through
Texas. No illustrations accompany Pope's report but a contemporary report by a private
concern covered a somewhat similar survey of a route through Texas and west, and the
report is accompanied by 32 interesting illustrations, see A. B. Gray, Survey of a Route
for the Southern Pacific R. R. on the 32nd Parallel for the Texas Western R. R. Company
(Cincinnati, 1856). The plates are by Carl Schuchard. Schuchard, a German, was
born in 1827 and was a mining engineer who joined the '49 rush to California. Later
he became a surveyor, settled in Texas where he lived for a number of years, but spent
much of his later life in Mexico where he died on May 4, 1883. Schuchard's original
sketches for the report cited above were destroyed in a fire in the Smithsonian Institution,
apparently the same fire that destroyed a number of Stanley paintings (see p. 10). I am
indebted to Llerena Friend of the Barker Texas History Center, University of Texas, for
information concerning Schuchard.



2 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

definite record of his wanderings exists for the next few years, but
in the early spring of 1842 an advertisement of the firm of Fay and
Stanley appeared in Washington ( D. C. ) papers. Although positive
proof that the Stanley of this firm was John M. Stanley is lacking,
the circumstantial evidence is excellent. The advertisement an-
nounced that Fay and Stanley were prepared to take daguerreotype
likenesses and would offer instruction and complete outfits for the
practice of the art. Evidently in his three years in the East, Stanley
if it be granted that he was the Stanley of our interest had ac-
quired a knowledge of the new art, for it had been introduced into
this country in the fall of 1839. Certain it is that Stanley later made
use of daguerreotypy on one of his Western expeditions. 2

Sometime during the summer or fall of 1842, Stanley decided to
go to the Indian country with Sumner Dickerman of Troy, N. Y., for
the express purpose of painting the American Indian of the West.
Whether he was influenced by his predecessor, Catlin, who had
achieved by 1842 a considerable reputation with his collection of
Indian paintings, is unknown. Dickerman's part in the enterprise,
too, is not known with certainty. He probably helped to finance the
expedition and certainly he was the companion and helper of Stan-
ley for several years. 3

In the fall of 1842 the two arrived in Fort Gibson (in present

2. The information on Stanley thus far given in the text is based on an account
given by Stanley's son, L. C. Stanley, and published by David I. Bushnell, Jr., in "John
Mix Stanley, Artist-Explorer," Annual Report Smithsonian Institution . . ., 1924, pp.
507-512, subsequent reference to this biographic material is indicated by L. C. S. Stan-
ley's manuscript account of bis father is said to be in the Burton Historical Collections,
Detroit.

The advertisement of Fay and Stanley appeared in The Independent, Washington, on
March 15, 1842, p. 3, and in many subsequent issues between this date and May 31, 1842.
The same advertisement, with minor variations, also appeared in the National Intelligencer,
Washington (see, for example, the issue of March 29, 1842, p. 3). The Independent of
March 18, 1842, p. 3, had a brief comment on the firm of Fay and Stanley and identified
Fay as one who had a "long and respectable connection with the Press of South Carolina"
but made no direct comment on Stanley. Mention is made of "a competent artist" in the
account which may or may not mean Stanley. Further circumstantial evidence that it
was John M. Stanley who was concerned is borne out by the fact that the firm of Fay and
Stanley became Fay and Reed in the advertisement of the firm for June 3, 1842, in the
Independent (p. 4, c. 5). As will be pointed out shortly in the text, Stanley was in the
Southwest in the year 1842 and the change in the firm may have arisen from Stanley's
withdrawal for this trip. Comment and letters in Diary and Letters of Josiah Gregg (Nor-
man, Okla., 1941), M. G. Fulton, editor, v. 1, p. 188, also suggest that Stanley, a friend of
Gregg's may have had a knowledge of daguerreotypy in 1846; Stanley's subsequent use
of the daguerreotype in 1853 will be discussed in the text which follows. For the intro-
duction of daguerreotypy in the United States, see Robert Taft, Photography and the Ameri-
can Scene (New York, 1938), ch. 1.

3. L. C. S. identified Dickerman only by the two words "of Troy." W. Vernon Kinietz,
John Mix Stanley and His Indian Paintings (Ann Arbor, 1942), p. 17 (Footnote 3), states
that Stanley's will assigned Dickerman a one-fourth interest in Stanley's Indian Gallery
to be described later in the text. Dickerman was born in 1819. He is listed as a resident
of Troy in the city directories from 1836 to 1843. He was a Civil War veteran and lived
in Maryland for some years after the war. He returned to Troy in 1881 where he died
on July 21, 1882. See Troy Daily Times, July 22, 1882. I am indebted to Fanny C.
Howe, librarian, Troy Public Library, for this information. I have also corresponded with
Kate L. Dickerman of Troy, who wrote me on March 21, 1951, that Sumner Dickerman
was her uncle and that she remembered him relating stories of his adventures in the
Indian country with Stanley. Miss Dickerman, age 90, also wrote me that Stanley
painted portraits of her aunt and other members of the family which hung for many
years in the Dickerman home. Miss Dickerman, the last of her family, stated that no
records of Stanley or Dickerman in the Indian country were available in the family.



PICTORIAL RECORD OF THE OLD WEST 3

Oklahoma) and Stanley immediately set up a studio. Fort Gibson,
established in 1824, was an important post on the early Southwest-
ern frontier and in many respects an ideal one for Stanley's purpose.
Through it passed an almost continuous stream of frontiersmen,
border characters, and Indians of many tribes. Located in the
Cherokee country it was easily accessible to Seminoles, Creeks,
Osages, Chickasaws, many of whom had been forced to migrate by
the government in the years preceding Stanley's first visit. Visits,
too, from the native Plains Indians farther west were also frequent
and Stanley never lacked for subjects. Four of these visitors, two
Pawnee Pict chiefs and the wife and child of one of them, were
among Stanley's early subjects. Stanley wrote concerning them:

On the arrival of the two chiefs and this woman at Fort Gibson, we took
them to our studio for the purpose of painting their portraits. They very
willingly acceded to my wishes, and manifested by signs that they wanted some-
thing to eat. We accordingly had as much meat cooked as would appease the
appetite of six men, which they ate in a short time, and then asked for more.
We again provided about the same quantity, which, to our astonishment, they
also devoured. It was the first meat they had eaten for some five or six days. 4

But Stanley's great opportunity came the following spring when
a grand Indian council was called to convene at Tahlequah by the
celebrated Cherokee, John Ross. Tahlequah, the capital of the
Cherokee Nation, was only some 20 miles from Fort Gibson, but
Stanley moved his studio to the Indian town and during the four-
weeks' session of the council and the succeeding summer months,
was exceedingly busy recording the scenes and the participants of
the Indian gathering.

By June 1, 1843, several thousand Indians from a wide circle of
the Indian country were present, and an observer of the scene has
left us the following interesting account of the events witnessed:

Every variety of dress can be seen here from the well dressed person down
to the almost naked Osage. Plumes and feathers are worn with profusion and in
every shape that can be imagined; hand kerchiefs of every color, silver bands
for the arms, head and breast; medals, beads and hunting shirts of every shape
and color; in truth, I cannot give you anything like a correct idea of the great
variety of dress worn by the tawny sons of the forest. We have almost as great
a variety in the color of persons as we have in dress. Where nature has not
given the color, paint is used to supply the deficiency. Besides the various
Indian Tribes there are persons from almost every nation. Here are Germans,
Scotch, Irish, English, Spanish and various other nations. I have no doubt if
strict inquiry was made, not excepting some of the sable sons of Africa. 5

4. Catalogue of Pictures in Stanley and Dickerman's North American Indian Portrait
Gallery; J. M. Stanley, Artist (Cincinnati, 1846), pp. 21, 22.

5. Arkansas Intelligencer, Van Buren, June 24, 1843, p. 2. Van Buren, located only
some half-dozen miles from Fort Smith, which in turn was only some 50 miles below Fort



4 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Stanley painted one such meeting of the council, the painting
being one of the few surviving Stanley pictures. It is now owned
by the National Museum and has been called by one authority "one
of the most valuable and important Indian pictures in existence." 6

Late in the fall of 1843, Stanley accompanied Gov. P. M. Butler,
the U. S. agent to the Cherokees, to a council held for the Comanche
and other "wild prairie Indians" who had been for some years a
source of trouble near the boundary of the Texas Republic and the
United States. Texas commissioners were supposed to be present
but failed to appear, but the council was held on "the head-waters
of the Red River" (probably near the present southwestern corner
of Oklahoma ) and Stanley was able to secure a number of Coman-
che Indian portraits and landscape views. 7

It seems probable that from the fall of 1842 until late in April,
1845, Dickerman and Stanley lived continuously in the Indian coun-
try. In the fall of 1845 they were in Cincinnati where Stanley was

Gibson on the Arkansas river, was thus an important post near the early Southwestern
frontier; its newspaper is an invaluable source of information on the early history of this
region.

Mention is made of the presence of Stanley and Dickerman in the Indian country in
the Arkansas Intelligencer a number of times, including issues of July 15, 1843, p. 2; Sep-
tember 23, 1843, p. 2 (which stated that Stanley had just returned from the Creek Busk
which he painted, the painting being listed in the Stanley catalogue); October 28, 1843,
p. 2, and other issues specifically cited later.

The observer of the council stated that when his account was written ( June 1 ) the
number of persons present for the council were estimated at "two to five thousand."
In Stanley's catalogue, Portraits of North American Indians, published by the Smithsonian
Institution, December, 1852 (usually found as part of Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collec-
tions, v. 2, 1862), p. 18, the number present at the council is estimated at 10,000. I have
seen other estimates as high as 20,000. In this catalogue Stanley has dated the painting
of most of his pictures. It is apparent from these dates he was busy with the painting of
the council and with portraits of visitors to the council during June, July, August and
September of 1843. On p. 18 of this source, Stanley states that the council was in session
for four weeks during June, 1843. Stanley's painting of the council, "International Indian
Council," is now in the National Museum. Reproductions may be found in the Bushnell
article cited in Footnote 2 and in the Kinietz book cited in Footnote 3.

6. Bushnell, loc. cit., p. 511.

7. In the "Preface" to the proposed Indian portfolio by Stanley now in the Museum
of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York City (for a discussion of this port-
folio see F. W. Hodge, Indian Notes, v. 6, No. 4, Museum of the American Indian, Heye
Foundation, New York, October, 1929), the statement is made that Stanley accompanied
Butler on two expeditions to the prairie tribes of Texas. The first was probably made in
the early spring of ] 843 as brief mention is made on Butler's return from this council in
the National Intelligencer, April 27, 1843, p. 3 (reprinted from the Shreveport Red River
Gazette of April 12). The second trip of Stanley with Butler to the headwaters of the
Bed river is identified in the same "Preface" as taking place in the winter of ] 843-1 844
for Butler was reported as preparing to meet the Prairie Indians on the Red river on No-
vember 25, 1843, in the National Intelligencer, November 18, 1843, p. 3, and later his
return from the council is reported in the Arkansas Intelligencer, December 30, 1843, p. 2,
and January 6, 1844, p. 1.

In both of these accounts mention is made of Stanley's presence at the council. In fact,
Stanley made badges, at the suggestion of Butler, to designate each of the tribes presented,
a courtesy which greatly pleased the Indians. One Comanche woman thought so much of
Stanley that she gave him her prized riding whip. Additional information on this
council will also be found in Niles Register, Baltimore, January 13, 1844, p. 306, and
January 27, 1844, p. 339. Stanley's paintings (in his catalogue of 1852) of the Comanche
Indians which were undoubtedly secured on this expedition are dated "1844" which must
mean that Stanley completed them at Fort Gibson after his return from the last expedition
in December, 1843.

P. M. Butler received his title of governor from the fact that he was governor of South
Carolina from 1836 until 1838. He was agent to the Cherokees from 1838 to 1846 and
was killed in battle in the Mexican War in 1847. See Dictionary of American Biography
v. 3, pp. 365, 366.



PICTORIAL RECORD OF THE OLD WEST 5

actively engaged in finishing some 83 paintings preparatory to public
exhibition. 8

The gallery was opened for public exhibition on January 19, 1846,
and the Stanley portraits were on display in Cincinnati until Febru-
ary 14. Advertisements of the event announced "Season tickets ad-
mitting a gentlemen and one lady $1, can be procured at the door.



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