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AUG. 20. The Supreme Court ordered a canvass of the Seward county
election returns. All votes cast in the "Owl building" at Fargo Springs were
ordered thrown out. The ballots cast at the "wagon box" were to be accepted.

AUG. 22. Amos A. Lawrence died at Nahant, Mass. He was treasurer of
the New England Emigrant Aid Co. and gave nearly $12,000 toward founding
a Free-State college in Kansas. The sum eventually went to the University of
Kansas. The city of Lawrence was named for him.

AUG. 25. Samuel N. Wood was kidnaped at Woodsdale, Stevens county.
Hugoton had been declared temporary county seat. Citizens of Woodsdale
wanted to postpone the election, holding that the county did not have sufficient
population to qualify for organization. Wood, the leader of the Woodsdale
faction, was seized by Hugoton partisans and taken on a "hunting trip" to the
Texas Panhandle.

Street cars began running at Council Grove.

The Anti-Monopoly state convention opened at Topeka.

AUG. 31. The Supreme Court issued a writ of habeas corpus ordering the
abductors of Sam Wood to produce his body in court.

Reno county voted to issue $200,000 in bonds to the Rock Island and
$125,000 to the Fort Smith, Kansas and Nebraska railroad.

The Geuda Springs, Caldwell and Western railroad was completed to
Caldwell.

SEPTEMBER 1. Vol. I, No. 1, Broom Corn Reporter, Fort Scott; Solomon Schulein,
manager.

SEPT. 2. Cove county was organized with Gove City as temporary county
seat. Jerome B. McClanahan, William Stokes and Lyman Raymond were ap-
pointed commissioners; D. A. Borah, clerk.

The Missouri-Kansas bridge across the Missouri river at Leavenworth
burned.

The African Methodist Episcopal Church conference met at Topeka.

SEPT. 3. The Parsons and Pacific railroad grade was completed to Mound
Valley.

The Denver, Memphis and Atlantic railroad was completed to Coffeyville.

Sam Wood, who was kidnaped at Woodsdale, August 25, was rescued by
friends.

SEPT. 4. Vol. I, No. 1, Geuda Springs Crank. It was established for "the elevation of
public morals and horsethieves."

SEPT. 6. The Western National Interstate Fair Assn. met at Lawrence.

SEPT. 8. A sugar-cane factory began operation at Fort Scott.

SEPT. 9. The Kansas, Nebraska and Dakota railroad began work on its
depot at Topeka, laid the first rail in Shawnee county, and had 25 miles graded
and ready for track.

Stevens county held its first election; Hugoton was chosen county seat.
Officers elected were: J. E. Hunt, J. B. Chamberlain and W. L. Clark, com-
missioners; J. W. Calvert, clerk; C. W. Kirby, treasurer; William Guinn, pro-
bate judge; H. F. Nichols, register of deeds; A. P. Ridenour, sheriff; W. J. D.



176 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Holderman, coroner; J. L. Pancoast, attorney; W. E. Allen, clerk of the district
court; G. B. Teams, surveyor; J. P. Cummings, superintendent of public instruc-
tion.

The Emporia Normal school board of regents reported that all but 20
acres of the Salt Springs land had been sold for $78,882, which was $3,362
more than the appraised value.

Nineteen Osage county druggists made 2,812 liquor sales in June. "Rea-
sons for purchase" totaled 215. Indigestion came first, biliousness second.

The Universalist Church conference met at Seneca.

SEPT. 13. The enlarged edition of Daniel Webster Wilder's Annals of Kan-
sas was issued. It contained 1,196 pages, the largest book ever printed in the
state. The price was $5 a copy.

SEPT. 14. The Southern Kansas Academy at Eureka was dedicated and
opened for classes.

Electric lights were turned on at Junction City for the first time.

Judge Brewer in the U. S. Circuit Court ruled that the Santa Fe had au-
thority to build through other states and to acquire the Gulf, Colorado and
Santa Fe railroad of Texas.

SEPT. 15. The first passenger train over the Missouri Pacific extension
traveled from Wichita to Hutchinson.

Kansas Wesleyan University, Salina, opened.

SEPT. 18. A Fort Scott oil well yielded six barrels a day with an estimated
value of $8 to $10 daily.

SEPT. 20. Fifteen members of the Topeka Bicycle Club left on a two-day
cycling trip to Junction City for the state meeting of the League of American
Wheelmen.

Sherman county was organized with Eustis as temporary county seat.
L. J. Gandy, O. D. Dickey and Rufus Edwards were named commissioners;
J. H. Tait, clerk.

E. C. Walker, Jr., editor of Lucifer, the Light Bearer, and Lillian Harman,
daughter of his partner, were arrested at Valley Falls on a charge of unlawful
cohabitation. On the preceding day they had contracted a free-love marriage,
the ceremony being performed by Moses Harman.

SEPT. 21. The Kansas National Guard went into camp at Fort Riley.

SEPT. 23. A new town on the Rock Island in Brown county was named
Horton in honor of Albert H. Horton, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

The Coolidge Border Ruffian reported high winds in Hamilton county:
"Two quarter sections of land were blown into this office. Anyone having lost
their claims during this blow can have same by removing the property and
paying for this advertisement."

SEPT. 27. An estimated 20,000 persons attended P. T. Barnum's circus at
Topeka. "The Greatest Show on Earth" was also scheduled for Junction City
and Emporia.

SEPT. 28. Thirty Years in Topeka, by F. W. Giles, was published.

The V/omen's Christian Temperance Union met at Cherryvale.
SEPT. 29. Central Kansas College opened at Great Bend.

SEPT. 30. Track-laying began on the El Dorado and Walnut Valley railroad.
The state assembly of the North American Knights of Labor was organized at Topeka.



THE ANNALS OF KANSAS: 1886 177

Governor Martin issued a proclamation against importation of cattle from
Illinois, Ohio and Canada because of pleuro-pneumonia.

OCTOBER 1. Larned street cars began running.

OCT. 4. A woman's suffrage convention at Leavenworth was the first of
11 to be held in the state. Others were at Abilene, Lincoln, Florence, Hutch-
inson, Wichita, Anthony, Winfield, Independence, Fort Scott and Lawrence.

OCT. 5. The Independent Order of Good Templars met at Topeka.

The Improved Order of Red Men met at Emporia.

OCT. 6. The G. A. R. state reunion began at Emporia.

OCT. 7. The Presbyterian Synod of Kansas met at Emporia.

OCT. 9. The Chicago, Kansas and Western railroad filed an amended
charter to build and operate 52 lines in Kansas with an estimated 7,274 miles
of track. Capital stock was $154,000,000, said to be the largest of any railroad
company in the country.

OCT. 10. A colony of 50 persons settled near Coolidge in Hamilton county.

Wild turkeys were plentiful in Ford and Clark counties.

OCT. 12. The Southwestern Kansas Exposition was formally opened at
Garden City by Governor Martin.

Nearly 5,000 men and 3,000 teams were working on the Chicago, Kansas
and Nebraska Rock Island railroad.

The I. O. O. F. grand lodge met at Topeka.

The Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Augustana Synod met at Waterville.

OCT. 14. Independence was lighted with electricity.

E. C. Walker and Lillian Harman, defendants in the "free love case,"
were found guilty and sentenced to 75 and 45 days in jail. They appealed to
the Supreme Court.

The Kansas Society of Friends met at Lawrence.

OCT. 17. Topeka's steam brickyard, with a capacity of 50,000 bricks daily,
was in operation.

OCT. 18. The Topeka pension agency was said to be the fourth largest in
the nation, with 26,000 names on the rolls.

OCT. 19. Gove county held its first election; Gove City was chosen county
seat. Officers elected were: Lyman Raymond, John W. Campbell and James
Hamilton, commissioners; D. A. Borah, clerk; F. F. Wright, treasurer; J. H.
Jones, probate judge; L. F. Jones, register of deeds; J. W. Hopkins, sheriff;
W. H. Crater, coroner; P. J. Cavanaugh, attorney; William Murphy, clerk of
the district court; F. B. Cope, surveyor; G. G. Lehmer, superintendent of public
instruction.

OCT. 21. Republicans praised Charles Curtis as the most successful county
attorney in the state. The Topeka Daily Capital said "the people of Shawnee
county are proud of their faithful son. He did his duty despite the jeers and
threats of the whisky element."

Partisans of Kendall swore out warrants for the arrest of members of the
Hamilton county election board. They were arraigned at Kendall and denied
bail. A writ of habeas corpus was secured and the men were escorted home
by the sheriff and citizens.

The General Association of Congregational Ministers and Churches of Kansas met at
Topeka.

133879



178 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

OCT. 23. Holbrook Hall, gift of Miss Mary Holbrook of Holbrook, Mass.,
and Boswell Hall, gift of Charles Boswell of West Hartford, Conn., were dedi-
cated at Washburn College.

OCT. 24. The Sixth Kansas cavalry held a reunion at Pleasanton.

OCT. 26. The American Woman's Suffrage Assn. met at Topeka. Delegates included
Julia Ward Howe, Lucy Stone and Susan B. Anthony.

OCT. 27. The Kansas Anti-Horse Thief Assn. met at Parsons.

NOVEMBER 1. The Adjutant General authorized a Negro National Guard
company at Topeka.

St. Aloysius' Catholic Church was dedicated at Wichita. It cost $75,000.

The Kansas Central Elevator Co. purchased the "largest cornsheller in the
world," invented by Kansas men.

Nov. 2. Garden City organized a Law and Order League to aid in enforc-
ing the prohibitory law.

A settlement of broomcorn growers from Illinois was established near
Garden City.

The peanut crop in Kearney county averaged 30 bushels per acre.

The general election was held. For governor, John A. Martin, Repub-
lican, defeated Thomas Moonlight by about 34,000 votes. Other state officers
elected were: A. P. Riddle, Girard, Lieutenant Governor; E. B. Allen, Wichita,
Secretary of State; Timothy J. McCarthy, Lamed, Auditor; J. W. Hamilton,
Wellington, Treasurer; S. B. Bradford, Carbondale, Attorney General; J. H.
Lawhead, Fort Scott, Superintendent of Public Instruction.

Nov. 3. Vol. I, No. 1, Ford County Republican, Dodge City; Rush E. Deardoff and
M. W. Sutton, editors and publishers.

Nov. 4. The Young Men's Christian Assn. of Kansas met at Ottawa.

Nov. 5. Fifty-six prisoners in the state penitentiary were under death
sentence.

Marley K. Kittleman, Harper, defeated Charles K. Gibson in a foot race
at Wichita that attracted sportsmen from New York, San Francisco and other
cities. Betting was said to involve more than $100,000. Kittleman's time for
the 125 yards was 14.25 seconds.

The Young Women's Christian Assn. of Kansas held its first meeting at Ottawa in
connection with the Y. M. C. A. meeting. Miss Anna S. Campbell, Fort Scott, was elected
president; Miss May L. Parker, Topeka, secretary.

Nov. 6. The Sterling syrup works closed for the season after making over
40,000 gallons.

Hamilton county commissioners threw out the votes of an entire precinct
because of fraud and ordered the records moved to Syracuse. An armed mob
at Kendall threatened to shoot anyone attempting to remove them.

Nov. 8. Sam Purple was hanged by a mob near Jetmore for the murder
of his wife and two children.

Sherman county held its first election; Eustis was chosen county seat.
Officers elected were: C. E. Bennett, John Bray and E. L. Lyons, commis-
sioners; G. W. Benson, clerk; J. E. Rule, treasurer; Lewis E. Tobias, probate
judge; E. W. Penny, register of deeds; R. G. Albright, sheriff; A. E. Tice, cor-
oner; W. K. Brown, attorney; A. E. Keller, clerk of the district court; F. S.
Palmer, superintendent of public instruction.

Nov. 9. The Supreme Court ordered Hamilton county commissioners to
canvass the vote in Coombs precinct, thrown out three days before.



THE ANNALS OF KANSAS: 1886 179

Nov. 16. Snow Hall, K. U.'s new natural history building, was dedicated.

Dodge City voted a $140,000 bond issue for the Denver, Memphis and
Atlantic railroad extension to Kingman.

Chase county voted an $80,000 bond issue for the Chicago, Kansas and
Western railroad.

Nov. 17. Governor Martin designated Richfield as temporary county seat
of Morton county and named Frank Robinson, D. D. Sayer and James McClain
as county commissioners; E. F. Henderson, clerk.

The Missouri Valley Unitarian Church conference met at Topeka.
The Kansas Academy of Science met at Emporia.

Nov. 19. Gas was found at Beloit at a depth of 145 feet.

Nov. 25. A 22-inch coal vein was struck near Admire City, a new town
on the Missouri Pacific.

Nov. 26. The Rock Island had 1,000 men and 300 teams working near
Hutchinson.

Nov. 27. Nearly nine-tenths of "the counties voted railroad bonds during
the year. One state officer commented: "The tendency of some of the new
counties to rush headlong into debt is alarming. It will bankrupt them. Some-
thing must be done by the Legislature to prevent this reckless voting of bonds."

Nov. 29. The first engine and caboose on the Kansas, Pacific and Western
railroad reached Pratt.

There were 1,667 post offices in Kansas. Seventy-five had been discon-
tinued during the year and 180 established. Names changed included: Bangor,
Coffey county, to Gridley; Barnard, Linn, to Boicourt; Bismarck, Wabaunsee,
to Halifax; Blue Mound, Linn, to Bluemound; Brandley, Seward, to Richfield,
Morton; Bridge, Saline, to Chico; Churchill, Ottawa, to Tescott; Colorado, Lin-
coln, to Beverly; Cuwland, Hodgeman, to Ravanna; Dallas, Norton, to Oro-
noque; Debolt, Labette, to Stover; Deerton, Labette, to Valeda; Fawn Creek,
Montgomery, to Fawn; Fort Harker, Ellsworth, to Kanopolis; Grand View,
Morris, to Delavan; Guilford, Wilson, to Benedict; Gypsum Creek, Saline, to
Digby; Harwoodville, Seward, to Fargo Springs; Hatfield, Sedgwick, to Mays;
Holden, Butler, to Brainerd; Howe, Rush, to Lippard; Kenneth, Sheridan, to
Hoxie; Lucas, Pawnee, to Marshall; Maud, Kingman, to Calista; Memphis,
Bourbon, to Garland; Mid-Lothian, Harper, to Freeport; Naomi, Mitchell, to
Excelsior; Newcastle, Cherokee, to Stippville; Ozark, Anderson, to Kincaid;
Pliny, Saline, to Gypsum; Reno Centre, Reno, to Partridge; Rooks Centre,
Rooks, to Woodston; Salt Creek, Reno, to Abbyville; Satanta, Comanche, to
Comanche; Shilo, Ness, to Harold; Ship, Comanche, to Shep; State Line, Chey-
enne, to Rogers; Tiblow, Wyandotte, to Bonner Springs; Tolle, Butler, to Win-
gate; Ulysses, Clark, to Lexington; Waseca, Johnson, to Holliday; Zamora,
Hamilton, to Kendall.

The Attorney General ruled that Wallace county was still organized under
the law of 1868 although in the "grasshopper year" of 1874 the entire popu-
lation left the county and the records were lost. Wallace was attached to Ellis
county for judicial purposes in 1875. Resettlement was rapid in 1886, and a
full set of officers was elected.

Nov. 30. Dickinson county voted a $276,000 bond issue to the Chicago,
Kansas and Western, the Santa Fe, and the Chicago, St. Joseph and Fort Worth
railroads.



180 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

DECEMBER 1. Dr. A. A. Holcombe, State Veterinarian, reported widespread
fatality among cattle from cornstalk disease.

The Protestant Episcopal Church, Diocese of Kansas, met at Topeka.

DEC. 2. A 45-inch coal vein was discovered at Cato, Bourbon county.

Wellington now had street cars, a waterworks, gas and electricity.

DEC. 3. Chautauqua county grew 100 bales of cotton in 1886.

The Great Bend Tribune remarked that the number of railroads under
construction to every little town in western Kansas "is only equalled by the
number of street railways, waterworks, electric lights, colleges and children to
fill them. A town of 150 inhabitants that hasn't at least four trunk lines and
all these other advantages is considered too unimportant to put on the maps."

DEC. 6. The first train over the Kansas, Nebraska and Dakota railroad ar-
rived at Topeka.

DEC. 7. A 40-inch vein of coal was discovered at Clyde.

The Kansas State Horticultural Society met at Emporia.

DEC. 8. The first state sanitary convention met at Wichita under the auspices of the
State Board of Health.

The State Board of Trustees of Charitable Institutions met at Topeka. The biennial
report recommended a ward for insane convicts in prison. Under existing laws the insane
were sent from prison to asylums.

DEC. 9. The Leavenworth city council refused to install electric lights.

DEC. 10. Beloit had completed a 100-bedroom hotel at a cost of $25,000.

Samuel J. Crawford, state claim agent at Washington, D. C., reported
that over 275,000 acres, valued at $1,381,000, had been patented to the state
in lieu of lands in Indian reservations. Crawford recommended that railroad
land grants be adjusted by federal agencies. He pointed out that railroads fre-
quently violated terms of the grants by failing to build over the specified routes.

DEC. 14. The Kansas State Grange met at Olathe.

The Kansas Shorthorn Breeders Assn. met at Topeka.

DEC. 16. A 42-inch vein of coal was located in Clay county.
The Kansas State Veterinary Assn. met at Topeka and reorganized as the Kansas State
Veterinary Medical Assn.

DEC. 20. The Cedar Vale Star was taking stovewood, coal, vegetables, ap-
ples and chickens on subscriptions.

Kansas still had 2,000,000 acres of government land, enough for 12,000
families, according to the State Board of Agriculture.

DEC. 22. The Supreme Court ordered Governor Martin to organize Wich-
ita county and locate the county seat at Leoti.

DEC. 23. The Topeka, Salina and Western and the Kansas and Colorado
railroads consolidated as part of the Missouri Pacific.

DEC. 24. Governor Martin proclaimed Leoti the temporary county seat of
Wichita county. R. F. Jenness, S. W. McCall and J. F. Brainard were named
commissioners; Lilburn Moore, clerk.

The 20th district court declared the Pratt county seat election of October,
1885, illegal, allowing the county seat to remain at luka.

DEC. 26. Gen. John A. Logan, for whom Logan county was named, died
at Washington, D. C.

DEC. 28. The Kansas State Teachers Assn. met at Topeka.

The Kansas Academy of Language and Literature met at Topeka.



THE ANNALS OF KANSAS: 1886



181



STASTISTICAL SUMMARIES FOR 1886

AGRICULTURE: The late summer drouth caused the worst crop year since 1874. Total
acreage as computed by the State Board of Agriculture was 52,572,160, including 2,693,760
acres of unorganized land. Farm acreage totaled 25,607,413 acres, and farm values were
$431,405,347. A summary of crop statistics for 1886:

Crop Acres Bushels Value

Winter wheat 982,029 13,580,592 $7,961,946.00

Spring wheat 83,503 990,441 520,557.00

Corn 5,802,018 139,569,132 37,966,031.80

Rye . 164,819 2,525,385 1,004,480.00

Barley 34,100 728,368 214,497.00

Oats 1,178,642 35,777,365 8,860,603.55

Buckwheat 2,110 33,213 23,665.10

Irish potatoes 99,394 7,274,765 4,402,305.50

Sweet potatoes . 3,585 358,500 358,500.00

Castor beans 30,641 306,410 459,615.00

Cotton 682 204,600* 16,368.00

Flax 87,904 879,040 791,136.00

Hemp 158 110,600* 5,530.00

Tobacco 409 245,400* 24,540.00

Broom corn 68,399 38,633,500* 1,352,172.50

Millet and Hungarians #70,600 l,141,200f 4,873,751.00

Tame grasses 690,325 l,100,580f 6,387,751.00

* Pounds,
t Tons.

LIVESTOCK

Animals Number Value

Horses 572,059 $51,485,310

Mules and asses 83,642 8,364,200

Milk cows 627,481 15,687,025

Other cattle 1,460,652 40,898,256

Sheep 664,761 1,329,522

Swine 1,965,869 11,795,214

ASSESSMENT OF PROPERTY: The following valuations were given: city lots, $46,-
967,259.80; farm lands, $142,657,158.35; personal property, $55,491,972.18.

BANKS: Seventy-five banks were included in the tabulation published by the Secretary
of State, as compared with 54 in 1885. Resources totaled $7,715,134.

CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS: The State Insane Asylum, Topeka, had 508 patients
and 107 employees; the State Insane Asylum, Osawatomie, had 400 patients and 87 em-
ployees; the State Asylum for Idiotic and Imbecile Youth, Lawrence, had 30 pupils; the
Institution for the Education of the Blind, Wyandotte, had an average attendance of 67;
the Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, Olathe, had 202 students; the
State Reform School, Topeka, had 95 boys, and buildings to provide for 200 were under
construction.

CHARTERS: Banks, building and loan, trust companies, 241; boards of trade, fairs,
merchant and civic assns., 49; cemetery and funeral assns., 57; churches and affiliated organ-
izations, 255; coal and mining industries, 38; creameries and dairy organizations, 5; gas,
light, water and power companies, 47; grain, milling and elevator companies, 16; hotels, 17;
insurance companies, 15; livestock and poultry, produce companies, 15; lodges, clubs, guilds
and benevolent societies, 66; printing and publishing companies, 15; railroads, 124; real
estate, town and immigration companies, 255; schools and colleges, 8; stage lines and
freighting companies, 6; street railways, 37; telegraph and telephone companies, 20; mis-
cellaneous, 122. Total number of charters for the year, 1,408.

EDUCATION: There were 7,520 organized school districts in 91 counties with 6,791
schoolhouses and 9,387 teachers. Of 497,785 children of school age, 365,239 were actually
enrolled. School terms averaged six months.

The University of Kansas for the year 1886-1887 had a faculty of 27 and a student body
of 489, including 14 graduate students. Kansas State Agricultural College had an enroll-
ment of 428 and a faculty of 18. The State Normal School, Emporia, had an enrollment
of 724 and 13 instructors. All three schools reported an urgent need for books.

FINANCES: The State Treasurer's fifth biennial report showed total receipts of $4,-
792,655.26 since July 1, 1884, as against disbursements of $4,962,894.17. The balance in
the treasury at the end of the fiscal year was $584,273.16.



182 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

INDUSTRY: Assessors' rolls for March 1, 1886, listed 795 mechanical and manufac-
turing firms in the state, employing 11,320 persons at total wages of $5,158,612. Capital
invested amounted to $16,369,724. Cost of raw materials purchased was $31,651,913, and
the value of finished products was $48,471,406.

INSURANCE: Fire insurance written by 88 companies authorized to do business in the
state totaled $120,046,025. Life insurance sold by 21 authorized companies amounted to
$8,259,449.

POPULATION: The biennial report of the State Board of Agriculture gave the popu-
lation as 1,406,738, an increase of 138,208 over the preceding year. The largest city in
the state was Leavenworth with 29,150; Topeka, 25,005; Kansas City, 21,229, and Wichita,
20,129.

RAILROADS: Sixty-four railroads operated 4,517 miles of main track in Kansas. Total
earnings were $62,766,858.90 for the year ending June 30, 1886. Freight totaled 16,-
260,673 tons, an increase of 705,278.07 tons over 1885. During the first ten months of
1886, 950 miles of new track were laid, more than in any other state. The aggregate value
of all railroad equipment as fixed by the State Board of Railroad Assessors was $32,434,-
936.68.

WEATHER: The mean temperature for 1886 was 52.96 degrees. The highest tem-
perature recorded was 105 on August 16, and the lowest was 18 on January 9. Rainfall
over the state averaged 24.24 inches, 11.02 inches below the annual average. The drouth
during July, August and September was the first serious one since 1874.



Background Notes on the Bourne
Lister Cultivator

PATRICIA M. BOURNE and A. BOWER SAGESER

TN the drier regions west of the Missouri river, corn was frequently
-* planted by the lister planter. The lister planter, in reality a
double-moldboard plow with a drilling device for the seed, was used
extensively in the lighter soil areas of Kansas. It presented the ad-
vantages of increased yield, resistance to drought and wind erosion,
and reduced operating costs. It was adopted by many farmers
before a tool suitable for cultivating the ridges and furrows had
been developed. The farmer depended on the existing tools which
were inadequate. Consequently, there was a real need for a new
lister cultivator. Midwestern tanners experimented with adapta-
tions for the existing corn-cultivator and eventually invented several
new machines more adaptable to this particular type of cultivation.
Interest in the development of a lister cultivator ran high during
the period 1883-1900.

The history of the lister planter and the general evolution of the
lister cultivator has been described thoroughly by James C. Malin
in his study, Winter Wheat in the Golden Belt of Kansas. 1 The
purpose of this brief report is to relate the personal factors and the
motivating influences around one particular invention by Daniel M.
Bourne of Cool, Kan.

Among the early settlers who made their homes in and near the



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