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Solomon valley were Mr. and Mrs. Daniel M. Bourne, who came to
Kansas in 1876. The story of this family is typical of many frontier
families. Daniel Montague Bourne was born near New Bedford,
Mass., December 27, 1848. When he was four years old, he moved
with his parents, the Franklin Bournes, to Oshkosh, Wis. He was
married to Amelia Jane Spencer of Stockbridge, Wis., on September
26, 1875. 2 According to Amelia Bourne:

There was a lot of advertising being done and it sounded like the Solomon
Valley flowed with milk and honey. So Daddy decided he would come out
and see for himself, and he was so taken with the country that he bought the
farm which we still own. 3

PATRICIA M. BOURNE, of Delphos, a granddaughter of Daniel M. Bourne, is a senior
in arts and science at Kansas State College, Manhattan. DR. A. BOWER SAGESER is profes-
sor of history at Kansas State College.

1. James C. Malin, Winter Wheat in the Golden Belt of Kansas (Lawrence, 1944),
pp. 210-231.

2. Children born to this family were: Leona, 1876; Harry, 1877; Bessie, 1879; Richard,
1881; Gordon, 1883; Bert, 1892; Essie, 1898. From family records.

3. "Recollections," MS. written by Amelia Bourne, January 1, 1932. Manuscript is in
the possession of Mrs. L. M. Ballou of Delphos, Kan. Mrs. Ballou's maiden name was
lassie Bourne. See Footnote 2.

(183)



184 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

In late September, 1876, Mr. and Mrs. Bourne and their baby
daughter arrived by train in Solomon. Their new homesite was
40 miles northwest of Solomon. Bourne had purchased in the spring
of that year the rights of an original homesteader for the sum of
$600, having paid $100 down with the balance due the first of
October. This quarter section was located three miles east and
three miles north of Delphos, in south-central Cloud county. Family
records show that the Bournes experienced the usual problems
typical of such a frontier community. In time, Bourne enlarged the
farm holdings.

However, Bourne did not limit himself entirely to farm work. He
became interested in a general store and post office in the Cool
community. Near the store was a stone house and a blacksmith
shop. This small village was located eight miles north of Delphos
and four miles east and two miles north of Glasco. In the fall of
1883, Bourne mortgaged his farm for $1,500 to buy the business at
the country store, and the family moved to the new community. 4
The local press frequently spoke of Bourne as "the Cool merchant." 5

Bourne found that he enjoyed the work of a blacksmith. He be-
gan his blacksmithing career at a time when there was a great deal
of demand for a lister cultivator. From his own experience and
from that of his farmer neighbors, he knew that no implements, up
to this time, would adequately control the weeds in the rows and
the ridges. He set himself to the task of making a shovel that could
be attached to the shank of a regular cultivator. He soon named
this shovel Bourne's Wing Bull Tongue for cultivating listed corn. 6

After making several sets of shovels for the local farmers, Bourne
decided to patent his invention. He secured the services of Munn
& Company of New York, publishers of the Scientific American.
The patent was issued December 14, 1886. 7 Two weeks later the
Scientific American published a lengthy description of the new in-
vention. 8 At the time, patent attorneys advertised extensively in the
local newspapers, and the following week, the description was re-
printed in the Glasco Sun. g

According to the Scientific American, the chief objects of the in-
vention were "to provide a shovel that will cultivate the bottom of

4. From an interview with Mrs. L. H. Cool. The buildings were owned by Frank
Wilson of the Cool community. Mrs. Cool's maiden name was Bessie Bourne. See Foot-
note 2. She married L. H. Cool of that community and lived near the site of the Cool
store and post office.

5. Glasco Sun, January 1, 1887.

6. Ibid., May 28, 1887.

7. The patent is now in the possession of Bert A. Bourne, Delphos, Kan.

8. Scientific American, New York, January 1, 1887, p. 6.

9. Glasco Sun, January 8, 1887.



NOTES ON THE BOURNE LISTER CULTIVATOR



185



(No Model.)



No. 354,381



D. M. BOURNE.

CULTIVATOR.

Patented Deo. 14, 1886,





WITNESSES :



'<*>



INVENTOR ;

7). Jit. (2,-t^L



BY



ATTOBNEYS.



186 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

the furrow, and at the same time trim the edges." 10 The description
likewise stressed that the shovel could be used on the riding or
walking cultivator. The accompanying diagram of the Bourne
model shows the chief problems of design. Figure 1 shows how the
shovels would operate in the lister row. 11 Figures 2 and 3 show how
the shovel was curved and pointed to work more effectively in the
row and on the sides of the ridges.

After securing the patent, Bourne advertised the invention in the
local press. Usually a modified drawing of Figure 1 was used by the
printer. The shovels sold for three dollars per pair. The advertise-
ments, like many others, carried indorsements by local users of the
new shovel. 12

The Wing Bull Tongue had to compete with several other lister
cultivators. The Clyde Carriage Company sold the Kirlin listed corn
cultivator and many farmers endorsed the success of this machine. 13
The rate of invention was high. The January 27, 1887, issue of The
Republican-Empire, Concordia, published a list of Kansas inventors.
On this list were a cultivator, a planter and a harrow patented by
F. M. Dougan of Seneca, and a garden cultivator and a seed drill
patented by C. C. Hunter of Concordia.

Family records offer no evidence as to the number of shovels
made by Bourne, but there was sufficient blacksmithing business to
enable him to hire a clerk to help run the store. Bourne did not
find a manufacturer to produce his machine. Soon his invention
was replaced by a better one. In fact, most of the inventions were
replaced by the disc sled-type cultivator.

The years following the Bournes' entrance into the store and
blacksmithing business were years of general hard times. Few
people could pay their bills, and Bourne carried too many accounts
on his books. He eventually closed the store and the family
returned to the farm. They were not free from debt until 1898. 14

While Bourne's invention was not a great success, his experience
brings out more clearly the role of the local farmer in the inventive
process. Then, as now, many of the machine problems were solved
on the scene. Daniel M. Bourne was one of many who tried to meet
the need for more adaptable farming machinery in a pioneer country.

10. Scientific American, loc. cit.

11. Photograph of the original patent.

12. Glasco Sun, May 28, 1887. This particular advertisement carried an endorsement
by Frank Wilson of the Cool community.

13. Clyde Herald, April 20, 1887. This machine had been in use for three years.

14. Interview with Mrs. L. H. Cool.



w



Vincent B. Osborne's Civil War Experiences

Edited by JOYCE FARLOW and LOUISE BARRY
PART Two: SEPTEMBER, 1862- JULY, 1865

[Stationed Near Fort Scott, September, 1862]
E left Fort Riley 19 the [2nd] of Sep. to go to Leavenworth



where we were ordered The first day we marched as far
as Manhattan I had the pleasure of visiting one of my friends Dr.
[E. L.] Pat[t]ee who lived at Manhattan that day This was a small
but thriving town at the junction of the Blue river and Kansas and
it is situated in a very pleasant section of country The soil is good
The inhabitants are trying to have an institution of learning erected
here with good prospect of success Dr. Patee still belonged to the
army and got Maj Fisk to issue an order for him to accompany us
and the next morning he started with us and was with us till we
arived at Fort Scott.

The 2nd day after leaving Fort Riley we recieved orders to go to
Lawrence instead of Leavenworth and we turned our course to-
wards that place The third day I was taken sick with a fever and
headache and was compeled to get into the ambulance and I rode in
the ambulance till I got to Lawrence We crossed the Kansas river
at Topeka the capital of Kansas The teams were ferried acrossed
but the Cav'y forded it We remained at Lawrence a few days
during that time I was confined to the hospital with Beaveas[?]
Fever while we were at Lawrence a Co. of infantry passed there
on their road to Leavenworth where they were to be organized into
the Eleventh Kansas. I saw two persons that were in the 2nd
Kansas under its first organizeation Lieut Lindsay, and George
Bacon, in that Co. We were ordered from Lawrence to Fort Scott
but were to escort three large siege guns to the latter place. These
guns were hauled on very heavy artilery wagons by oxen The
oxen were poor and very slow not going but about twelve miles a
day The day I left Lawrence I was able to ride my horse and kept
getting better till I was well

Our force now consisted of four companies of 2nd Kansas These
were A, B, C, and D and we were under the command of Maj Fisk
Capt Crawford of Co A had got permission of Gen Blunt to take
his Co. by way of Garnett Anderson Co. where most of them lived

19. Copy Missing.

(187)



188 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

before enlisting in the army The third morning of our march we
left the rest of the companies and by turning more to the right went
by way of Ohio City to Garnett arriving there about noon Sunday
passing through town and camped near it on the south side Then
the Co were dismissed by Capt [Samuel J.] Crawford but were
to be back Tuesday night without any exception And then those
that lived in the vicinity each took the road home

The rest of us put up what tents we needed and then we done
what pleased us most Some saddling their horses and going to
Camp Meeting one of which was being held in the vicinity I re-
mained at camp not having entirely recovered from being sick
Monday night the young folks had a dance in town and we were
all invited The tickets were one dollar a couple the dance was kept
up till morning and they had a good supper Tuesday in the
afternoon it rained very hard and continued till the next morning
Tuesday night nearly all of the Co came in and the next morning
about nine oclock we left Garnett. Garnett is pleasantly situated
on the prairie about a mile from the south Fork and four from the
north fork of the Pottawatamie. The country around this town is
high rolling prairies of good quality but subject to drowth and
timber is not abundant Unimproved prairie land is worth from
two and a half to three dollars per acre timber from ten to twenty

We traveled in a southeast direction after leaving Garnett till
we got on the road that the rest of our detachment had passed over
and we overtook the guns about nine oclock Wednesday night at
a small town called Mapleton where we camped that night The
next morning Maj Fisk came back and put us on duty as rear guard
marching in the rear of the guns Our train went on with the rest
of the command arriving at Fort Scott about two oclock and Co A
got there about five oclock P. M. We camped about a half a mile
from the Fort and south east of it Fort Scott is situated on
Marmiton creek but does not look as though it was in a prosperous
condition And is in a weak position to defend should an attack
be made upon it The country around it is mostly high rolling
prairie with good soil

The morning after we arived at Fort Scott we marched out to
Dry Wood Creek where the rest of the regiment were camped and
joined them again having been seperated about three months
Corn had become very scarce about Fort Scott but there was plenty
of grass on the prairies The day after we got to Dry Wood we
moved camp and all of the regiment camping together Co. A on
the right and D on the left the whole regiment camping in line We



OSBORNE'S CIVIL WAR EXPERIENCES 189

had anticipated before we got back to the regiment that when we
got back we would have some rest but in this we were dissapointed
Forage had to be procured and we had to go long distances for it
The Second day after we got to Dry Wood a detail was made out to
go after it At first the detail was from Co E, C, and B and con-
sisted of fifty men and were under Command of Capt [John]
Gardner but Capt. Gardner did not think it safe to go out with
this number and twenty five more were detailed from Cos A and D,
and put under command of Lieut [H. L.] Moore and were sent to
overtake Capt Gardner When we were detailed nothing was said
about taking any rations or blankets along with us and we sup-
posing we would be back at night did not take any along with us
We went east from Dry Wood^ getting our forage the third day
near the east line of Vernon County Missouri.

The third night we kept our horses saddled all night and our
arms ready to pick up and put on at any moment We were alarmed
about twelve oclock by one of the pickets firing. We roused up
got in line and stood about a half an hour The sentinel reported
that a man came riding towards him and on being halted turned
his horse and run away and he fired after him Then the seargent
of the guard went out to see what the firing meant and not hearing
the sentinel halt him was fired on by the sentinel and he returned
the fire and they exchanged several shots before finding out their
mistake After we acertained what the cause of the firing was we
laid down and slept as well as we could till morning for the night
was very cold The next day about three oclock in the afternoon
we arived at camp

After getting back to camp we learned that Capt Crawford had
left the day before with about one hundred men twenty of which
were of Co. A to escort a train to Col Richie 20 who was in command
of two regiments of Indians and camped about forty miles south of
our camp. About this time Col Richie had a skirmish with the
enemy after which he fell back to a creek twelve miles south of
our camp and there the train was delivered to him. Then Capt
Crawford came back to camp ariving here the day after we did
The next morning I was detailed to go for forage We went up
Dry Wood and got corn loading sixteen wagons and got back to
camp about eight oclock P. M. the same day

When we arived at camp I learned that all of the available force
of the regiment were just starting for Humbolt, a town on the

20. Col. John Ritchie, Second Indian home guards, formerly lieutenant colonel of the
Fifth Kansas cavalry.



190 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Neosho forty miles west of Fort Scott A report having come in
that the enemy had made a raid upon that place Each Co took
one team to haul thier rations and cooking utensils and nothing
more was taken Orders were also issued to have the camp moved
to Fort Scott the next day by those whose horses were not fit to go
with the rest of the regiment After I learned this I eat supper
and then went on overtaking the Co. about two miles from camp
Col. [W. F.j Cloud had command of this expedition and took his
whole brigade His brigade consisted of the 2nd Kansas Cav'y
Rabbs battery and two Indians regiments We went south to the
Indian camp and the Indians joined us we turned west and kept
marching till about nine oclock A. M. occasionally halting for the
battery and team to overtake us At that time we halted and got
breakfast stopping an hour and a half for that purpose Then we
mounted and kept on till five oclock P. M. At that time we met
a Co. of the Ninth who had come through Humbolt and they re-
ported that no enemy had been there We halted now and
camped staying till morning

Col Cloud now called a council of war with the result of which
was for Col Cloud to take all the best mounted men in 2nd Kan
they taking three days rations on thier horses, and proceed down
the Neosho and acertain where the enemy were and whether they
had been up the Neosho in any considerable force Capt. Craw-
ford was sent back to camp with the train and those whose horses
were not fit to go on and was to take charge of camp when he got
back Capt Rabbs battery and the Indians regiments went back
also About sunrise the next morning we went on Seargent [Ezra]
Romine and four men of Co. A were detailed as an escort for Col
Cloud I was on the detail We marched south till about noon
when we arived at the Osage Indian Mission There we halted
fed our horses killed a fat steer roasted meat and eat dinner This
is a Catholic mission [and] was in a thriving condition before the
war broke out but it is now on the decline the Indians having taken
part with the rebels 21 The whites at the Mission treated us very
civilly and gave us all the information of the enemy that they could

About two we saddled mounted and went on down the river
crossing about a mile below the mission and then taking a trail
which kept about a mile from the timber We halted about an
hour after dark on the prairie where there was neither wood or
water and unsaddled picketed our horses and lay down and slept

21. This mission, founded in 1847, was not molested by soldiers or guerrillas of either
side during the Civil War; and the school was not suspended during the war years.



OSBORNE'S CIVIL WAR EXPERIENCES 191

till daylight the next morning Then we got up saddled mounted
and went on About ten oclock A. M. we came to a creek and
finding cattle halted killed some and got us some dinner. We also
unsaddled and picketed our horses About twelve oclock M. we
saddled mounted and crossing the creek went on down the river
After traveling about two hours we came to a small settlement
where we stoped fed our horses and rested ourselves for an hour
Here we acertained that the enemy had heard of our advance and
had gone south so far as to make it hopeless to pursue them.

We crossed the river at this place and started back The valley
of the Neosho whenever the land comes into market will present
many inducements to settlers The soil is good timber plenty
The prairies are beautifully rolling and covered with luxuriant
grass After crossing the river we went about twelve miles and
stoped on a creek where there was plenty of wood water and grass
and unsaddled picketed our horses and lay down In about an
hour an alarm was given and the men were roused up got in line
and after waiting some time were dismissed The cause of the
alarm was a vidette who was stationed some distance from camp
said he saw two men coming towards him and he thought he heard
a large body of men coming still behind them he came into camp
and told the officer of the guard what he had seen and then the
officer of the guard alarmed the camp Col Cloud after hearing the
cause of the alarm had the vidette brought to him and asked him
whether he fired his piece or was fired on and on being answered
in the negative told him to go right back to his post and never
again leave his post till he fired his piece or was fired on A
recoinoitreing party was sent out but could find nothing The
cause of the alarm was probably nothing but imagination

The next morning we got up by daylight we were up saddled
and mounted and went on still following the creek up that we
camped on Col Cloud and his escort went in advance and after
going about twelve [miles] we saw some men who we took to be
Indians driving cattle down the creek on the oposite side We
crossed and gallopped our horses on after them and on over taking
found out that we were mistaken about thier being Indians They
proving to be some whites who had been living down the Neosho
but were now leaving thier homes thier houses having been robbed
by the rebel Indians and thier property taken or destroyed They
were going up into the settlements north of the Indian lands They
were very glad to see us and would have given us our breakfast if
we would have waited for them to cook it. While we were talking



192 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

the regiment crossed the creek and went on in advance of us We
had no road after leaving this creek taking a northeast direction
across the prairie We stoped once about an hour and let our horses
eat grass and then went on We got to Cow Creek about one
oclock P. M. but did not stop only just long enough to let our
horses drink Col Cloud and his escort went on in advance and
turning to the right went down by where Col Richie had been
camped Col Cloud examined things about camp and came to the
conclusion that no one had been there since Col Richie had left
Col Bassett 22 did not follow us taking a nearer route with the regi-
ment After we passed the camp we saw several Indian ponies and
were delayed at least two hours trying to catch some of them
Then we got into the military road and kept following it till after
dark

The regiment was a few miles in advance of us And Col Cloud
did not wish to ride very late so turning off the road went about a
quarter of a mile from it and we unsaddled piketed our horses and
remained here till daylight We kept a guard on all night each man
standing an hour and a half At daylight we got up saddled and
mounted and went on It rained all the latter part of the night
wetting our blankets and clothing so as to make very heavy About
nine oclock A. M. we got to the Indian camp and they got us some
breakfast we were very hungry not having eaten anything for
nearly two days We heard that all the troops had been ordered
to go south and that our camp equipage was now on the road
About ten oclock we went on to Fort Scott ariving there about two
P. M. and Col Cloud getting us an order for forage we went and
drew it and fed our horses

[Expedition Into Missouri, October, 1862]'

The regiment got within five miles of Fort Scott before they knew
any thing about being ordered south and were very much dissa-
pointed supposing they would rest a few days But when meeting
the train turned back and went as far as Dry Wood when they
halted and got something to eat and stayed at that place till about
dark Then every thing was packed up and they went on marching
till about eleven oclock at night when they stoped and unsaddled
picketed thier horses and lay down till morning. Col Cloud re-
mained at Fort Scott till a little after dark and then we left that
place and went on after the regiment overtaking them about twelve
oclock at night after they had stopped And we lay down till morn-

22. Lt. Col. Owen A. Bassett, second in command of the Second Kansas cavalry.



OSBORNE'S CIVIL WAR EXPERIENCES 193

ing The next morning we went to the company and got breakfast
but returned to headquarters again About sunrise we saddled
mounted and went on After going a few miles we saw some one
riding across the prairie in gallop and Col Cloud sent Ed Wilson
and me after him on overtaking him we saw he was a boy about
fifteen years of age but we took him to the Col who after question-
ing him considerably let him go Then we went on to Lamarr the
county seat of Barton County and stoped to feed and get dinner
Rabbs battery and the two Indian regiments were in advance of us

Before we got dinner a messenger came in reporting that the
Indians had been attacked by the enemy and we went on as quick
as possible on double quick but when we overtook the Indians the
skirmish was all over the enemy having gone away so far as to
make it useless to pursue them This skirmish occured about seven
miles south east of Lamarr The enemy numbering about seventy
and they were watching the road probably to supprise Gen Blunt 23
and his escort as they passed south But Gen Blunt had already
passed and the Indians coming up were close upon them before
they saw them Volleys were exchanged and then the enemy re-
treated on double quick They were on foot but we believed they
had horses some where in the timber nearby Two of our men
were wounded one white man and one Indian but not mortally
It was not certainly known that any of the enemy were hurt
After deliberating about this some time we went on about five
miles and camped at Golden Grove where we got plenty of corn
to feed but water was scarce

The next morning by sunrise we were again on the march The
inhabitants around Golden Grove apeared to be very much afraid
of us Even the women and children hiding in the brush I saw
one woman in the morning when I went to water my horse She
looked to be about eighteen years of age was bearheaded and had
a child in her arms under a year old She apeared to be turibly
fritened and run into some thick brush as soon as she saw me After
watering our horses we went back to camp and the regiment having
gone we went on after them overtaking Col Cloud in a short time
Eight miles from Golden Grove the regiment found water enough
for thier horses, it was in pools to the right of the road It was



Online LibraryKansas State Historical SocietyThe Kansas historical quarterly (Volume 20) → online text (page 22 of 76)