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missionary began in 1837. At first he was stationed with the Kickapoo Indians, but later
was assigned to the Pottawatomies. His counsel was sought by the Pottawatomies in accept-
ing the terms of the treaty covering the reserve on the Kaw river.

Patrick Regan, the lay brother, spent only a year at St. Mary's mission.



le California trail, was located on tl

\f Madames of the Sacred Heart were Mother Lucille Mathevon superioress of

tbe nuns, Mother Mary Anne O Connor, Mother Basile O'Connor and Sister Louise Amvot

Garraghan, op. cit. , v. 2, p. 602, citing Catholic Mirror, Baltimore, November 16, 1850

wJESfEv f ? nd 7" * i? "*^ 0111 ^ * mixed blood - He married a Pottawatomie
SH*l&* name of Madeline The children were Joseph, Jr., Benjamin, Laurent. Theresa.

collections ana Researches Made by the Michigan Pioneer and
f. 28, pp. 129, 130.



EARLY YEARS AT ST. MARY'S POTTAWATOMIE MISSION 507

to take dinner at a stream; and about four o'clock A. M. we were
gladdened by the sight of the new houses at our future home.

The country presents a cheerful view on every side. But not so
the log-houses, which are only half-finished and allow free scope
to the winds. And the only workman we depend on to remedy
this inconvenience is missing; that is the Brother whom we call the
Doctor, and who being taken with fever was forced to prolong his
stay at Sugar Creek. 13

September 17: We erected a cross on the hill of our residence. 14
Meanwhile both the Fathers were attacked with fever, from the
effects of which one of them was troubled for nearly two months.

We live in anxiety about the success of the new mission; for our
Indian people continue in the settlements on the other side of the
river. This anxiety is increased by the rumors of a war that is
imminent between the Potawatomies and the Pawnees. For not
so long ago the Kansas Indians, while out hunting with the Pota-
watomies, met the Pawnees and fired upon them, and the Potawa-
tomies seeing themselves involved in the common danger rushed
into battle for their own safety and killed many Pawnee warriors and
ponies. 15 Burning with revenge for this, the Pawnees have fore-
sworn their old friendship for the Potawatomies. They are raiding
on the ponies, and are threatening a war of extermination on the
Potawatomies. And this rumor has so frightened our Indians, who
had camped in remote parts of the reserve near the Pawnees, that
in one day they all pulled their tents and fled panic-stricken. In
consequence we are placed in the front exposed to the fury of the
Pawnees. And there is not an Indian who is willing or who dares to
share our danger.

Add to this the lies and manifold arts of Satan who neglects no
means to alienate from us the hearts of the natives; so that the best
disposed are kept from settling around this new mission. 16

13. Sugar Creek is one of the first mission stations of the Pottawatomies, and is located
near present Centerville in Linn county, Kansas. The exact location is: sec. 7, T. 21 S.,
R. 23 E.

14. Description of reservation from treaty of 1846: "... a tract or parcel of land
containing five hundred and seventy-six thousand acres, being thirty miles square, and being
the eastern part of the lands ceded to the United States by the Kansas tribe of Indians, by
treaty concluded on the 14th day of January, and ratified on the 15th of April of the present
year, lying adjoining the Shawnees on the south, and the Delawares and Shawnees on the
east, on both sides of the Kansas river." "Treaty with the Potawatomi Nation, 1846," Art.
4, taken from Charles J. Kappler (ed.), Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties (Washington,
1904), v. 2, p. 558.

15. A few of the Pottawatomies had joined some Kansas and Kickapoo and Sac Indians
in a buffalo hunt just west of the reserve. This group met with a band of Pawness encamped
at Rocky Ford on the Big Blue river. A messenger from the Pawnees was sent to offer
tokens of peace. The messenger was received amicably, but on his departure a Kansas
Indian remembering some ancient grudge he held against the Pawnees fired upon and killed
the Pawnee messenger. Warfare ensued as we read in the diary. See John O Connor, S. J.,
"The Jesuits of the Kaw Valley" (Ms., archives of St. Mary's College), p. 87.

16. The Rev. J. J. O'Meara, S. J., former archivist of St. Mary's College, completed the
translation of the diary to this point. The translator has used Father O'Meara s translation.



508 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

We are receiving frequent greetings from the head-chief of those
Indians who had formerly been at home on the banks of the Mis-
souri. He is proving himself our true friend and appears to express
the sentiments of all his subjects.

September 26: The Doctor finally arrived whom every one has
been so eagerly expecting, and although not completely cured of the
fever, he went to work at once and finished the interior part of the
house. 17 A few Indians came at the same time to look over the sur-
roundings for a future home.

October 12: Today, Father Hoecken crossed the river and joined
us. 18 His arrival at the new mission opened the entrance of many
Indians who followed their Father and leader. 19 Meantime, until
the big chapel is erected, we are building a chapel on the side of
the house where the Holy Sacrifice will be celebrated. For a long
time, however, we have been solicitous about the large chapel; even
though, for sure, workmen from the tenth of September, have been
working hard preparing the material for the roof.

Today we are about to enter upon the heavenly work of building
the new chapel. 20 Father Hoecken preached in the Indian language
both in the morning and in the evening.

November 20: Father Hoecken, both for the sake of health and
recreation, accompanied the Indians on their hunt. While he is
gone, on Sunday, Father Superior preached in the morning in Eng-
lish, and by the aid of an interpreter, the sermon was translated into
Potawatomie. 21 In the Evening, Father Gailland preached a ser-
mon in French. At this same time a stable was put up for the horses.

December 15-18: Father Gailland is called to care for two sick
youths. He hears their confession. But at home, because we didn't

17. The doctor mentioned in this entry was Brother Andrew Mazzella. Brother admin-
istered not only to the sick of the Jesuit community, but also to the Pottawatomies. He
was born on November 30, 1802, in Procida, a little island in the Mediterranean. He en-
tered the society in 1823, and was assigned to the Maryland province of the United States
in 1833. In 1836 he commenced his labors among the Indians, and continued to give his
talents and service to them until his death in May, 1867. See M. Gailland, "Historia
Domus" (unpublished document, St. Mary's archives, 1851).

18. Father Christian Hoecken was born on February 28, 1808, at Talburg, Holland.
He entered the Society of Jesus on November 5, 1832. In 1838, shortly after his ordination,
he became an Indian missionary. The scene of his labors was Council Bluffs, Sugar Creek,
and St. Mary's. He acquired a great facility in speaking the Pottawatomie and Kickapoo
languages. His death occurred on June 19, 1851, while he was on a journey to the great
Indian council, being held at Fort Laramie, Wyo. See Garraghan, op. cit., v. 1, p. 346;
and v. 2, pp. 611, 612, 614, 615, 627-629.

19. Many of the Pottawatomies stayed on the south side of the Kansas river because
they feared an attack by the Pawnees who resided on the north side. Father Gailland sin-
cerely hoped that Father Hoecken's arrival at the mission would convince the Indians to
take up their abode on the north side close to the mission station.

20. This chapel was finished the following spring. "In the meantime a chapel was built
adjoining the missionaries house." O'Connor, loc. cit., p. 61.

21. The interpreter mentioned in the diary was probably John Tipton, a mixed-blood
Pottawatomie. Tipton s name occurs in two or three places in the writings of the early
millenaries. He taught Father Gailland how to speak and write Pottawatomie. Ibid.,
p. 64.



EARLY YEARS AT ST. MARY'S POTTAWATOMIE MISSION 509

understand the language of the natives, we were unable to hear any
confessions.

At the beginning of December a worker came with the intention
of putting up stakes for the buildings of the students. 22 Meanwhile
we have admitted five youths to live with us. On November 25,
Bernard Bertrand registered, Ezechiel Pelletier, William and Fran-
cis Darling, November 30, and Francis La Fromboise, December
II. 23 At this time the Madames of the Sacred Heart received five
girls.

December 5: The ice on the Kansas River is so thick that horses
with a wagon loaded with supplies may safely cross it, just as if it
were a paved road.

December 21: There was a fresh snowfall of about three feet
over the old snow. The cold is extremely intense and bothersome.
We administered to a dying youth.

December 22: The weather is fair, but intensely cold; the ink
freezes in the pen while writing. An Indian youth, Pemowetuk,
died.

December 23: The cold this morning is more intense. In the
evening Father Gailland heard eleven confessions; of that number
five were Indians.

December 24: Sunday. Mass without singing. There was no
sermon because of the cold. In the evening there was benediction.
Father Gailland preached the sermon in French. Because of the
approach of the great Solemnity, a large number of confessions were
heard, many of whom were Indians. The weather is serene. It is
moderately cold. We had the burial of Pemowetuk without any
religious songs. Many Indians came from the other side of the
river in order that they may spend a devout Christmas day with us.
Our longing for Father Hoecken is great.

December 25: Christmas Day. Each priest said only one Mass.
There was no mid-night Mass on account of the severity of the win-
ter. In the morning there was Mass with singing and a sermon in
English by Father Superior, with someone to interpret it in the

22. The only buildings that existed at that time were two log cabins; one inhabited by
the sisters and the other cabin sheltered the Fathers and Brothers. A description of these
cabins is recorded in Father O'Connor's "Jesuits of the Kaw Valley," p. 60: "They had
two stories with four rooms, each twenty-five by twenty-feet on the ground floor, and a
smaller room above the stairway. The nuns occupied the western log house near a creek,
and the Fathers and Brothers took possession of the other, about one hundred and ten yards
to the east."

23. The family name Bertrand and La Fromboise have been perpetuated among the
annals of early frontier history. The name Bertrand, mixed French and Indian blood, is per-
petuated by the town of Bertrand on the Michigan-Indiana line, and by Bertrand avenue in
St. Marys, Kan. La Fromboise was a prominent name among the "Chicago" Pottawatomies.
One of their most illustrious chiefs was Joseph La Fromboise. See Garraghan, op. cit., v. 2,
pp. 697-699.



510 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Potawatomie language. In the evening there was benediction and
a sermon in French by Father Gailland. The sky is bright. Some
snow has melted.

December 26: St. Stephen's. Somewhat less cold. Weather
is cloudy. A messenger sent to Tremble for the mail was forced
to turn back from the trip on account of so much heavy snow.

December 27: Feast of St. John. The sky is clear. The cold
has let up a bit.

N. B. During the last few days it was so cold that some of the
skinnier dogs and horses perished.

December 28: The weather has become mild. Mr. Darling
came and promised by contract that he would begin shortly to
enclose the fields, and in order that he might plough it first, he
took his two sons for a few days.

December 29: Father Gailland took care of Bergeron who was
gravely ill with the fever. 24 We joyfully welcomed Mr. Darvau who
brought us wine for the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass; for the last two
days we have sorrowfully abstained from the Holy Sacrifice be-
cause of the lack of the precious liquor. 25 Bernard Bertrand, be-
cause of a secret illness, was sent to his family. Father Gailland,
who intended to go to Mr. Tremble, returned, unable to see him
because of so much snow. The sky is mild.

December SO: The weather is serene, the snow is melting. The
son of Mr. Pelletier went home so that he might celebrate the new
year with his parents. In the evening both Fathers heard confes-
sions.

N. B. We are in need of a teacher for the boys; meanwhile Father
Superior himself does the teaching. He has a class in the morning
and the evening.

December 81: Sunday. In the morning the Holy Sacrifice of
the Mass was offered at ten-thirty o'clock; there was no singing.
Afterwards there was a sermon in English, interpreted in Potawa-
tomie. In the evening there was benediction.

1849

January 1: The last Mass was at seven-thirty A. M. A large con-
course of Indians, who were not hindered by the difficulty of the
journey, came from the other bank of the river; as was the custom,
they greeted the Fathers with customary handshakes. Extraordinary

24. Most likely the Bergeron mentioned in this entry is Francis Bergeron.
I 5 -* VsS? Darveau w as married to Oheta Bourbonnais. His daughter Eleonor was bap-
8 '^ at St ' M ^ <* *> L-4



EARLY YEARS AT ST. MARY'S POTTAWATOMEE MISSION 511

joy and love for us shone in everyone's face despite the long series of
hardships. They gave us some venison; the great amount that they
gave us put us to shame. In the evening there was benediction
with the usual sermon. Both Fathers afterwards went to offer the
New Year's greetings to the Madames.

January 2: The weather, again, is very cold. We see, with in-
describable grief, certain Indians without even the bare necessities
of livelihood. 26 A sick woman visits us.

January 3: The sky is very cloudy and depressive; Chariot re-
turns from the hunt carrying two prairie chickens. John Tipton
taught Father Gailland the Indian language.

January 4: The sky is serene, and a little snow has melted.

January 5: The weather is gloomy and piercingly cold. The
sons of Mr. Darling returned to our home. Finally Father Hoecken
arrived, so long desired by all; he suffered greatly from cold and
hunger. 27

January 6: Weather is very cloudy. In the evening we had a
large snowfall mixed with hail and rain. The last Mass was at
eight o'clock. The son of Mr. La Fromboise came. We visited a
sick woman.

January 7: Sunday. In the morning the last Mass was at ten-
thirty o'clock, without any hymns. Father Hoecken preached in
Pottawatomie. In the afternoon at about three there was benedic-
tion with a sermon in French, preached by Father Gailland. The
cold is quite intense. A furnace was placed in the chapel last night.

January 8: The sky is exceedingly gloomy; the cold is severe.
In the evening it snowed. An Indian, while trying to cross the
river on the ice, lost his horse which broke through the ice and
drowned. The happy news of the beatification of Peter Claver
made us exceedingly joyful. 28 The students have started back to
school again. Reverend Father Superior conducts the class.

26. This destitution is all the more pitiful when we consider how severely cold was the
winter of 1849.

27. On November 12, Father Hoecken set out with a party of Indians who were going
to the Miami country to make sugar and hunt. The Indians remained in the Miami country.
Rumors reached the mission that those Indians were leading very disorderly and scandalous
lives. Father Hoecken arrived home after two months of cold and privation. See O'Connor,
loc. cit., p. 65.

28. Peter Clayer's feast day is September 9. The date of his beatification was July 16,
1850. Father Gailland must have reference to the report that is sent out before the beatifi-
cation of a person, otherwise there is no way to explain the conflict in dates.

Peter Claver was born at Verda in Catalonia in 1581. He entered the society at the age
of 20. He was sent to Cartagenia in South America in 1615. For many years he cared for
the slaves who were shipped into the port of Cartagenia. He is credited with baptizing over
300,000 slaves. He was beatified by Pope Pius IX, and canonized in 1888 by Pope Leo
XIII. See Francis Corley and Robert Willmes, Wing* of Eagles (Milwaukee, Bruce Pub-
lishing Co., 1941), pp. 159-163.



512 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

January 9: Sky is clear, but is very cold. Yesterday and today
Father Hoecken heard some confessions.

January 10: More very biting weather. Father Hoecken cared
for a sick person on the other side of the river. 29 An old Indian,
Pohimak by name, came to us, in order to go to confession in prepa-
ration for Baptism which he sought so ardently. Reverend Father
Superior received a letter from Father Trudens pertaining to some
money matters both are in friendly disagreement. 30 Father Gail-
land starts his triduum preparatory for the renovation of his vows. 31

January 11: The wind blew so violently, whirling through the
air, that it threatens to destroy the house and to uproot trees. Early
in the day the wind was from the east, and then it changed to the
south. The snow is melting as a result of this change.

January 12: The south wind blew all night up until noon, and a
great amount of snow melted. At noon, however, the wind changed
and the weather became very cold. Father Hoecken has not yet
arrived; for this reason the catechism of Pohimak must be dropped
again.

January 13: The cold is extremely intense. The snow is so hard
that a man can easily walk over it.

.January 14: Sunday. The feast of the Holy Name of Jesus.
Mass at ten o'clock. There was no singing because of the very
intense cold; afterwards there was a sermon in English by Father
Superior with someone to interpret it into Potawatomie. In the
afternoon at three o'clock there was benediction with a sermon in
French preached by Father Gailland. Father Hoecken arrived
about noon. Father Gailland renewed his vows.

January 15: The sky is serene but cold. We had Mass and class
as usual.

29. A large number of the Indians settled on the south side of the river and scattered
in villages up and down the reserve. Father Hoecken spent a week in each village baptizing,
catechising and arranging marriages, etc. The large portion of the ministerial work of the
Indians on the south side or bank was done by Father Hoecken.

30. Trudens seems to be a misspelling for Truyens. In 1848 Father Verreydt, the
superior of Sugar Creek mission, and later St. Mary's mission, returned from St. Louis, and
brought with him Father Charles Truyens. Strangely enough, Father Truyens' name passes
into oblivion until it appears again in Sadlier's Catholic Directory for the year 1867. He
is listed in this directory as residing at Bardstown, Ky. Though there is no 'written record
of Father Truyens leaving the Sugar Creek mission in 1848, all evidence would seem to
point that way because he is not listed by Father Gailland as one of the early settlers of
St. Marys.

The precise nature of this "money matters" is unknown. The only clue that we have is
that Fathers Verreydt and Truyens brought supplies and a donation of money to be spent for
the mission. Perhaps the discussion is over the expenditure of this money.

31. The word "triduum" means a three-day retreat. The vows that are renewed are
poverty, chastity, and obedience. A Jesuit at the completion of his two years of novitiate
pronounces these three vows. At this time the vows are called "simple" or "first" vows.
After 16 or 17 years, at the recommendation of his superiors, a Jesuit may pronounce his
final vows. In the period between the first and final vows, he renews his simple vows every
six months.











CHAPEL OF THE POTTAWATOMIE INDIAN MISSION AT ST. MARYS

The building was erected in 1849, was used as the first Catholic cathedral in Kansas, 1851-1855,

and was dismantled in 1886.





THE REV. MAURICE GAILLAND, S. J.
(1815-1877)

Missionary among the Pottawatomie Indians at
St. Marys, 1848-1877. He compiled a dictionary
and wrote catechisms, prayer and hymn books in
the Pottawatomie language.

Photos courtesy of the Rev. Augustin C. Wand,
S. J., archivist of St. Mary's College.





(Upper) POTTAWATOMIE INDIANS AT ST. MARY'S MISSION IN 1867

( Lower ) ST. MARY'S MISSION AT ST. MARYS, 1867

Photos by Alexander Gardner of Washington, D. C. From the Kansas
State Historical Society collection. The pictures are Nos. 91 and 92 of
Gardner's, "Across the Continent on the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern
Division."



EARLY YEARS AT ST. MARY'S POTTAWATOMIE MISSION 513

January 16: In the morning it was intensely cold; in the evening
the weather was rather mild. Mass and class as usual.

January 17: There was Mass and class. The sky is clear.

January 18: We had Mass, also class today. The weather is very
cold, but the sky is clear. For third time the stove-pipe was burning.

January 19: We had Mass and class. The cold is moderated
by the wind from the south. A new catechumen joined us. There
was fire in the top of the chimney. Father Hoecken heard confes-
sions.

January 20: There was Mass, but no class today. The weather
is again very cold. Father Hoecken and Verreydt heard confessions.
Mrs. Darling and La Fromboise came to visit us.

January 21: Sunday. There was Mass, followed by a holy hour.
No classes today. In the morning there was a sermon in Pota-
watomie. In the evening there was benediction with a sermon in
French and Potawatomie. The sky is clear.

January 22: As usual, Mass and class. Father Hoecken is called
to care for a sick man across the river. Ezechiel Pelletier returned
after a long stay at home because of sickness. The weather is the
same as yesterday.

January 23: As usual, Mass and class. Joseph Darling arrived
unexpectedly. Father Hoecken returned. We received a friendly
greeting from Mr. McDonald. Weather is mild.

January 24: As usual, Mass and class. The weather is most mild.
The south wind blew all day. A good amount of snow melted.

January 25: As usual we had Mass and class. Very early in the
morning the wind changed and it became very cold. A little four
year old boy died. The funeral will be held tomorrow.

January 26: Mass was celebrated this morning. There was no
school because of some urgent work. Weather is somewhat colder
but serene.

January 27: Mass this morning, but no school. Some confes-
sions were heard. Weather much milder with a south wind.

January 28: We had Mass with singing at ten-thirty this morn-
ing. 32 There was a sermon in Potawatomie; in the evening there
was both a sermon in Potawatomie and French. The weather is
very mild. Two non-Catholics were added to our list as catechu-
mens; they had professed the Mormon religion.

32. These hymns were sung in Pottawatpmie. Some years later Father Gailland com-
piled a prayerbook comprising prayers, meditations, little accounts of church history, and
many hymns. This little prayerbook consists of 119 pages and was printed under the title,
Potewatem Nemewinin Nemenigamowinin. A copy of this prayerbook can be found in the
archives of St. Mary's College at St. Marys.

35_7724



514 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

The daughter of Claude La Fromboise suddenly ran away from
the home of the Madames of the Sacred Heart. The younger daugh-
ter of Mr. Bourbonais immediately asked to take the place of the
run-away; she obtained the request. 33

January 29: We had Mass and class today. The sky is very
cloudy and it is cold.

January 30: There was Mass and class as usual. It snowed.

January 31: Mass this morning, but no class. The students came
back from the hunt with three rabbits. The weather is mild. We
heard confessions.

February 1-2: There was Mass and class. The weather is mild.
There was Mass and class on the second also. In the morning there
was a sermon in Potawatomie. The sky is serene, but it is cold.
Father Hoecken visits a sick person. A whole family is registered
among our catechumens. 34

February 3: Mass this morning, but no class.

February 4: Sunday. Mass this morning with a sermon in Pota-
watomie. In the evening there was benediction with a sermon in
French. Father Hoecken set out to visit the sick. The sky is clear,
but it is rather cold.

February 5: We had Mass and class as usual. Father Hoecken
returned.

February 6: We had Mass and class as usual. Weather is calm
but not very mild. On the fifth of this month we received the
calamitous news telling of the exile of our most beloved and Holy
Pontiff Pius IX. 35

February 7: As usual, there was Mass and class. The weather is



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