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sufficiently cold. We received a letter from Reverend Father Pro-
vincial concerning the elevation to the Episcopate of Father , 36

February 8: There was Mass and class. It is cold. Father
Hoecken left to care for the sick. Father Gailland was called to
look after a sick woman.

33. Bpurbonnais is a common name in this locale. The Bourbonnais were mixed-blood.
In the register of male students kept from 1865 to 1873, the name appears frequently.

34. A catechumen, as the term is used by Father Gailland, means one who is taking in-
structions to become a Catholic.

35. Pope Pius IX elevated to the Holy See in 1846, immediately met with insuperable
difficulties. The liberal movement that had swept Switzerland in 1846-1847 and resulted
in revolution and expulsion of the Jesuits in 1847 had its repercussions in Italy. In 1846
Mazzini living in Paris was planning a detailed revolution in Italy. Quite cleverly he ap-
proved of all the measures of Pope Pius IX during the first year. During the next year,
under his archconspirator, Angelo Brunetti, he sought every measure he could to ridicule the
Pope. By 1848 the liberals were powerful enough to storm the Vatican and demand under
dire threats a republic. On November 24, 1848, the Pope escaped to Gaeta, just across the
Neapolitan border. See Lillian Browne-Olf, Their Name is Pius (Milwaukee, Bruce Pub-
lishing Co., 1941), pp. 220-230.

36. Father Gailland, the diarist, does not give the name but uses only the sign of the
cross. The new bishop s name was Miege.



EARLY YEARS AT ST. MARY'S POTTAWATOMIE MISSION 515

February 9: There was Mass and class. It is a clear day. The
report has circulated that an extremely virulent form of cholera is
nearing our place. 37

February 10: There was Mass this morning. Father Hoecken
returned. We obtained an abundant supply of Indian corn. The
sky is mild and serene. We welcome Mr. McDonald as our guest.

February 11: Sunday. Mass this morning as usual. There was
a sermon in Potawatomie. Two infants were baptized. In the eve-
ning there was benediction and a sermon in French. One of the
Fathers went to care for the sick. The weather is cloudy.

February 12: There was Mass and class today. The weather
is not very cold. An aged sick woman asks for Baptism.

February IS: As usual, there was Mass and class. The weather
is cold. We received a workman whom we hired to build a bake
oven.

February 14-15-16: There was Mass and class. The cold is most
intense. A herd of thirty pigs arrived today; of this number half
were bought for the Madames of the Sacred Heart. The cold, al-
though it has let up a bit, is as firm as a rock.

February 17: There was Mass and confessions. The cold is most
severe. The natives asked us that on Sundays a priest might say
Mass for them; as yet they have not received a favorable reply. 38
Three of the students went home for vacations.

February 18: Sunday. In the morning there was Mass with a
sermon in Potawatomie. In the evening there was benediction with
a sermon in Potawatomie. Because of the intense cold, Father
Hoecken is called to administer to a sick woman.

February 19: Mass this morning, but no class. The weather
is mild. We killed the pigs. A goodly number of Kansas Indians
linger about our house. 39

February 20: There was Mass, but no class this morning. Brother
La Frombloise returned and is building a smoke house. Many of
the Indians are helping him. It is a calm day; much of the snow
has melted.

37. This Asiatic plague reached the mission in early June. "Its [cholera] advent was
hastened by the parties of California emigrants passing in continual procession in wagons and
on horseback along the western trail." Garraghan, op. cit., v. 2, p. 613.

38. The "natives" referred to in this entry were probably the Kaw or Kansas Indians.
Father Hoecken visited these Indians in August, 1850. He was beseeched by them to have
a blackrobe come to them. Father Hoecken in a letter of August, 1850, written to his vice
provincial, asked that their request be granted. Due to the lack of missionaries, the vice
provincial was unable to grant his request.

39. The Kansas Indians were notorious beggars. "One of the last acts that Father
Hoecken performed at Mission Creek had been to distribute potatoes and lard to some chiefs
of the Kansas tribe as they had nothing to eat." O'Connor, toe. cit., p. 63.



516 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

February 21: Ash Wednesday. There was Mass. Many people
received ashes; there was a large attendance. The sons of Mrs.
Nadau sought admission to our school, and obtained it. The weather
is most mild. A little rain fell. Father Hoecken is attending to a
sick man. Brother Regan went to the trading post that he might
get some flour. 40

February 22: Mass this morning. A large amount of snow has
melted.

February 23: There was Mass. The son of Calude La From-
boise arrived. Father Hoecken brought Peter Le Clerc to our home.
He is critically ill. 41

February 24: There was Mass this morning, also we heard con-
fessions. A woman, Josephine by name, died and was buried.
Ezechiel Pelletier, Francis and William Darling, who for some days
had gone home for a vacation, arrived here. The weather is very
mild. The ice that has held the river in check has broken.

February 25: Sunday. Mass and sermon in Potawatomie this
morning. In the evening there was a sermon in Potawatomie and
French. A woman died who was recently baptized. The weather
is cloudy and below zero.

February 26-27: There was Mass and class. The weather is
fine.

February 28: There was Mass and class. There was a cate-
chism class for the boys and girls in the chapel. The weather is
cold.

March 1: There was Mass and class. Catechism class was held
in the chapel. We heard confessions. We had a large snowfall
accompanied by rolling thunder.

March 2: Mass and class, as usual. The weather is cold. Char-
lot and the Doctor are fever victims. 42

March S: There was Mass. In the morning a large amount of
snow fell. Father Superior, both brothers and Chariot are sick.

March 4: Sunday. We had Mass with a sermon in Potawa-
tomie. In the evening we had the Way of the Cross and Rosary,
followed by benediction.

March 5: There was Mass and class. Dusky weather.

March 6: There was Mass, but no class on account of the sick-
ness of Father Superior. A good bit of snow has melted.

40. The trading post mentioned in this entry was Uniontown, in the northwestern part
of present Shawnee county.

41. Peter Le Clerc (Pierre or Perish) was one of the famous chiefs of the "Chicago"
Pottawatomies. See Garraghan, op. cit., v. 2, p. 698.

42. "The Doctor" has reference to Brother Mazzella. There is no record of the nature
of their sickness or fever.



EARLY YEARS AT ST. MARY'S POTTAWATOMIE MISSION 517

March 7: There was Mass and class. The agreement pertaining
to the fencing of the fields was made. The weather is serene.

March 8-9: There was Mass and class. We had a heavy rain.
There is a big rise in the river.

March 10: There was Mass but no class today. The chief,
Patikochek by name, came to our house and promised that he
would embrace the doctrine of Christ.

March 11: Sunday. Mass this morning without hymns. There
was a sermon in Potawatomie. In the evening we made the Way
of the Cross and had benediction.

March 12-13: There was Mass and class. The weather is pleas-
ant. We built a kitchen.

March 14: There was only one Mass on account of the shortage
of wine. There was class. We have two new boarders, the son of
Mrs. Nadau and the son of Mr. Alcot. The weather is serene.

March 15-16: Only one Mass. There was class. A sermon in
Potawatomie is preached each day during Lent. The weather is
clear.

March 17: Only one Mass; no class today. Today marked the
arrival of some Indians from Sugar Creek. 43 An infirmary to care
for the sick is put up. The weather is nice.

March 18: Sunday. There were two Masses with a sermon in
Potawatomie. In the evening we made the Way of the Cross and
a sermon in Potawatomie. Peter La Clerc was moved today to a
neighbor's house.

March 19: The Feast of St. Joseph. There was one Mass with
a sermon in Potawatomie.

March 20-21: There was one Mass; there was no class. The
north wind blew. The weather is clear.

March 22: Only one Mass and no class this morning. Michael
La Fromboise arrived.

March 23: There was one Mass; no class. The weather is peace-
ful.

March 24: There was Mass but no class. The same kind of
weather.

March 25: Passion Sunday. There were two Masses and three
sermons in Potawatomie. The weather is fine.

March 26: The Feast of the Annunciation; there was one Mass.
There were two sermons in Potawatomie.

March 27: There was Mass and class.

43. Though the majority of the Pottawatomies moved to the new reserve on the Kaw
river in 1848, there were still some who lingered at Sugar Creek.



518 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

March 28: As usual, there was Mass and class. Mr. Le Clerc
died, one of the bravest generals in battle. The day before he died,
he received Baptism, made his confession, and received Extreme
Unction, with great sorrow for his sins and fervor of spirit.

March 29: One Mass was celebrated this morning with a sermon
in Potawatomie. Class was held. We had the burial of Mr.
Le Clerc. The weather is cold. The students Osskom and
Kiutukiyani arrived. The new kitchen is being occupied.

March 30-81: There was Mass and class. The weather is fine.
One of the Fathers is called to a small Indian village across from
Soldier creek. 44

April 1: Sunday. There were three Masses. Beautiful weather.
In the morning there was a sermon in Potawatomie. In the evening
we made the Way of the Cross and there was benediction and a
sermon in Potawatomie.

April 3-4: There was one Mass this morning. There was no
class. Both in the morning and evening there were sermons in
Potawatomie.

April 5: Our Lord's Last Supper: One Mass was celebrated this
morning. All the students except three went to visit their parents.
The agents arrived with the ploughs and the mills. Father Superior
intends to see him about obtaining money for the board of the boys
and the construction of the buildings. 45 There was a sermon in
Potawatomie both in the morning and the evening, which was fol-
lowed by benediction.

April 6: Good Friday. In the morning there was the office of
the day. There was a sermon in Potawatomie and the adoration
of the cross. In the evening, again, there was a sermon in Pota-
watomie. Twelve beds and one table have been finished for the
boys. The weather has become mild. Only three of our students
help us; the rest have not yet returned. Father Superior is still
absent.

April 7: Holy Saturday. We said the office as usual; there were
many confessions. Three new students, Alex Toutran, Bernard and
Richard Bertrand, arrived today.

April 8: Easter Sunday. There were three Masses. In the
morning there was a sermon in Potawatomie. In the evening there
was benediction with a sermon in Potawatomie.

April 9: There was one Mass with a sermon in Potawatomie.

44. Soldier creek flows through Nemaha, Jackson, and Shawnee counties.

45. The agent referred to in this entry was Major Cummins.



EARLY YEARS AT ST. MARY'S POTTAWATOMIE MISSION 519

The weather is pleasant. Two workmen are added to the one to
prepare posts.

April 10-11-12: There was one Mass. Class was held as usual.
There was a sermon in Potawatomie this morning. In the evening
there was catechism for the boys.

April IS: There was one Mass. Class was held as usual. In the
morning there was a sermon in Potawatomie.

April 14: There was one Mass this morning with a sermon in
Potawatomie. There was class. In the evening Father Gailland set
out to the trading post in order that he might hear confessions there.

April 15: Sunday. There were two Masses with a sermon; in the
evening, as usual, there was benediction with a sermon. The Father
on supply celebrated Mass in the previously mentioned trading
post. 46 Then he set out to those Indians most removed from the
Mission and living close to the Protestant Mission. 47 He heard their
confessions in the evening, and the following morning he gave them
Holy Communion during the Sacrifice of the Mass. Great was their
joy and consolation.

April 16: There was one Mass this morning. Father Hoecken
left for St. Joseph's in order to purchase provisions for our house.
The infant daughter of Mr. Darling, baptized on the fourth, was
buried today. The son of Mr. Jackson ( an Indian ) arrived. The
Father mentioned before went to those Indians not far from Mr.
Toutran's place to hear confessions and give them Holy Communion.

April 17: There was Mass and class as usual. Father and the
workers returned.

N. B. At this date the number of baptisms of the infidels has
increased to around forty. The Indians still remain scattered to
their great detriment. Those who went to collect sugar or to hunt
at the beginning of winter in the territory of the Miami have not
yet returned. The report is that among them a great decline of
morals is prevailing.

April 18-19: There was Mass and class. A new student arrived,
T. B. (Blackfoot).

April 20: There was Mass and class.

April 21: There was Mass, but no class. There were confessions.

46. The term "on supply" is still used by the Catholic clergy. The term means simply
that a priest is not stationed at a certain parish but is invited to come and help the pastor in
his ministerial work for a brief period of time.

47. This is the first time Father Gailland mentions the Protestant mission in his diary.
This account has reference to the Baptist Pottawatomie school that was located some miles
below St. Mary's on the south side of the Kaw river, about six miles west of Topeka. The
Rev. Johnston Lykins, pastor and supervisor of the school in 1849. gives the following de-
scription of the location of the school: "[It is] half a mile south of the Kansas [river], nine
miles below Uniontown, the trading post of the nation, and a half mile west of the great
California road from Kansas, Westport and Independence." Garraghan, op. cit., v. 2, p. 622.



520 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

April 22: There were two Masses without hymns. Holy Com-
munion was distributed. In the evening there was benediction. A
large number of the Indians returned from Sugar Creek. 48 We
heard the unfortunate news about the giving up of the mission among
the Miami. 49

May 8: There were three Masses and a sermon in Potawatomie.
Mr. Laurence Bertrand was buried today.

May 9: There were three Masses with a sermon in Potawatomie.
There was class. From the beginning of this month innumerable
wagons, horses, and men have passed by on their way, intent upon
going into New California. They are lavishly squandering their
counterfeit money and stealing horses. 50

June 1: A funeral was held today for one of the Indians, Jussius
Knowassen, by name.

June 2: Father Hoecken is called to Uniontown in order to care
for four persons sick of the cholera, but his efforts were all in vain,
because the same day that they contracted the disease they died.
Two others far away died of the same ailment on the same day.
They also were without help of the priest. 51

June S: Sunday. In the morning we had services as usual.
After dinner Father Gailland crossed the river and went to Union-
town in order that immediately he might be with the dying. There
were four new victims of the cholera. One of the cholera victims
confessed.

June 4: We visited the Indians at Wakarusa, but frightened by
two successive funerals, they have all fled except one family. The
wife of the doctor was sick and died. Maria Akwona, very sick,
went to confession. We heard the confession of and administered
Extreme Unction to a sick Indian woman, Wawiga. She died. Mr.
Stinson is sick.

June 5: The burial of Wawiga and the wife of the doctor, a non-
Catholic, was held today. The doctor is gravely ill himself. An-
gelica Akwona and her daughter are ill also. William Brown, the

48. The Pottawatomies were still drifting in from the old mission site abandoned by the
missionaries in 1848. Sugar creek is in Linn county, sections 7 and 8, T. 21 S., R. 23 E.

49. This mission had to be given up because of the unstable character of the Indians.

50. All the romantic and adventurous experiences surrounding the gold rush to Cali-
fornia in 1849 have been depicted by other writers. Father Gailland sees the other side of
the picture. The gold searchers frequently were thieves and counterfeiters.

In the course of his Western excursions in 1842, John Fremont, the pathfinder, made,
perhaps, the first road. It was this road that the gold searchers followed. The road crossed
the Kaw near Uniontown and passed up the north bank to the mouth of the Vermillion.
"Fremont's road formed part of the Oregon Trail and when California travel started over it
in 1849 it became known also as the California Trail." Garraghan, op. cit., v. 2, p. 692.

51. The Asiatic cholera reported in February as spreading toward St. Mary's, struck
in June. The Fathers traveled day and night to be near the dying. The victims of the
disease did not linger long; in fact, some died within two hours after contracting this fatal
disease.



EARLY YEARS AT ST. MARY'S POTTAWATOMIE MISSION 521

eleven year old son of William Brown and Wawiyatinokwe was
baptized. Also Pelagia, the two year old daughter of Mr. Smith
and Catherina Tremble was baptized. Theresa, ten month old
daughter of Ambrose Le Fromboise and Maria Richissan, was also
baptized. Also, Elizabeth was baptized. The sons of a negro
woman, Maria Fichyion, a Mormon, and a negro lady were added
to our list of catechumens. Kino we, who also fell victim to the
disease, was given the Sacraments of the Church.

June 6: The wife of Nicholas Janveau, who is sick, made her
confession and received baptism. The fear of her death is great
in the village. Almost all have fled. Anthony, the son of Wanuki
and Pachnokine, was baptized. He is one year old.

June 7: The wife of Mr. Kakison, and Mr. Lazely, fell ill.
Father Gailland came home as the country was almost deserted.

June 8: There is no school at this time because of the danger of
contagion. Mr. Darling plans to embrace the Catholic faith.

June 9: Father Gailland again took care of the Indians across
the river. The doctor is afflicted more and more by the power of
the disease. 52

June 10: Sunday after the feast of Corpus Christi. Everything
is as usual. A young man, Kithekuiy by name, died. He had re-
ceived baptism. He fell ill of the cholera during the night and died
early in the morning at Uniontown. On the same day a woman at
the La Fromboise home died of the same disease. She contracted
this disease during a one day visit at Uniontown.

June 11: Maria Richysen is baptized. 53

June 12-18: Everything is as usual. The doctor died.

June 14-15: Nothing new.

June 16: Saturday. We received a letter from St. Louis.

June 17: The third Sunday after Pentecost. In the morning
there was Mass with a sermon in Potawatomie. There was no sing-
ing. In the evening we had benediction and a sermon in French.

June 18-19-20: Everything is as usual. There was class. We
began the building of a house for our classes.

June 21-22: Everything is as usual. An infant died and was
buried today.

June 23: The wife of Dufour, and two Indians died.

June 24-25-26: Everything is as usual. On the twenty-ninth,
Father Hoecken and Father Gailland will renew their vows.

52. The doctor in this entry is not Brother Mazzella, but evidently a white doctor sent to
help the plague-stricken.

53. Maria Richysen is a misspelling for Richardson. She was the wife of Ambrose
La Fromboise.



522 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

June 27-28-29: We are engaged in making the triduum.

June SO: Saturday. Everything as usual.

July 1: The fifth Sunday after Pentecost. In the morning there
was Mass with hymns and a sermon in Potawatomie. In the eve-
ning there was benediction and a sermon in French.

July 2: One of the Fathers went to the Indians across the river.
He heard their confessions and on the following day he celebrated
Mass there. Many approached the sacraments.

July 3-4: Everything is as usual.

July 5: There was Mass and class. We received Hunter Kinsy
amongst our students.

August 25: Father Gailland heard confessions, because Father
Hoecken had gone the day before to visit the Indians across the
river. We had Mass as usual.

August 26: Sunday. There was Mass without hymns this morn-
ing. There was a sermon in English by Father Superior interpreted
in Potawatomie by John Tipton.

August 27-28: Everything is as usual. Joseph Darling left for a
while. The unfortunate news concerning the renewed wars in
Europe reached us. 54 Hunter left.

August 29: There was Mass and class. An Indian, by the name
of Tchikwe is admitted to our school. Mr. Darveau begins to work
for us again.

August 30: There was Mass and class. Hilary Nadeau left. An
Indian, Kiya by name, is admitted. The weather is cold. A good
quantity of grapes is maturing.

August 31: There was one Mass, and class as usual. Father
Superior is sick. Father Hoecken returned from the other side of
the river.

September 1: Saturday. There was Mass, but no class.

September 2: Sunday. There were three Masses, with singing
at the last Mass, at which time there was a sermon in Potawatomie
by Father Hoecken. In the evening there was benediction and a
sermon in French. Francis Bourbonnais is admitted among the
students, Wagansi, Francis La Fromboise, and Ossakon went home.
Two workmen arrived to put up chimneys. We received letters
from Father de Smet. 55 The planks for doors are brought from
Westport. 56 Catherine Bergeron was baptized.

54. The renewed war mentioned in this entry has reference to the revolution of 1848
that swept Metternick into exile, and also the revolt in Paris. The workers and liberals of
raris united to drive the Orleanists into exile.

55. Father de Smet, the world famous Indian missionary, was in St. Louis at this time.

56. The old town of Westport is now a part of Kansas City, Mo.



EARLY YEARS AT ST. MARY'S POTTAWATOMIE MISSION 523

September 3: There was Mass and class. The workmen began
to construct ovens.

September 4: There was Mass and class. We received a letter
from Father de Smet telling us of the expected arrival of Reverend
Father Provincial and of himself, Father de Smet, a new superior,
Father Duerinck, and one Brother. 57 Father Maes returned from
the mission to the Winabagoes, and at the same time the mission
to the Osage. 58 The cathechist, Francis Bourbonnais went to his
people.

September 5: There was Mass, class, and catechism class. An
Indian, by the name of Joseph, an orphan, was admitted to our
school.

September 6: There was Mass and class as usual. We received
a letter from Father de Smet giving us the bill for those things
which have been bought for the mission.

September 7: There was Mass and class. Brother Regan left
for Port of Kansas in order to bring supplies. 59

September 8: There was Mass but no class was held. Jakson,
an Indian, arrived today.

September 9: Sunday. In the morning everything went as
usual. In the evening there was solemn supplication in honor of
the Blessed Virgin Mary. There was a great crowd. The students,
Francis La Fromboise, Hilary Nadeau, Wabansi, and Osskom, re-
turned after being away for a while. 60

September 10: There was Mass. There was school only in the
morning. In the evening we gathered grapes. Mr. Blanchet ar-
rived. Joseph Darling returned.

September 11: There was Mass and class. Mr. Bergeron ar-
rived. The twelfth of September was the same as yesterday.

September 13: There was Mass and class. Brother Regan ar-
rived. Everything is as usual on the fourteenth.

57. Reverend Father Provincial at this time was Father Klet, and Father DeSmet was
his assistant. The Brother that was expected to accompany them did not arrive, as we shall
learn from a later entry.

58. "On April 18, 1849, Father Ignatius Maes accompanied by Father John Baptist
Miege, left St. Louis for the Winnebago country, which lay north of St. Paul." Garraghan,
op. cit., v. 2, pp. 470, 471.

The purpose of this journey was to locate a favorable site for a mission and manual
labor school among the Winnebagoes. About 77 miles above St. Paul, Father Maes met the
government agent, General Fletcher, and some Winnebago chiefs. These chiefs who invited
the Fathers a short time before to establish a school were now ill-disposed to the plan; the
reason they gave for their change of heart was the failure to receive from the government



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