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a certain tract of land a few miles distant from the Sauk rapids. Fathers Maes and Miege
had to give up the plan of establishing a mission, therefore, because of the instability of
these Indians. In 1863 the Winnebagoes were removed from Minnesota and finally settled
in northeastern Nebraska. Ibid., pp. 470-473.

59. "Port of Kansas" means Kansas City, Mo.

60. It is interesting to note that one of the counties in Kansas is called Wabaunsee and
named after Wabansi.



524 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

September 15: Saturday. There was no school.

September 16: Sunday. There was Mass with hymns and a
sermon in Potawatomie. There was also benediction and a sermon
in French.

September 17-18: There was Mass, class, and catechism class.
William and Francis Darling went to their home.

September 19-20: Everything is as usual.

September 21-22: Same as yesterday. Father Hoecken went
across the river.

September 23: Sunday. There was Mass without singing. In
the evening there was benediction. There was a sermon in French.

September 24: There was Mass, class, and catechism class.

September 25-26: There was Mass and class.

September 27: Today marks the arrival of Father Provincial
with Father de Smet. They are solemnly received. 61 The Indians
went out to meet them with drums, guns, and horses.

September 28: The visitation begins today. For the "Memoriale"
see the following page (Father Duerinck, Superior).

September 29: Reverend Father Provincial, Father de Smet and
Father Verreydt left today. 62 It was decided that the Indians across
the river should build themselves two churches. 63

September SO: Sunday. There was Mass without singing.
There was a sermon in Potawatomie. It was announced that a pub-
lic and solemn dinner would be given to the Indians by Father
Provincial. 64 In the evening there was benediction and a sermon in
French.

October 1: There was Mass. Almost all the students are absent
because of the payment. 65 A student, Sem Ale, the son of a woman
by the name of Sasape, is received.

61. "The Indians, many of whom had crossed from the north side of the river for the
occasion, formed an escort to conduct the three Fathers, the march being enlivened by beat-
ing of drums and volleys of musketry in honor of the distinguished visitors." Garraghan,
op. cit., v. 2, p. 614.

62. Father Verreydt was relieved of his onerous task as superior of the missions. For
the next ten years he was pastor of St. Thomas church in St. Louis. In 1859 he was trans-
ferred to Cincinnati, and lived there for the remaining years of his life. He died on March 1,
1883, at the advanced age of 86, and in the 62d of his religious life. "He was the last sur-
vivor of the founders of the Missouri Province, as he was the last of those men who were
present with him at the beginning of St. Mary's Mission." -O'Connor, loc. cit., p. 67.

63. The two chapels were built under the direction of Thomas MacDonnell. One
church was built at Mechgamunag, "located in what is now Mission, Township, Shawnee
County, about twenty miles from St. Mary's in the southeastern corner of the reserve and
just a little south of Shunganunga Creek." This chapel was called St. Joseph's. The other
chapel was erected at Mission Creek. "Mission Creek was a settlement on the creek of the
same name and was located about where stands today the town of Dover in Shawnee County
seventeen miles southeast of St. Marys. The Chapel built here received the title of
St. Mary s of the Valley and later Our Lady of Sorrows." Ibid., p. 67.

64. Father Elet, the provincial, ordered a barbecue to be held for all the Indians, the
school boys included, for October 10.



v rt! 1 * * h e annuities given to the Indians by the government.

Father Gailland in 1850 described the acceptance of the treaty concerning the reserve at



EARLY YEARS AT ST. MARY'S POTTAWATOMIE MISSION 525

October 2: There was Mass. Catechism class was held in the
morning and evening. The Indians threatened to destroy the schools
of Mr. Lykins. For this purpose 66 we all prayed in unison to the
Blessed Virgin.

October 3-4-5: There was Mass and catechism class. A woman,
Opuko by name, died.

October 6: There was Mass.

October 7: Sunday. There was Mass with hymns and a sermon
in Potawatomie. In the evening there was benediction with a
sermon in French. The great feast is announced.

October 8-9: There was Mass and class. A woman was hired
to look after the cleaning of. the house. Horses are stolen at St.
Marys. The house for the school is pushed forward. The great
feast for the Indians and the students was held today.

October 11-12-13: There was Mass. Class was held on the
eleventh. Mr. Darveau and Mr. Tremble arrived. Yesterday and
today we heard the confessions of the boys and girls. Mr. Blanchard
left.

October 14: Sunday. Father Gailland said two Masses. There
was a sermon in Potawatomie. In the evening there was benedic-
tion and a sermon in French.

October 15-16-17: There was Mass, class and a catechism class.
( On the thirteenth, the uncle of Oscorrus arrived to work for us. )

October 18-19: Everything is as usual. On the twentieth, Satur-
day, there was no class. Two students, David and Alexander Rodd
arrived. Scandal is given by one of ours.

October 21: Sunday. There was Mass with singing and a ser-
mon in Potawatomie in the morning. There was no singing at Mass.
There was a sermon in Potawatomie again in the evening. Brother
Regan left.

October 22-23: There was Mass and class.

October 24-25-26: There was Mass and class. In the evening
the students read from the Bible history for about half an hour.

October 27: There was Mass this morning. Class was not held.

October 28: Sunday. There was Mass this morning with a ser-

St. Mary's. In this respect he cites Father Verreydt as saying to the Indians: "The annuities
which you have been receiving are almost at an end, and in a short time you will be unable
to purchase the first necessaries, as food and blankets." M. Gailland, Catholic Mirror,
November 9, 1850, cited in Garraghan, op. cit., v. 2, p. 598.

66. The exact threat that the Indians made to the Baptist school supervised by Dr.
Johnston Lykins is unknown. It is clear that Lykins looked upon the Jesuits as "foreigners"
and a threat to his mission. In a school report dated September 30, 1849, Lykins says:
"It is a leading motive with us to Americanize the Indians and attach them to our country
and institutions, as, in our estimation, upon success in this depends much in regard to their
future well being. A foreign influence must ever engender prejudice and produce a want
of confidence in our government and people." The Report of the Commissioner of Indian
Affairs, 1849, p. 151, cited by Garraghan, op. cit., v. 2, p. 623.



526 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

mon in Potawatomie. In the evening there was benediction and a
sermon in French.

October 29-80-31: There was Mass and class. Mr. Darveau and
Bergeron left.

November 1: This is the Feast of all the Saints. Services were
the same as Sunday.

November 2: There was Mass but no class because we were
lacking a place. The Fathers change their residence. 67

November 3: Saturday. Everything is as usual. Reverend
Father Superior, two brothers, and a teacher arrived. 68

November 4: All is as usual.

November 5-6-7: Everything is as usual. On the seventh an
exhortation was given to the Madames of the Sacred Heart.

November 8: The murmuring stopped.

A Memorial left by Father Provincial after his visitation on the
twenty-eighth day of September, 1849:

The Provincial is persuaded that nowhere is greater regularity required in the
performance of those exercises prescribed by the Institute than in missions
amongst the aborigines, where, if the soul grows tepid, courage will be lacking
to surmount the immense and endless difficulties, and a lapse into evil will not
be far away. He judged it well, therefore, to set down the following:

1. The hour of rising in the morning shall be 4:30 o'clock, and one of the
Fathers shall make his meditation with the brothers from five to six o'clock.

2. Father Gailland shall be the Spiritual Father, and the confessor of Ours and
of the nuns. He shall give an exhortation to both communities in the
chapel twice a month, and he shall make note in a book what is done in
the consultations.

3. Immediately after the arrival of Father Duerinck with the two Brothers, all
who are in this house will at the same time go through the eight day
retreat, and Father Gailland will give or direct the exercises.

4. Hereafter the triduum shall take place at stated intervals, and the renova-
tion of vows shall be made in the usual manner of the Society.

5. After the completion of the (new) house, Ours shall have their own
refectory. Let a chapter of Scripture be read at the beginning of the
meal, and the Martyrology at the end, and let there be the usual penances.

6. The Brothers shall read Rodriguez every day in the afternoon from six
till six- thirty o'clock; the Fathers shall make their reading from the
Epitome of the Institute in accordance with the wishes of our very
Reverend Father General.

7. The bell shall be rung twice before dinner for the first and second examen.

8. Girls shall not be admitted to the kitchen and all externs, as far as it is
possible, shall be kept out.

67. When the Fathers moved into the new building, their old living quarters were used
as a dormitory, dining hall, schoolhouse and study hall. The new Jesuit residence was east
of the other buildings. O'Connor, loc. cit., p. 64.

68. The Father Superior was Father Duerinck; the two brothers were Daniel Doneen
and Sebastian Schlienger. The lay teacher was a Mr. Ryan.



EARLY YEARS AT ST. MARY'S POTTAWATOMIE MISSION 527

9. Father Hoecken shall be the admonitor of Father Duerinck and consultor
of the house. At least once a month the consultors shall meet with the
Superior of the house. He shall also be a confessor of Ours and the
Pastor for the surrounding aborigines. During the first and fourth weeks
of each month he shall exercise his ministry amongst the congregation of
the Blessed Virgin Immaculate. In his absence, Father Gailland shall
take his place.

10. The fourth Father, who will come, shall, together with Father Duerinck,
exercise chief control of the school and he shall act as minister.

11. Ours shall dwell in a house separate from the school building, and the
natives shall be very rarely admitted to the private rooms of ours. The
Fathers should have, each one, his own room.

12. Father Gailland shall collect the points for the annual letters.

13. Let the work of the house be so distributed among the Brothers that each
will have time for his spiritual exercises.

14. Greater cleanliness should be observed in the house, yard, etc. Pigs and
cows should be kept out of the yard.

15. Our yard should be entirely separated from the nuns' yard, and no one
shall visit the nuns without the permission of the Superior.

16. Father Hoecken shall visit the Kansas tribe and arrange with them for the
sending of their boys for instruction and for the building of a chapel.

17. The consultors shall write to the Reverend Father General and to the
Provincial at the appointed time, and they shall state whether these pre-
scriptions are being observed.

18. The summary of the Constitutions, the common rules, the rules of modesty
and the letter of obedience shall be read publicly at table every month.

These are the points which, at present, I think should be observed. 69

This 28th day of September, 1849

J. A. ELET, Vice-Provincial
of the Vice Province of Missouri

November 9-10: Everything as usual.

November 11: Sunday. We had Mass with singing and a ser-
mon in Potawatomie. In the evening we had benediction with a
sermon in French.

November 12: There was class. A student by the name of
Joseph arrived (he is an Indian of great stature. He is called
Micabo. ) .

November 13: There was Mass, class, and catechism class. A
student arrived, the son of Mrs. Frappe.

November 14-15-16: There was Mass, class, and catechism class.
Two marriages were revalidated.

November 17: Saturday. There was Mass but no class. An
Indian student by the name of Nisswakwat arrived.

November 18: Sunday. There was Mass and a sermon in Pota-
watomie, but there was no singing. After dinner there was bene-

69. This translation was rendered by Father John O'Connor, S. J., in his "Jesuits of the
Kaw Valley," loc. cit., pp. 68-70.



528 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

diction and a sermon in French. Two students, sons of Mr. Peri-
gora, arrived. Samuel Allen returned.

November 19-20: There was class and catechism instruction;
there was also Mass. Everything is as usual. All workmen are
dismissed. During these next few days all students will husk corn
in the fields. 70

November 21: The Feast of the Presentation of the Blessed
Virgin Mary. There was Mass and benediction. There was class
and catechism instruction.

November 22-23: Everything is as usual.

November 24: Saturday. There is Mass and class. The two
sons of Mr. Papin arrived with two girls. 71

November 25: Sunday. At home everything is as usual.

November 26-27-28-29: There was Mass, class, and catechism
instruction. We had a slight snowfall. The next day it melted.

November 30: There was Mass and class. We received Mr. Lee,
agent of the American government. ( He was the government agent
for our Indians and made an inspection of our two schools. )

December 1: Everything is as usual. A new student, the son of
Mr. Peter Bourbonnais, arrived.

December 2: The feast of Saint Francis Xavier. There was
Mass with benediction. There was class.

December 3-4-5-6-7: Everything is as usual. On the seventh it
snowed. Father Gailland began his eight-day retreat.

December 8: The Feast of the Immaculate Conception of the
Blessed Virgin Mary. There was Mass and benediction.

December 9: Sunday. There was Mass without hymns. There
was no sermon on account of the cold. In the evening there was
benediction.

December 10-11-12-13-14-15: Everything is as usual. The Kan-
sas River is frozen over. This week the students, Wabausi and
Joseph Brouvert, were sent home on account of sickness.

December 16: Sunday. There was Mass with hymns. There
was a brief talk in Potawatomie. In the evening there was benedic-
tion.

December 17: There was Mass and class. The first consultation
was held about obtaining the gifts of medicines given so far and to

70. During the busy period school was dispensed with and the students worked in the
fields.

71. It is interesting to note that Helen Papin was the mother of the former Vice-President
of the United States, Charles Curtis. She was a Kansa mixed-blood belonging to the tribe
that settled near Soldier creek. Charles Curtis was baptized on April 15, 1860, by Father
Dumortier of St. Mary's mission. See Garraghan, op. cit., v. 2, p. 618.



EARLY YEARS AT ST. MARY'S POTTAWATOMIE MISSION 529

be given henceforth, and about the division of the field between
ourselves and the Madames of the Sacred Heart.

December 18-19: Everything is as usual. The snow has wholly
melted. Father Superior set for Kansas City. (He went to visit
Colonel Lee, the agent at Westport.).

December 20: A student, S. B. Gouville arrived.

December 21-22-28-24: Everything is as usual.

December 25: Christmas Day. There was no midnight Mass.
In the morning at six o'clock there was Mass, singing and a sermon
in Potawatomie. At the 10:30 o'clock Mass there were hymns and
a second sermon in Potawatomie. In the evening there was bene-
diction and a sermon in French. Hilary Nadau, a student, arrived.

December 26: Everything is as usual.

December 27: Father During returned from Kansas. 72

December 28: The Feast of the Holy Innocents. Ten girls fer-
vently received their first Holy Communion.

December 29-30-31: Everything is as usual.

1850

January 1: The feast of the Circumcision. We received the
usual greetings.

January 2-3-4-5: There is nothing new. Father Hoecken has
been absent for four days. We heard the confessions of the girls.

January 6: The Feast of the Epiphany. There was Mass with-
out singing, and a sermon in Potawatomie. In the evening there
was benediction with a sermon in French.

January 7: There was Mass, class, and catechism class. There
was a heavy snow. An Indian by the name of Natchinnene left our
school.

January 8-9-10-11: Everything is as usual.

January 12-13-14-15: Everything is as usual.

January 16-17-18-19: Everything is as usual. On the seven-
teenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth, we made the triduum for the
renovation of vows.

January 20: The feast of the Holy Name of Jesus. We renewed
our vows. Everything else is as ordinary.

January 22: The first Holy Communion for the Indian children
was held today.

January 23-26: Nothing unusual.

72. Kansas City. "During" is a misspelling for Duerinck. Father Gailland made some
of the entries in the diary hurriedly; hence, the explanation for the abbreviations or mis-
spelled names.

367724



Bypaths of Kansas History

THE PERILS OF HAULING A CANNON

From the "Thomas H. Webb Scrapbooks," v. 7, p. 256 (in Library
division of the Kansas State Historical Society), apparently a clip-
ping from the St. Louis (Mo.) Daily Democrat of December 31,
1855.

An amusing anecdote is related by a Kansas correspondent of the Carlisle
Democrat, about the company from Kickapoo, a little town near Leavenworth.
A notoriously eccentric character named Wash Hays, living in Kickapoo, was
hired with his ox team to draw a cannon for the Missouri invaders. ( Queer
light artillery, wasn't it?) He started and got fairly on the road, appearing as
if he was oppressed by some mighty thought when all at once, he sang out,
"Whoa Buck!" stopped his team, and addressed the "capting:" "Look you,
mister, s'pose you git whipt, how's my oxen to retreat? S'pose they take the
gun and shoot the oxen, who's gwine to pay, eh?" and having delivered himself
thus, he sat down on the muzzle of the gun and paused for a reply. "Oh,
pooh!" says the Captain, "drive on, drive on! I'll be accountable." "Oh, yes,
you will be accountable, if you get whipt; but who's gwine to pay?" At this
juncture, a friend of the driver rode up, and said, "Drive on, Wash! go 'long,
old fellow!" Wash turned around with "Look here, mister, none of yer friendly
digs. I ain't such a fool as you think I am," and he very complacently unyoked
his team, left the cannon in the road and retreated to Kickapoo, no doubt
rejoicing over his sober second thought.



WHEN ABRAHAM LINCOLN SPOKE IN LEAVENWORTH IN 1859

As described in the Leavenworth Weekly Herald, a Democratic
newspaper, December 10, 1859.

OLD ABE LINCOLN. According to announcement this venerable champion
of Republicanism arrived Saturday afternoon about 5 o'clock, and was imme-
diately surrounded by a respectable crowd of the "faithful," who bore him to the
Mansion House, where the ceremonies of introduction and reception were
gone through with. Col. J. C. Vaughan introduced him to the crowd, when
he responded in a short speech the pith of which was "he could not speak
long, as he was to address them at night." He was probably afraid he would
explore his 'one idea* and leave no capital for the evening.

AT NIGHT.

Stockton's Hall was filled to overflowing at an early hour many Democrats
being present. At half past seven, the hero of the occasion arrived, and after
being greeted with a cheer, was introduced by Chief Engineer Delahay. After
elevating his nose, as if to scent the strength of the crowd in which he found
himself, and taking a view all round, "Old Abe" took out his notes, and squared
himself like a man who had work before him and felt equal to the occasion.

(530)



BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 531

The personal appearance of the individual is altogether different from any
idea which a stranger would form. So far from appearing 'old' he bears the
appearance of a man well in his prime, but without dignity or grace; he has the
lank, loose stamp of a six foot Egyptian "sucker," who has had his supply of
whiskey cut off in his growing days, and therefore suddenly "ran to seed."
His style of delivery, though concise, and striking plainly on the hearer, bears
the impress of labored efforts to collect a smooth and easy flow; while his ideas
are put forth in language totally at variance with all rules of grammar.

His SPEECH.

We cannot review it in all its particulars; but we have seldom heard one
where more spurious argument, cunning sophistry, and flimsy evasions, were
mingled together, and made to work out all right no doubt to the satisfaction
of his audience. He seized the slavery hobby in the beginning and rode it out
to the end; starting out with presumed facts, which the man could not but
know were points in dispute in the war of parties, and by the surreptitious
adoption of which he cunningly evaded any charge of inconsistency in his
erratic and blundering harangue. His remarks throughout were but the repro-
duction of the same old Illinois stump speeches with which he bored his
audiences in that campaign which made him famous, and gave him the notoriety
which he is not entitled to, owing to the position of his opponent. He cer-
tainly has the same old arguments stereotyped, which, if reports be true, he
treats his audiences to on each and every occasion. The most noticeable point
was his appeal to the Republican in Kansas, "to let the slaves in Missouri alone;
no doubt he thought they needed some advice on this subject. His last remarks
were confined to a vindication of the policy and doctrines of modern repub-
licanism, and here is where the weakness of the man was apparent. His reply
to the charge of sectionalism was flimsy, and weak in the extreme, accompanied
with the hesitating delivery and excruciating gesture of a man who finds him-
self upon ground with which he is unacquainted, and accordingly "old Abe"
beat a hasty retreat, and wound up with the apology that "as he had to speak
again on Monday, he could not say more"; afraid of taxing that one idea too
heavily.

Quantum sufficit. "Honest Abraham" will not make one more Republican
voter in this Territory. Bring on another importation of "blooded stock,"
gentlemen.

ABRAM LINCOLN AGAIN. This last importation of the Blacks again ad-
dressed a shivering squad of his admirers at Stockton's Hall yesterday.

An effort was made beforehand to persuade him to touch more directly
upon our political history, and serve up "bleeding Kansas" in his peculiar and
forcible style, but he preferred to stick to his "nigger," and twang upon the old
and worn out arguments, which by some inexplicable operation have been
stereotyped upon his brain.

Again he seized upon the subject of slavery at the outset, and after borrow-
ing largely from his harangue on Saturday evening, went into a long strain of
villification, invective and abuse against all who opposed him and his party.
His audience cheered and clapped him on, in his miserable attempt to make
capital out of the occasion, by prostituting his ability to pander to an animosity
which delights itself in slurring personalities, and filthy expectorations against
the opposition.



532 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

It is a wonder to many how such a man as Abram Lincoln, can so prostitute
himself. Is there no other issue in this wide country, but that of "nigger"?
Has he forever and firmly wedded his talents and ability in the fanatical crusade
of Abolitionism, and sees nothing upon the political horizon but the African?
Where, we ask, are those issues, in which he once battled with a worthiness
which won him renown? Are they dead? No, but he has forgotten their im-
portance, and has allowed himself to be irrevocably drawn into the whirlpool
of fanaticism.

"He had a word to say of Old John Brown." ( Cheers for Brown. ) "So far
as Brown's sentiments for the negro were concerned, he sympathized with him;
(cheers) but he condemned his lawlessness and bloodshed; (a faint cheer;)
and he had yet to hear the first Republican say, he supported him in it." ( Old
Abe paused in expectation of applause, but it didn't come; his hearers were
not with him there. )

In reply to this balderdash, we would ask him if Conway, Thatcher, Lane &
Co., of this Territory, are not Republicans? and if they did not support Brown,
why did they hold sympathy meetings at Lawrence, on the day of his execu-
tion? Why did the prominent Republican leaders in the States do the same
thing, and raise money for him and his? "Honest Abram" don't read the



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