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From the collection of the



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San Francisco, California
2007



THE

Kansas Historical
Quarterly



NYLE H. MILLER, Managing Editor

KIRKE MECHEM, Editor
JAMES C. MALIN, Associate Editor



Volume XXVI
1960

(Kansas Historical Collections)
VOL. XLIH



Published by

The Kansas State Historical Society
Topeka, Kansas



33_4411



72201



Contents of Volume XXVI



Number 1 Spring, 1960

PAGE

SOME NOTES ON KANSAS COWTOWN POLICE OFFICERS AND GUN FIGHTERS,

Nyle H. Miller and Joseph W. Snett, 1

COTTON WHIGS IN KANSAS Thomas H. O'Connor, 34

SOME NOTES ON THE COMANCHE CATTLE POOL Mary Einsel, 59

With photographs of cowboys employed by the pool in 1884, facing p. 64,
and portraits of Bill Hill and William Blair, facing p. 65.

BUSINESS AND AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS IN KANSAS, 1871-1888: As Re-
ported by a New England Mortgage Broker Glenn H. Miller, Jr., 67

THE ANNUAL MEETING: Containing Reports of the Secretary, Treasurer,
Executive and Nominating Committees; Election of Officers; Address of
the President, WICHITA COWTOWN, by Richard M. Long; List of Di-
rectors of the Society 74

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 103

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 104

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES . 109



Number 2 Summer, 1960



PACK



AN EDITOR LOOKS AT EARLY-DAY KANSAS: The Letters of

Charles Monroe Chase Edited by Lela Barnes, 113

KANSA VILLAGE LOCATIONS IN THE LIGHT OF

MCCOY'S 1828 JOURNAL Roscoe Wilmeth, 152

With map of McCoy's probable route, p. 154.

SOME NOTES ON KANSAS COWTOWN POLICE OFFICERS AND GUN FIGHTERS

Continued Nyle H. Mitter and Joseph W. Snett, 158

RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY, Compiled by Alberta Pantle, Librarian, 206

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 228

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 229

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES 231

(iii)



Number 3 Autumn, 1960

PAGE

WYANDOTTE AND THE FIRST "EXODUSTERS"

OF 1879 Glen Schwendemann y 233

MONUMENT STATION, GOVE COUNTY Charles R. Wetzel, 250

EUGENE WARE AND DR. SANGER: The Code of Political Ethics,

1872-1892 James C. Malin, 255

AN EDITOR LOOKS AT EARLY-DAY KANSAS: The Letters of

Charles Monroe Chase Concluded Edited by Lela Barnes, 267

SOME NOTES ON KANSAS COWTOWN POLICE OFFICERS AND GUN FIGHTERS

-^Continued Nyle H. Miller and Joseph W. Snell, 302

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 340

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 341

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES . . 343



Number 4 Winter, 1960

PAGE

KANSAS CONGRESSMEN AND REAPPORTIONMENT . . Lorene Anderson Hawley, 345
THE EARLY CAREERS OF WILLIAM BRADFORD WADDELL AND WILLIAM
HEPBURN RUSSELL: Frontier Capitalists,

Raymond W. Settle and Mary Lund Settle, 355

With reproductions of company advertising, facing pp. 376, 377; and
portraits of William H. Russell and William B. Waddell, facing p. 377.

COLLEGE DAYS AT COOPER MEMORIAL,

1895-1898 Edited by Kenneth Wiggins Porter, 383

SOME NOTES ON KANSAS COWTOWN POLICE OFFICERS AND GUN FIGHTERS

Continued Nyle H. Miller and Joseph W. Snell, 410

With sketches of James B. Hickok and Agnes Lake, facing p. 424; portraits
of Dr. John H. Holliday and Wyatt Earp, and a reproduction of Doc
Holliday's dentistry advertisement, between pp. 424, 425; and repro-
duction of Wichita police committee's report of 1876 presumably
relating to Wyatt Earp, facing p. 425.

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 456

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 457

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES 461

ERRATA AND ADDENDA, VOLUME XXVI 464

INDEX TO VOLUME XXVI 465

(iv)



THE



KANSAS HISTORICAL
QUARTERLY



Spring 1960




Published by

Kansas State Historical Society

Topeka



NYLE H. MILLER KIRKE MECHEM JAMES C. MALIN

Managing Editor Editor Associate Editor



CONTENTS



SOME NOTES ON KANSAS COWTOWN POLICE OFFICERS AND GUN FIGHTERS,

Nyle H. Miller and Joseph W. Snell, 1

COTTON WHIGS IN KANSAS Thomas H. O'Connor, 34

SOME NOTES ON THE COMANCHE CATTLE POOL Mary Einsel, 59

With photographs of cowboys employed by the pool in 1884, facing p. 64,
and portraits of Bill Hill and William Blair, facing p. 65.

BUSINESS AND AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS IN KANSAS, 1871-1888: As Re-
ported by a New England Mortgage Broker Glenn H. Miller, Jr., 67

THE ANNUAL MEETING: Containing Reports of the Secretary, Treasurer,
Executive and Nominating Committees; Election of Officers; Address of
the President, WICHITA COWTOWN, by Richard M. Long; List of Di-
rectors of the Society 74

BYPATHS OF KANSAS HISTORY 103

KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 104

KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES . . . 109



The Kansas Historical Quarterly is published four times a year by the Kansas
State Historical Society, 120 W. Tenth St., Topeka, Kan. It is distributed
without charge to members of the Society; nonmembers may purchase single
issues, when available, for 75 cents each. Membership dues are: annual, $3;
annual sustaining, $10; life, $20. Membership applications and dues should be
sent to Mrs. Lela Barnes, treasurer.

Correspondence concerning articles for the Quarterly should be addressed to
the managing editor. The Society assumes no responsibility for statements made
by contributors.

Second-class postage has been paid at Topeka, Kan.



THE COVER

A portion of Front street, Dodge City, in the 1880's.
"Kansas has but one Dodge City," wrote a Kinsley editor
in the summer of 1878, describing it as "The Beautiful,
Bibulous Babylon of the Frontier." Part of the sign of the
famed Long Branch saloon shows at the right of the second-
floor porch railing.



THE KANSAS
HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Volume XXVI Spring, 1960 Number 1

Some Notes on Kansas Cowtown Police Officers
and Gun Fighters

NYLE H. MILLER and JOSEPH W. SNELL
INTRODUCTION

OF the thousands of requests for information which come to the
Kansas State Historical Society each year, many are for ma-
terial on famous Western marshals, sheriffs, and gunmen, as well as
lesser lights. Letters are received from all parts of the United States,
Canada, Europe, and even Australia. Those who write are from all
walks of life, and include professional writers, clerks, lawyers, fac-
tory workers, housewives, and school boys and girls.

For years James Butler "Wild Bill" Hickok was their favorite.
Since the coming of television, Wyatt Earp and William Barclay
"Bat" Masterson have taken the ascendancy. There is no doubt
that TV Westerns have been the cause of a reawakening of interest
which, though it has had previous periods of activity, has never
before captivated audiences so extensively. Not only have more
TV Westerns been scheduled each season, but "factual" Western
magazines have made their appearance. Biographies of Western
personalities have been written and rewritten, and countless motion
pictures have retold with variations stories that have appeared many
times before.

It is unfortunate that few of the authors of these scripts, articles,
and books have dug deeper than previously published works for
their information. Errors, some of which may have been simple
mistakes in original publications, become enriched with age and
accepted as fact by latter-day writers. Too seldom is there indica-
tion that present-day authors have returned to primary source ma-
terials for their stories. In fact, it seems at times that a few
deliberately reject fascinating fact for not-so-fascinating fiction.

Because of the tremendous demand for information concerning
the lives of many of these Western personalities, the State Historical
Society is preparing a file which will contain copies of available

NYLE H. MILLER and JOSEPH W. SNELL are members of the staff of the Kansas State
Historical Society.



2 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

contemporary records on the law and lawless of several of Kansas'
more famous cowtowns. Frankly, the collection is expected to
reduce the outlandish number of hours members of the staff are
having to spend in searching for answers to these numerous re-
quests, many of which are submitted in detail. Also, the cream of
this research is now available for publication in this and succeeding
issues of The Kansas Historical Quarterly.

Pains have been taken to see that all known contemporary records
were examined from each of the towns chosen. Newspapers of
the day and official city, county, and state records have been con-
sulted. Manuscript material of the individuals concerned has also
been used when available.

The compilers of this series have concentrated as much as possible
on primary records. Efforts have been made to avoid undue evalua-
tion or interpretation of the data gathered. Quoted items in most
cases speak for themselves. Emphasis has naturally been given
to the activities of these individuals in Kansas, although occasionally
their careers outside the state receive mention.

Considering the meager material available, a project of this kind
cannot be definitive. Therefore, the Society will be the first to admit
that it does not have all the answers and never will, for contem-
poraneous information simply is not available to cover many epi-
sodes in the lives of these individuals. It is believed, however, that
the following series will be the most accurate and complete chronicle
yet published of many of the well-known peace officers and gun
fighters of Kansas. Additional evidence of any kind will be en-
thusiastically received by the Society, especially if it is contemporary
with the period.

Eight Kansas cowtowns were chosen for inclusion in this series.
There are, of course, others which would qualify, and undoubtedly
some readers will feel that the compilers have discriminated and
made poor selections. Unfortunately such complaint could be
made of any selection less than the whole.

The towns chosen, and their necessarily fluid end dates, are:
Abilene, 1867-1871; Caldwell, 1879-1884; Dodge City, 1873-1886;
Ellsworth, 1872-1875; Hays, 1869; Newton, 1871; Wichita, 1871-
1875; and Hunnewell whenever appropriate information was dis-
covered.

Of these towns, Hunnewell alone had no direct source of infor-
mation available, and data had to be obtained from extra-local
sources. Abilene, Caldwell, and Wichita city records were avail-
able. Copies of nearly all the commissioners' journals of the sev-



COWTOWN POLICE OFFICERS AND GUN FIGHTERS 3

eral counties involved were consulted. Contemporary newspapers
have been searched for all the communities except Hays, Hunne-
well, and Newton. For the last-named towns, the Society has no
newspaper files for the years concerned.

All persons found serving as police officers at any governmental
level have been recorded. However, only those for whom some-
thing of special interest has been found, are given separate treat-
ment.

In addition to lawmen, certain others who were either astraddle
or outside the law were included. This latter category includes
such well-known Western characters as Luke Short, Clay Allison,
and John H. "Doc" Holliday. For the purposes of this list, the
term "law enforcement officer" means police officer. However,
when the same individuals also served in other governmental ca-
pacities, those facts occasionally have been mentioned in passing.

As work for this paper progressed interesting discrepancies ap-
peared. The almost standard characterization presented by the
movies and television was found to be highly imaginary. For
instance, the classic main street chivalric engagement, known as
the "quick draw," apparently was not indulged in either by law-
men or "badmen." When police officers "drew," it was to make a
quick arrest without gunfire, if possible. When "badmen" resorted
to gunplay, it was either deliberate, premeditated murder from
a safe vantage point, or "spur of the moment" shooting caused by
anger, drunkenness, or fear. It was rare indeed for principals to
walk toward each other down the middle of main street at high
noon in that dramatic and awe-inspiring manner so often depicted
on the screen. Such show business for real was far too likely
to be fatal, or at least damaging, to a large percentage of the par-
ticipants. It was natural, then as now, for most to value their lives,
so why give the other fellow an even break when he could be
disposed of otherwise, with less risk?

It was curious to note, too, what deplorable marksmen many
of the gunslingers sometimes were. Classic examples may be
found in the Loving-Richardson duel in Dodge City and the Hickok-
Coe affair in Abilene.

As one reads the sketches in this series it will be noted that
nearly all the more famous police officers were, at one time or
another, on the receiving end of the law. Wild Bill Hickok, Bat
Masterson, Wyatt Earp, William M. Tilghman, Henry Brown, all
were arrested on suspicion, or for infractions of the law in some
degree. Certain other lawmen were equally at home on either



4 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

side of the fence. But this condition resulted largely as a by-
product of the times and, in fairness, each of them should be
judged in the light of his existing "cultural" surroundings.

Unfortunately for history, many of Kansas' better lawmen seldom
receive due credit, while others bask some undeservedly in the
warmth and glory of fame. Probably one of the finest peace of-
ficers ever to serve in Kansas was Thomas J. Smith, who was chief
of police at Abilene during the cattle season of 1870. Other ex-
cellent and dedicated peace officers included Charles E. Bassett
and Edward J. Masterson of Dodge City and Mike Meagher of
Wichita and Caldwell. Three of these men lost their lives be-
cause they wore, or had worn, the badge.

The following pages are presented, then, in the hope that some
of the inaccuracies of the present may be halted before they go
orbitting into eternity, and that deserving lawmen will receive more
of the appreciation that is due them. Also, may the reader have
some enjoyable moments overlooking a few items that are grue-
some, of course in reliving the days of the "wild and woolly West."

One final "moment of truth," before permitting the past to speak
for itself. Stories of the prowess of Matt Dillon, famed on tele-
vision and radio today, are not to be found in this compilation.
"Matt Dillon, U. S. marshal, Dodge City" though he puts on a good
show, simply does not exist in history.

ALLISON, CLAY



Much has been written in various books about Clay Allison's
adventures in Dodge City but very little mention of him was
found in the town's newspapers. On August 6, 1878, the Ford
County Globe noted that "Clay Allison, one of the Allison Bros.,
from the Cimarron, south of Las Animas, Colorado, stopped off at
Dodge last week on his way home from St. Louis. We are glad to
say that Clay has about recovered from the effects of the East St.
Louis scrimmage."

The Globe, September 10, mentioned that Allison was again in
Dodge on September 5. On March 2, 1880, the Globe printed a
letter written by Allison in which he defended his reputation and
explained the "East St. Louis scrimmage":

A CARD FROM CLAY ALLISON.

To THE EDITOR OF THE GLOBE:

About the 26th of July there appeared in one of the St. Louis papers an
account of an altercation between myself and one Tisinger, in East St. Louis,



COWTOWN POLICE OFFICERS AND GUN FIGHTERS 5

in which account there appeared several gross misrepresentations which I
desire to contradict.

1st It was alleged that I was a murderer of fifteen men. In answer to this
assertion I will say that it is entirely false, and that I stand ready at all times
and places for an open inspection, and any one who wishes to learn of my past
record can make inquiries of any of the leading citizens of Wayne county,
Tennessee, where I was born and raised, or of officers of the late rebellion,
on either side. I served in the 9th Tennessee regiment, Co. F, and the last
two years of the service was a scout for Ben McCulloch and Gen. Forrest.
Since the war I have resided in Mexico, Texas and Kansas, principally on the
frontier, and will refer to any of the tax payers and prominent men in either
of the localities where I have resided. I have at all times tried to use my
influence toward protecting the property holders and substantial men of the
country from thieves, outlaws and murderers, among whom I do not care to
be classed.

2nd, It was also charged that I endeavored to use a gun on the occasion
of the St. Louis difficulty, which is untrue, and can be proven by either Col.
Hunter, of St. Louis, or the clerk of Irwin, Allen & Co. It was also stated that
I got the worst of the fight. In regard to this I also refer to Col. Hunter. I do
not claim to be a prize fighter, but as an evidence of the correct result of this
fight I will only say that I was somewhat hurt but did not squeal, as did my
three opponents.

My present residence is on the Washita in Hemphill county, Texas, where
I am open for inspection and can be seen at any time.

CLAY ALLISON.

DODGE CITY, Feb. 26, 1880.

St. Louis and other papers please copy.

The final reference to Allison's being in Dodge was this short item
in the Globe, August 17, 1880: "Clay Allison came up from the Pan
Handle Sunday."

BASSETT, CHARLES E.

( -1895)

The first sheriff of Ford county was Charles E. Bassett. Chosen
at a special election June 5, 1873, he was re-elected twice and
served a total of about four and one-half years. 1

In early April, 1876, young John Callaham and a stranger named
Cole, who was sharing Callaham's camp on Saw Log creek some
15 miles from Dodge City, were hanged by a posse from Sumner
county. The posse, pursuing horse thieves, believed that both
Callaham and Cole were guilty but later events seem to indi-
cate that John Callaham was the innocent victim of lynch law. 2

R. C. Callaham, a Topeka sewing machine salesman and father
of John Callaham, conferred with Gov. Thomas A. Osborn and
then journeyed to Dodge. He carried with him this letter from



6 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

the governor to Sheriff Bassett and the county attorney of Ford
county:

April 24[, 187]6
To THE COUNTY ATTORNEY &
SHERIFF OF FORD COUNTY.

GENTLEMEN:

This will be handed to you by Mr. R. C. Callaham, whose son, John F.
Callaham, was executed by mob violence in your county, on the 8th inst.
He visits Ford County for the purpose of making a thorough investigation
of all the facts and circumstances attending the death of his son. He claims
that there is no doubt of his son's innocence, and if this claim is correct the
[word illegible] atrocity of the crime an utterly law-defying one at the best
certainly demands the attention of all law-abiding people, and more especially
of the officers to whom is entrusted the execution of the law and the preserva-
tion of the public peace.

I trust that you will extend to Mr. Callaham all the assistance, counsel and
encouragement which it may be in your power to extend. There must be
an end to mob violence in this state, and local officers exercising vigilance
and energy in its suppression and punishment may rely upon the Executive
for support and assistance. Let me know in what manner I can be of service
in bringing to justice the perpetrators of this recent outrage, and I shall not
be slow in responding to any practical suggestion. In the meantime I trust
that you will do everything in your power to facilitate the inquiry which
Mr. Callaham proposes to institute.

Very Respectfully,
Your Obed't Servant,

THOS. A. OSBORN. 3

Shortly after Callaham's arrival in Dodge City, Sheriff Charles
E. Bassett wrote to Governor Osborn and reported Callaham's
findings as well as his own feelings in the matter:

SHERIFF'S OFFICE,
FORD COUNTY, KAS.,
DODGE Cnr, April 28, 1876
THOS. A OSBORN

Gov. State Kans
DEAR Sm

Mr. R. C. Calleham presented to me your letter of the 24 inst

I gave the Gentleman all the encouragement I could but as I was ignorant
of the facts in the Case, My suggestions as council could be of little benifit
to him.

Through what little information I gave him and his own exertions he has
ascertained the fact that his son, John Calleham, was at Dodge City, on the
3rd day of April 1876 the day on which we held our municipal election. It
appears from the statements made by the Sumner County and other papers
that the horses were stolen on the 30th inst., and that the parties in persuit
followed the thieves a distance of 300 miles. The theory is that if the de-
ceased John Calleham was here on the 3rd day of April that it would be
physically impossible for him to have have stolen those horses. Several Citi-
zens of good standing are willing to qualify [sic] that they spoke with him on



COWTOWN POLICE OFFICERS AND GUN FIGHTERS 7

the 3rd of April, at Dodge City. If he was one of the thieves the time given
him to travel over 300 miles of ground was 3 days from the night of the
30th of March to the morning of the 3rd of April. I do not hesitate to say that
this fete could not be performed by any one horse or horseman in the time
given, especially as the ground was so soft, as to leave an impression, so plain
that it could be followed at a very rapid gait.

To be brief I am now of the opinion that the man was innocent of the
crime alledged, and for which he has suffered death. Mr. Calleham wishes
me to go to Sumner County and arrest the parties interested in the hanging,
but without the assistance of the executive department I am totally unable to
do anything, as I am in a poor fix financially to undertake so lengthy a Journy.
And as I have to deal with men who have themselfs disregarded the law, I
will nessarily have to take with me three men to assist in making those arrests.
This of course will be some slight expense to the State, without which I am
unable to opperate.

I hardly think it safe to entrust my business to the Sumner Co Sheriff as
I think that possibly he might convey the intilegence to them and thereby
give the offenders an opportunity to escape

Yours Very

Respectfully
CHAS E. BAssETT 4

The financial aid which Bassett requested was not forthcoming.
On May 1 Governor Osborn's secretary replied:

CHAS. E. BASSETT, ESQ.
Dodge City, Kansas.

DEAR SIR:

The Governor directs me to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the
28th ult. Though he is decidedly anxious that the parties who illegally exe-
cuted young Callaham should be brought to justice, there is no public fund
from which the expense of their re-capture can be defrayed. It is the duty
of the local authorities to execute the law, and the Governor hopes that the
County Board will provide the necessary means.

Yours Truly,
WARD BURLINGAME,
Private Sec'y. 5

Further research has not disclosed the outcome of the Callaham
case.

Little is known of Bassetfs service as sheriff of Ford county from
May, 1876, until the spring of 1877, when issues of Dodge City
newspapers begin to appear regularly in the State Historical So-
ciety's files. The first known newspaper item which credited Bassett
with having performed an official duty was in the Dodge City
Times, March 31, 1877:

A slight horse-thief scare prevaded this morning. From what we learn it
appears that twelve horses were missed from Mr. J. W. Miller's cattle camp
on Crooked yesterday. Supposing they had been stolen, the authorities were
informed, and Sheriff Bassett and Marshal [Lawrence E.] Deger started out this



8 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

morning to see what they could find. About three miles west of town they
discovered the horses, but no thieves were in sight.

Short items telling of Bassett going after a jewel thief, visiting
Harvey county on official business, etc., appeared from time to time
but apparently nothing of major importance happened which in-
volved the sheriff of Ford county until September, 1877. On Sep-
tember 18 six men robbed a Union Pacific train of $60,000 at Big
Springs, Neb. It was reported that the bandits were headed south
and Sheriff Bassett set out to catch them. Here is the story from
the Times, September 29, 1877:

IN PURSUIT.

A dispatch was received by Sheriff Bassett last Wednesday from Superin-
tendent Morse, stating that the train robbers had started south and would
probably cross the A. T. & S. F. near Lakin. Accordingly Bassett, under-sheriff
[William B. "Bat"] Masterson and John Webb went west on the Thursday
morning train: but they heard nothing of the robbers and returned Friday
morning, thinking it more likely that the robbers would cross near Dodge. A
few hours before they arrived news was brought into town that five men had
crossed the railroad going south about thirty miles west of here. As soon as
preparations could be made, Bassett, Bat Masterson and Webb started south-



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