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Net loss to state $4,309,000

In the light of these facts it ought not
to be difficult to reach the conclusion that
in Massachusetts, at least, the liquor in-
dustry is not a paying industry for the
state.

If this traffic is proportionally expensive
in other parts of the United States, the
loss to the several states from this one
phase of the industry and its results, is
about one hundred and twenty millions of
dollars annually. And yet the losses from
weakened bodily strength, the shortening
of life and the misdirected labor are still
to be taken into account.



56



SEMINARY NOTES.



Such are the showings of the traffic for
the country at large.

.. What will be the showing of the great
cities? In the city of Chicago "The Har-
per High License Law" has been in force
for six years. The tax on the saloon is
five hundred dollars per annum. The
result is set forth in the following tables:
I.



Year.


Total
License.


Each
Saloon.


Average No.
of Saloons.


1886
188«
1890
1891


$l,K.50,O33
1,993,446
3,644.382
2,744,678


500
5i0

500


3.700
3,984
5,638
5,600


IL


Year.


Nmii Der or
Police.


li;xpeiise of
Police Depart.


1886

1888

■ 1890

1891


1,032
1,355

3,1 '43
2,r,0U


$1,193,769
1,450,437 ,
3,116,000
3,0yl,573



From these tables jt appears that while
the revenue from saloons has increased
forty-eight per cent, the expense of the
police force has increased one hundred and
fifty-nine per cent. For a time the license
fees equaled or exceeded the police ex-
pense, but it no longer does either. But
granting that the revenue from the saloons
pays the entire police bill, does that solve
the problem in favor of the traffic? By no
means. Other items are to be considered.

If the pauperism of Chicago costs as
much proportionally as it does in Boston,
a tax of one million dollars will be needed
to meet this. Again, the cost of the city
courts is no inconsiderable item. And it
must not be forgotten that four-fifths of all
these items must be placed in the account
against the traffic. It would be well if this
were all, but if the 5,600 licensed saloons
will average in value $1,000, they represent
$5,600,000 of capital invested in a busi-
ness that in no way adds to the industrial
development of the city. It may be added
without any attempt to misrepresent the
facts, that the lots on which these saloons
stand are so much more property wasted,
for they not only do not give room for that
which is useful and productive, but they
do give room to that which is a harmful
and destructive agent.



The next point for consideration is the
relation of this industry and its product to
the laboring people of the country. And
at the very beginning attention will be
given to the proposition that the liquor
traffic furnishes employment for a very
large number of men. No one can deny
that the men are employed, and it may be
assumed that there are a quarter of a mil-
lion in this industry. These men derive
their livelihood from labor in the business.
But could not the capital invested in the
different establishments that have to do
with the liquor industry be invested in in-
dustries that would pay a larger per cent of
the value of the products to labor, and at
the same time secure a product that would
assist the development of the nation by
increasing the wealth-producing energy?
If the United States census report shows
anything at all, it shows most conclusively
that this can be done.

From Tabid I, it appears that while out
of the value of the whole manufactured
product of the United States 17.65 per
cent goes to labor, only 10.45 per cent of
the wholesale value of the liquor product
goes to labor. Removing the liquor pro-
duct from the general average it would be
seen that that industry returns to labor
about half the rate per cent on the product
that the other industries return. Another
point is worthy of note. With $1x8,000,-
000 capital invested, and about$86,ooo,ooo
of raw material used, the liquor industry
employs 23,687 men. On the other hand,
the woolen goods industry, with about the
same capital, employs 85,504 men, while
the hardware business, with only $25,000,-
000 in stock and material, employs 16,801
men.

From Table II. no better showing can
be had for liquor. Out of every hundred
dollars the consumer pays for goods at
retail, twelve dollars and sixty-one cents
goes to the laborers, but out of every hun-
dred dollars spent in liquor at retail, the
laborer receives only two dollars and fifteen
cents. This means that had the seven
hundred millions represented money spent



SEMINARY NOTES.



57



Table I.

THE LIQUOR TRAFFIC COMPARED WITH LEADING INDUSTRIES ON THE BASIS OF

WHOLESALE PRICES.



KIND OF PRODUCTS.



All United States Industries

Boots and Shoes

Clothing

Furniture and Upholstery....

Hardware

Cotton Goods

Woolen Goods

Worsted Goods

Men's Furnishing Goods

All kinds of Liquors



Number of

hands
employed.



3,738,.595

lll,i.V2

)86,U05

64,139

16,801

18.^,472

85,.504

18,8U3

11,174

23,689



Total wages

paid during

the year.



$947,953,795

43,001,438

52,601.3.58

2.5,571,f-3t

6,846,913

45.614,419

35,836,392

5,683,027

3,644,135

15,078,579



Total cost of
materials.



3,.396,823,549
102,442,442
150.932,,509

41.034,244

10,097.577
n3,765,.537
100,845,611

23,013,628
6,503,164

85,921,374



Total capital
invested.



$2,790,273,606

43,994,028

88,068,969

49,531,729

15,363,551

219,504,794

96,095,564

20,374,043

3,734,664

118,037,739



"Value of pro

ducts at

wholesale

prices.



5,369,579,191

166,050,354

341.553,254

86.843.333

33, 653; 693

310,950,383

160,606,731

33,549,942

11,506,857

144,291,241



Per cent

paid labor

wholesale

prices.



17,65
35.89
31,77
39,44
30,33
31,63
16.08
16.94
33,98
10,45



Table II.

THE LIQUOR TRAFFIC COMPARED WITH OTHER INDUSTRIES ON BASIS OF RETAIL PRICES.



KIND OF PRODUCTS.



All Manufactures

Boots and Shoes

Clothing

Furiiiture and Upholstering

Hardware

Cotton Goods

Woolen Goods

Worsted Goods

Furnishing Goods

Liquors



Value of pro- Increase of 40



ducts of Manf.
at manufac-
tory wholesale
price, 1880.



),369,579,191

166,050,354

341,553,354

86,843.323

32.653,693

310,9.50,383

160,606,731

33,549,943

11,506,857

144,391,24!



per cent on
wholesale
price for pro-
fits, etc.



for other products than liquor, it would
have paid to labor ninety million instead
of fifteen million dollars.

The effect of the liquor traffic on the
general trade of a city is made remarkably
clear by reports of business men in the
city of Atlanta, as to the results on trade
and the reopening of saloons in that place.
In reply to the question, Have you noticed
any change in average amount of sales to
working men since saloons were opened,
as compared with same trade under prohi-
bition, thirty-one replies were returned.
Twenty reported a decrease of from ten to
fifty per cent, four reported no trade with
working men, four see no difference, two
report business better, one an increase in
some lines and decrease in others. In
answer to the question. Do you sell more
or less to working men for cash than under
prohibition, there were twenty-nine replies.
Twenty-one report less sales for cash and
greater demand for credit, four report no
change, four give irrelevant answers. As
to the question of bad debts and difficulty
of collection, twenty of !wenty-six report



$3,147,831,676
66,430,141
96,631.301
34.736.929
9,061,477
84,380;i53
64,242,688
13,419,976
4,602,742



Cost of arti-
cles to the
consumers.



$7,517,410,867

233,470,495

338,174,5.55

131,579,353

31,715,170

395,330,536

324,849,409

46,969,918

16,109,599

700,000,000



Wages paid
for manufact-
uring



$947,9.53,795
43,001,438
53,601.358
25,571,831
6,846,913
45,614,419
25,836,393
5,683,027
3,644,155
15,078,579



Sum paid

for labor

out of $100

worth at

retail.



$12.61
18.49
15.55
31.03
21.59
15.44
11.05
13.09
16.40
2,15



bad debts increasing, four notice no dif-
ference, one doesn't know, one reports a
decrease. These replies are taken in reg-
ular order, no attempt being made to make
a showing different from that really con-
tained in the whole number of responses.

But one conclusion can be drawn. The
liquor traffic is a positive injury to all
legitimate business. Also it takes from
the laborer that which might otherwise
have been spent for necessities and com-
forts. Even this is not all. The liquor
the laborer uses weakens his body and
shortens his life. In either case the labor
element is materially diminished.

In a work by Carpenter, entitled "Alco-
holic Liquors," are found many statistics
of value bearing on this point. A care-
fully prepared table shows conclusively
the great advantage of abstinence to men
who are to undergo vigorous exertion, or
withstand attacks of disease in unhealthful
climates. The report is from the records
of military service of British troops in
India for six months of 1838.



58



SEMINARY NOTES.



MONTH.


Strength

of

Army.


Strength
of temper-
ance.


Strength
of remain-
der.


Average daily per cent of
men in hospital,




Temperance.


Others.


January .


4522
4479
4421
4440
4443
4439


1953
1840
1645
1359
1282
1364


2569
2639
2879
3081
3161
3075


2.54
2.27
2.94
5.47
5.24
4.55


8.15
8.27
8.66
10.28
10.66
10.35


February


March .. .

April


May .

June


Total


26694


9340


17354


3.65


10 30







Thus it appears that the percentage of
sickness among the temperance soldiers
was only about one-third of that among
the others. The whole history of the
British troops in India confirms this report.

The same authority (page 88) gives the
results of observations made in a brick-
yard in England. ' ' Out of twenty millions
of bricks made in 1841, by the largest
maker in the neighborhood, the average
per man, made by the beer drinkers in a
season, was 760,269; while the average
for a teetotaler was 795,400, which is
35, 131 in favor of the latter. Satisfactory
as the account appears, I believe it would
have been much more so, if the teetotalers
could have obtained the whole 'gang' of
abstainers, as they were very frequently
hindered by the drinking of some of the
'gang,' and when the order is thus broken
tlie work cannot go on."

The shovel factory of Amos & Son, in
Massachusetts, produced, with the labor of
three hundred and seventy-five men, eight
per cent more goods than with four hun-
dred men in the corresponding month,
after the repeal of the temperance law.
On this basis there would be a loss of
^16,500,000 to the wage-earners of Mass-
achusetts in a single year, resulting from
the crippling of the labor power alone.

The loss to labor by the shortening of
life is quite as great as the loss from weak-
ened powers. Of course the loss can



hardly be estimated, but a table showing
the survival at successive ages will show
that it is tremendous. Starting at twenty
years, with 100,000 as the basis for both
classes, the result is as follows:



Age.


Intemperate.


General
Population.


25


81.975


95,719


30


64,114


91,. 577


40


39.671


82.082


50


21,938


',0,666


60


11.568


.56.355


70


5.076


35,330



In the face of these facts it is not. too
much to say that the loss to the industrial
world, from the last two sources, is not
less than that represented by the direct loss
on the money expended for intoxicants.

To compare accounts, there is to the
credit of the liquor traffic, the employment
of a quarter of million of men and a small
percentage of the product useful in arts
and sciences. On the other side of the
account appear wasted wages vastly greater
than the total earnings of the 250,000
men, engaged in the manufacture and
sale of the liquor; expenditures for three-
fourths of all criminal, pauper and charity
expenses, loss to labor in diminished pro-
ficiency and in shortening of life.

No sophistry can possibly make a bal-
ance. There is only one conclusion. The
liquor traffic is not a paying industry for
society, but it is one that involves incal-
culable loss to the wealth of the country.

F. H. Olnev.



SEMINARY NOTES.



59



MODERN JOURNALISM.



T the meeting of the Historical Sem-
inary on October 23, Mr. C. S.
Finch presented an interesting article on
Modern Journalism. Lack of space alone
prevents the publication of the entire
paper, which was rich in that very element
of "suggestiveness," upon which Mr.
Finch placed the most stress in speaking
of the proper function of the editorial.
While recognizing that the publication of
an extract can not do justice to the value
of the whole paper, yet the writer's esti-
mate of the influence of modern journal-
ism, and his clearly stated comparison of
the newspapers of yesterday and of to-day
are so interesting that they can not be
omitted. Mr. Finch spoke as follows:

In proportion to their number do the
newspapers of to-day exert the influences
upon the world that the newspapers of the
past did? It is a very common expression
now to say that newspapers have lost their
powerj that no one gives heed to what
they say, and that they are read for the
news they contain and not for the opinions
they express. A casual view of the matter
will convince almost any one that this is
true. A deeper insight will show him his
error. It is true that half a century ago
the weekly newspaper was read in the
household as religiously as the Bible was
perused, and your grandfather will tell you
now that the papers of his day were next
to infallible. Did he consider them so
then? Certainly not. He had the same
arguments with his editor that you have
with yours. A thousand times he knew
he was .right when the editor was wrong.
But he has forgotten that now, and only
remembers the wonderful words and the
almost miraculous prophecies of things
that have come to pass just as his editor
said they would.

In your grandfather's day his weekly
paper was all he had to depend upon for
his knowledge of what the world was doing.



The editor had the whole week in which
to write and re-write his ideas, and he
could afford to speak in a careful, conser-
vative manner, and he was generally right
three times in the month and wrong once,
while the modern editor will be found
right six days in the week and wrong on
the seventh. He would hardly be human
did he not err once in seven times. I
speak now of the careful, conscientious
editor, the one who has the courage of his
convictions and a thorough knowledge of
his work.

The fact can not be denied that the
modern newspaper has been injured by
pirates, and the honor of the profession
has suffered in consequence. Many in-
stances might be cited, where men with
schemes to carry out and with money to
back them, purchase a newspaper and an
editor, and run the alleged newspaper with
an eye single to the accomplishment of the
end they have in view, regardless of the
sacred duty that a newspaper owes to the
world. Judge Cooley once said to me, " It
is unfortunately true that there is no law to
prevent a fool from writing a book." It
is equally unfortunate that there is no law
to prevent a fool or a rascal from running
a newspaper. They have no regard for
the public welfare or for the rights of in-
dividuals, and such men and such publi-
cations have brought the profession in a
measure into disrepute. But I question if
the profession has suffered by this piracy
in -proportion as other lines of business
have suffered from the same causes within
their own lines. The legitimate banker
has suffered because men with no capital,
but their colossal cheek, have captured
the business and escaped to Canada with
the funds. Legitimate railroad enterprises
have been bankrupted because men could
build competing lines with the proceeds
of the bonds a misguided people would
vote them. Legitimate mercantile houses



6o



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



have been stranded because men without
capital could buy goods and sell them for
less than cost because they never would
pay for them. Politics, which in its best
sense is second only to rehgion, has been
dragged in the mire by demagogues until a
man's character is in jeopardy when he
enters the forbidden portal, the worst men
of the country are elevated to the best and
most sacred trusts, the good and able men
are relegated to the rear, and now we have
in almost every state of the Union some-
thing that in the good old days was unus-
ual, for then a statesman was never out of
a job.

By a comparison then with other lines
it will be found that the profession of
journalism has suffered no more than
others. It is true that there is more criti-
cism of newspapers and editors than of
any other profession. But there are good
and sufficient reasons for this. The lawyer
may cover his errors by an appeal, or
excuse them because of the injustice of
law. A minister may charge his to the
mistakes of his system of theology. The
physician may bury his, but the newspaper
man must constantly have his errors star-
ing him in the face and be called upon by
every man he meets to answer for them.
His truths and his errors alike are preserved
as are the mummies of Egypt, and were
he to return to earth in a thousand years
every mistake would rise up and confront
him. And to this fact is due very much
of the talk that is constantly heard in re-
ference to the retrogression of the modern
newspaper. True it is that mistakes are
daily made, but no one regrets them more
deeply than does the man who makes
them. It is the highest ambition of every
writer to make his work as free from
errors as possible, and to have his paper
known as reliable in every particular. To
this end he toils at all hours of the night
and day. None but one who has been
through the experience can know or un-
derstand the painstaking efforts of the
modern newspaper to secure and give to
the public the exact truth in reference to



every event. No reputable newspaper
ever gives as truth a rumor, no matter
how well founded it may be. So strict a
compliance is demanded to this rule that
it is worth a man's position on a newspaper
to violate it.

And when one thinks of the vast field
that must be covered by a newspaper
every twenty-four hours, the wonder is
that ten mistakes are not made where one
is actually found. From every quarter
of the civilized world, and from many
parts of that which is uncivilized, comes
the news of each day. A slip of the
writer's pen, a break in the operator's
message, a comma omitted by the com-
positor, the careless eye of a proof reader,
each and all may conspire to cause an
error that will bring ridicule to the news-
paper and cast serious reflection upon the
editor. In view of all this, then, it is not
strange that many serious errors are made,
and that careless, unthinking people im-
pute to the newspaper wrong motives and
speak flippantly of the press. But to such
perfection has the modern newspaper been
brought that only the hypercritical find
room to complain of reputable journalism.

And a word here in reference to the
power of the press at the present time.
Does it mould and fashion public opinion
as it did formerly? In one sense it does,
in another it does not.

Years ago a man read only the news-
paper with the policy of which he agreed.
Then he was a true follower of his favorite
paper. He believed as it believed, thought
as it thought and lived as it told him to
live. Today every intelligent man reads
papers of every shade of political, religous
or literary belief. He can not believe as
they all believe, and so we often find him
striking a happy medium and thinking for
himself, something that our grandfathers
scarcely dared to do. But whether or not
the reader believes as does the paper he
reads, yet certain it is that each paper he
studies has its effect in moulding his ideas,
and by reading many he is better able to
think for himself and to judge rightly as to



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



6i



what opinion or idea is correct. The
modern man depends almost wholly upon
the newspapers for his ideas, though those
ideas may not be conveyed to him directly
by the paper. In this way the modern
newspaper wields a power that the news-
paper of fifty years ago did not dream of.

^ ^ ^ ^

The old fashioned newspaper confined
itself almost wholly to elaborate essays
« upon the leading political ideas of the
day. Little attention was paid to the
current news, and small space was taken
in chronicling local happenings. Today
the news and the local pages of the papers
make up the greater part of the edition.
Two of our best daily papers, papers that
make more money than any other two in
the state, do not pretend to give space to
editorial matter. It is true that both do
give a little space to editorials, but if that
space is demanded by other departments
not a line of editorial appears. One of
our best newspaper critics said to me the
other day that the newspaper of the future
would contain no opinions whatever.
That it would be confined wholly to news
matter. His reason for thinking so was
that the tendency of modern journalism is
undoubtedly in that direction and he
thought the idea would be carried to the
limit. He also said that men of the
present day are thinking so much for
themselves that they only want facts upon
which to base their opinions; that they do
not care what other- men think, and that
they no longer regard the opinion of the
editor of more importance than they do
the opinion of any other man. In a great
measure this is true, even at the present
time. The reason for it I have already
given. It may be possible that this pre-
diction will prove true. It will not be for
some years, however, not until the editor
has found that the people no longer care
for what he says or follow his lead. When
that is true, if it is ever true, perhaps he
will reluctantly give up his cherished space
to the man who collects the news.

The tendency of the modern newspaper



is to economize space. Very few papers
now have men employed whose duty it is
to write against space. Every man has
his instructions to "cut down" everything,
and if he does not obey the order the ever
ready and ferocious blue pencil does the
work. There is more going on in the
world today than there ever was before,
and it is the ambition of every newspaper
to tell it all. The paper that is continually
"scooped" on home or foreign news will
soon find that it has neither standing nor
subscribers. And the news of the whole
world is at hand now for even the country
weekly that is published at a cross roads.
Any paper in Kansas may have the very
latest news of the world ten hours after it
is in the great dailies of the metropolis.
There is no other branch of industry that
has profited by modern improvements as
has the newspaper. If a man does not
publish a good paper, no matter in what
state or what county, the fault is his own.
It costs no more to publish a good one
than it does one that is not fit to read.
This fact is so generally recognized and
conceded that we have today very few
papers that are not good, at least from a
news standpoint.

But if the news must be abbreviated,
what must we say of the editorial utter-
ances? George D. Prentice, whose fame
as a journalist will not grow dim, was the
first apostle of paragraphing. In both
theory and practice I am his follower.
He said that you could reach and touch
more people with a five line paragraph,
well turned, than you could with a column
of argum.ent. Certain it is that a man
who has not time to read a tedious, though
sensible and logical editorial of a column
in length, will peruse closely a column of
paragraphs that treat of half a hundred
different subjects. The ambition of the
writer is to have what he writes read.
How many men of your acquaintance
take the time to read the tedious, though
many times able editorials of the great
papers of the day ? When men desire
that kind of reading they take the monthly



62



SEMINARY NOTES.



magazine. The daily paper is the child
of a busy age, and it must conform to the
requirements of that age. The daily
paper of today is read by the business
man, by the lawyer, by the mechanic, by
the man who has no time for the work
save that which he catches as he waits for



Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 10 of 62)