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his supper or breakfast or while he rides
in the car to his daily work. The elabor-
ate newspaper editorial or the magazine
essay needs time for digestion and thought.
The man for whom the lengthy editorial
is meant seldom has time to read it. The
bright, sparkling, well turned editorial
comment upon a current event attracts
him and it is read. It fixes the fact
itself in his mind, it amuses him, and it
leads him to deeper thought when he has
time and opportunity for it. I do not
deprecate the lengthy editorial, mind you,
but as compared to the brilliant editorial
comment of the paragraph it is as the



slow moving ox train to the swiftly flying
express. It is good in its way, and in
some cases absolutely necessary, but for
modern, every day work it is too old-
fashioned to be much longer endured by a
charitable and ever considerate public.
It is only when one wants an argument or
an explanation that he demands the elong-
ated editorial. As I have said before, the
modern man does his own thinking, and
all he asks is to have the basis for that
thought given to him in as brief a manner
as possible. The writer of the news of
the day furnishes the facts. The para-
grapher gives him the foundation for his
thought. That is all the modern man
demands. The old-fashioned man wanted
some one to do his thinking for him.
There are some old-fashioned men on
newspapers who imagine that the old-
fashioned reader is still alive. This is a
serious mistake. He is very dead.



SEMINARY REPORTS.



Russia and



Q^



gnPHE first special session of the Semi-



'(^§ nary of Historical and Political Science
was held Friday afternoon, October 2. Sev-
eral of the students filled the program with
carefully prepared reports on different
phases of the Russian-Jewish situation.
The first report was by Mr. R. D. Brown,
his article being "New Light on the Jew-
ish Question," by Goldwin Smith in the
North American Review for August, 1891.
He said:

In Russia the Jews become money lend-
ers, and do not cultivate the soil. As
sure as the Jew settles in a village the
peasant gradually falls in poverty. Their
small landed possessions, with their intense
greed for gain and their exclusive race
notions, are the causes of this condition.
Their power is greater in Russia than in
the United States, because the people are



THE Jews.

lower intellectually. The contest is not
one of religion, but can be attributed
almost wholly to various social causes.
Expulsion is the proposed remedy.

Mr. J. H. Sawtell followed with a report
on "Persecution — Its Severity and Ex-
tent," from the Foriwi of August, 1891,
by I. A. Hourwitch, with these ideas:

We are apt to imagine that there is little
truth in the newspaper tales of the hard-
ships of the exiled Jews, but investigation
has shown them to be true. They are
despised and hated by all; but the govern-
ment found it profitable to encourage their
education, when, from better education,
they become more prosperous and the
government's income is enlarged by in-
creased taxes paid by them. They are
heavily taxed, but have no civil rights
whatever. Recently cruel laws have been



SEMINAR V NO TES.



63



enacted, which bear heavily upon the
unfortunate race.

Mr. H. E. Cooper presented a report
on "Methods and Plans of Refuge," from
the Forum of August, 189 1.

Many measures have been proposed for
bettering the condition of the Russian
Jews. No assistance whatever can be
hoped for from the Czar, hence coloniza-
tion societies have been formed throughout
Europe, generally through the efforts of
the richer Hebrews. A large tract of land
has been purchased in the Argentine Re-
public by one of these societies, in which
Baron Hirsch is interested. The success
of the scheme is claimed to be certain,
from the prosperity of the agricultural
colony of the Jews in southern Russia.

Mr. C. A. Peabody's report was on
"Russian Finance — A Bad Investment,"
from the Fo7-um of August, 1891, by Dr.
Geffcken.

He showed that the Russian policy is
disastrous in that, while it tends to lighten
the present burdens, it is at a great future
cost. Present debts, at a high rate of
interest, are converted into a magnified
capital for a longer time, at a slightly
smaller rate. The present minister of
finance, aided by the groAvth of manufac-
tures, has been able to convert a small
deficit into a small surplus, but the Rus-
sian credit is impaired and bankruptcy is
the inevitable result of the present policy.

The last report was by Miss Bessie Hand
on "The Jewish Emigrant." The report
was based on articles in the English Illus-
trated Magazine for August and Septem-
ber, 1 89 1.

She found from her research that many
authorities believe the Jews will take care
of their own distressed brethren. Nations,
like families, have poor relations, and
their demands are much the same. The
Jew, urged on by his tribal pride, aids his
suffering brother, not so much to avoid
future trouble himself, but to save the
latter from sinking into degradation. But
in the present crisis many of the impover-
ished Jews must find new homes, and since



the colonization schemes are not yet suffi-
ciently developed to care for all the exiles
the trend of their migration is toward our
country. Our policy in their reception
should combine humanity and statesman-
ship. .

Prof. Blackmar, in closing, spoke of the
great diversity of opinion in regard to this
question, and the difficulty of determining
the accuracy of the various reports. He
most earnestly commended its careful study
as a sociological problem. It is an im-
portant question, and will doubtless be
more important in the coming century, as
the Jews are rapidly becoming the money-
lenders of America. Race problems are
among the most difficult of those which
must be settled in the near future.

For the benefit of those who may desire
to make a study of this question by careful
research, we give a list of authorities cited
by the participants in this discussion. The
list is as follows:

The Forum, August, 1891, three articles
on the expulsion of the Jews from Russia.
"Russian Finance — A Bad Investment,"
Dr. F. H. Geffcken. "Persecution — Its
Severity and Extent," I. A. Hourwitch
(a Hebrew barrister). "Methods and
Plans of Refuge," Baron de Hirsch.

North American Reviezv, August, 189 1,
one article on the Jewish question, in
general subject. "New Light on the
Jewish Question, ".Prof. Goldwin Smith.

North American Review, September,
1891, "Goldwin Smith and the Jews,"
Isaac Besht Bendavid.

Neiv london Review, August, 1891,
two articles, "Russia and the Jews."

English Illustrated Magazine, August
and September, 1891, continued articles.
"The Russo- Jewish Emigrants," (illus-
trated). Rev. S. Singer.

Millman's History of the Jews, Vol.
III., Chap. XXV-XXX., treats of the Jews
in England, Spain, Italy and other Europ-
ean countries.

Macaulay's Essays, part II., p. 317,
"Civil Disabilities of the Jews."

Christian' Union, September 24, 1891,



64



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



Eeo7iomist, September, 1891, "The
Wandering Jew."

Free Russia, September and December,
1890, May, June, July and August, 1891,
(devoted to Jewish freedom).

Fortnightly Review, May, 1891, E. B.
Lannin on Russian Censure.

Fortnightly Review, February, 1891,
"Russian Finance — the Racking of the
Peasantry."

Montgomery Hallowell,

Reporter.

Immigration.

The Seminary met in regular session,
October 16, 1891. In the absence of
President Blackmar, Mr. Hodder presided.
The first paper was a " History of Immi-
gration, "by J. M. Challis. Several causes
he said lead people to emigrate. Promi-
nent among them are, first, the migratory
instinct; second, a desire for wealth;
third, a desire for new and better homes.
Early immigration to this country resulted
from the first two causes, from the second
chiefly. At a later time people came to
stay and make homes for themselves.
Early immigration was rapid, but was
insignificant when compared with that of
the last half century. For a long time
immigration was under very slight super-
vision. The first arrangements for receiv-
ing immigrants were made by New York,
which in 1855 appointed three commis-
sioners of immigration and opened Castle
Garden. The number of immigrants
increased irregularly until 1882, when it
reached 788,992. Since then it has
regularly decreased.

Mr. W. W. Brown then discussed the
"Character of the Immigrants." Our
immigrants, he believes, are constantly
becoming a less desirable class. The
reasons for this are that the passage is
becoming cheaper, so that the poorer
classes can come, and that the agents of
steam-ship lines are stirring up the people
and giving them information, or supposed
information, about this country. The
different nationalities are very different in



character. The Germans are an agricul-
tural people and make good citizens.
They have a tendency, however, to retain
their own language and customs. Immi-
gration from Austria consists of those
desijing to escape military service, and of
anarchists and bankrupts. Of the Irish,
seventy-five per cent are day laborers.
They settle mostly in our coast cities.
The English make good citizens but their
number is decreasing. The northern Ital-
ians are a desirable class. Those from
southern Italy are not. Most of our Ital-
ian immigrants are from southern Italy.

H. S. Hadley followed with the "Laws
of Immigration." He said that the gov-
ernment has the right to restrict immigra-
tion. The tendency is toward severer
restrictions. Laborers want immigration
checked; employers do not. The first
legislation with regard to immigration was
in 1882. A tax of fifty cents each was
then imposed on all aliens landing in this
country. This tax goes to the United
States treasury. Convicts and paupers
may not land, neither may persons having
any contagious disease. With the prohi-
bition of Chinese immigration all are
familiar. In 1885 a law was passed pro-
hibiting the importation of aliens under
contract to labor. The secretary of the
treasury is charged with the execution of
the immigration laws, but may arrange to
place their execution in the hands of the
states. The results of restriction are very
encouraging, considering the short time it
has been tried.

Mr. E. C. Hickey spoke of "Immigra-
tion from a Europern Stand-point." Eng-
lish and German emigrants are, he said,
such a class of people as no country is
glad to be rid of. From France the better
classes only come, and the government is
sorry to lose them. Emigration from
southern Italy is stimulated. Russia has
an abundance of unfilled land and needs
all her people at home. Norway and
Sweden, like Great Britain and Germany,
have a good class of citizens and do not
want to lose them.



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



65



Mr. Adams summed up the immigration
situation as follows: In the early history
of this country we needed more people to
assist us in developing our boundless re-
sources. Immigration was then to be
encouraged. Our resources are now pretty
well developed. We do not need immi-
grants, and they bring with them dangers,
both social and political. Immigration
should, therefore, be restricted. This re-
striction should be, first, along the line of
our present law prohibiting the immigra-
tion of convicts, paupers and idiots;
second, our contract labor law should be
rigidly enforced, and third, the time re-
quired for naturalization and suffrage
should be extended.

Reference books on the subject of Immi-
gration are: Reports Bureau of Statistics,
Vols, i-ioj U. S. Consular Reports, Vols.
23-34; Cyclopedia of Political Science,
II., 85; "Occupation of Immigrants,"
Journal of Economics, II., 223; "Control
of Immigration," Political Science Quar-



terly, III., 46, 197, 401; "Immigration
and Degredation," Eoru?n, August, 1891;
"Immigration and the Tariff," Eoru?}i,
June, 1 891; "Are Our Immigrants to
Blame?" Forum, July, 1891; North Amer-
ican Review, January, 1884, pages 77-88;
Report New York Bureau of Labor Statis-
tics, 1885; Report Wisconsin Bureau of
Labor Statistics, 1885-6; American Ency-
clopedia, "Emigration;" "Immigration
and Emigration," Richard Mayo Smith;
"Thoughts on the Future Civil Policy of
America," J. W. Draper; Census Reports
of 1850, i860, 1870, 1880, and 1890;
Scribner's Statistical Atlas; American Al-
manac, 1887; "Changes in Population,"
Harper's, Vol. 38, page 386; "Emigra-
tion," Johnson's Cyclopedia, Vol. i, page
1,544; "The First Century of the Repub-
lic, Harper's, Vol. 5 1, page 391; "Foreign
Elements in Our Population," Century,
Vol. 6, page 791; "Early American
Spirit," Richard H. Storrs.

R. D. Brown, Reporter.



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION.



■g'TnilE University of Kansas has entered
^^ upon the work of university exten-
sion in a systematic manner and as usual
has adopted the methods that best suit its
environment. For some years the pro-
fessors of the university have been giving
single lectures in the state of Kansas and
vicinity when called for by the different
communities. These isolated lectures are
given with a view to instruct and entertain.
Doubtless they have been helpful in dis-
seminating knowledge and in arousing an
interest in higher education and in the
University of Kansas in particular. Over
one hundred of these lectures were given
during the year 1890-91. And this has
been done in addition to the heavy work
of the regular University curriculum. At
present an attempt is being made, and not
without success, to systematize this work



and render it ten times more valuable to
the people.

It is generally conceded that with excep-
tional cases, the modern method of dis-
seminating knowledge by means of single
lectures has proved insufficient for its
supposed purpose. A lecture must be
entertaining to succeed, and the persons
attending such a lecture may receive some
inspiration and fragmentary knowledge.
But the fragmentary knowledge, unless it
is supported by wide reading, is of little
value, for it soon becomes too dim for
use. It is this defect that the university
extension seeks to overcome. By giving
a series of lectures on a given subject, or
on subjects more or less connected, with
opportunity for study and private reading
under the direction of the lecturer, the
person taking such a course has a founda-



66



SEMINARY NOTES.



tion upon which to build future knowl-
edge. Again, those persons whose occu-
pation has denied them the advantages
of college training, or . whose college edu-
cation was of a meager sort, may
be quickened into a new intellectual
life. Having once mastered a certain line
of thought it establishes for them a logical
outline for the mind to follow in the pur-
suit of other knowledge. A mind once
trained to think logically on a given subject
and to carry on systematic study is pre-
pared to do the same on any other subject.
Thus discipline has followed instruction
and knowledge. Others may have the
opportunity to carry on in a thorough
manner the well begun work of former
years. The University professors are pre-'
pared to give two classes of work, namely,
popular lectures to those persons who have
not had time or opportunity to take college
work and to make special investigation of
a given line of subjects, and secondly, more
scientific lectures prepared for more ad-
vanced work and for college men. In
extending its work to the people the Uni-
versity has made it possible by means of
the following plan to give credit for all
thorough work done under the direction of
its instructors. The lectures are prepared
with a view to instruction rather than for
the purpose of entertainment alone. They
include readings, conferences and exami-
nations, and are open to all persons who
will form themselves into a class. At the
close of every course an examination is
given to those who desire it and credit
given on the books of the university for all
work done according to direction. "Per-
sons who hold the degree of Bachelor of
Arts from the University of Kansas, or
from other institutions of equal rank with
it, may receive the degree of Master of
Arts upon the satisfactory completion of
nine courses of twelve lectures each. These
courses shall be accompanied by such
study, reading and examination as shall be
prescribed by the professors in charge."

"Persons not holding the bachelor's
degree, upon the satifactory completion of



nine university extension courses of twelve
lectures each, shall receive a university
extension diploma."

"Work done under instructors from
other institutions than the University of
Kansas will be accepted upon examination
for not more than four of the twelve lec-
ture courses necessary for a degree or diplo-
ma. The work will also be accepted as un-
dergraduate work, a full course in university
extension being reckoned as a two-thirds
term in the University. Nine twelve-
lecture courses will be accepted as equiv-
alent to one year's work at the University.
The records of all work done under the
direction of the University of Kansas are
kept on file at the University."

The way for commuities to avail them-
selves of the opportunities offered by this
system of university extension is to
establish local extension associations by
means of which a class may be formed.
Associations of this nature have been
formed at Topeka and Kansas City. At
the former place a course of lectures on
Electricity is in progress by Professor
L. I. Blake. The class numbers at least
one hundred and fifty members who listen
to the instructions given, take notes, ask
questions, and are directed in their read-
ing by an able instructor.

The new extension association at Kansas
City is thoroughly organized and prepared
to do efficient work in University lines.
A course of lectures is now in progress on
"Economic Problems," by Professor F.
W. Blackmar. The class numbers at
present about one hundred and fifty.
The interest in the work is increasing
daily. Quite a large number are enrolled
for the , examination to be given at the
close of the course, (nine-two) — and quite
a good many are looking forward to the
prospective degree. In the class are
doctors, lawyers, business men, school
principals, ministers of the Gospel, and
students and graduates of colleges and
universities. Other courses will soon
be started and there is an excellent
prospect of earnest, faithful and effective
work. ' A class is now being formed in
English Literature in charge of Prof. C. G.
Dunlap.



SEMINARY NOTES.



67



- SEMINARY - NOTES. -

PUBLISHED ON THE FIRST DAY OF OCTOBER,

NOVEMBER, DECEMBER, FEBRUARY,

MARCH, APRIL AND MAY,

BY

the seminary of

Historical and Political Science.

State University, Lawrence, Kansas.

Frank W. Blackmar. \

Frank H. Hoddcr, ,- - - - Editors.



" ' '-"'"- ■""• - •- — ' ' /
Ephraivi D. Adams, j



TcriDs. TcD Cents a Number, - Fifty Cents a Year



'yi' HE purpose of this publication is to increase the
\Q\ interest in the study of historical science in the
^^ University and throughout the State, to afford
means of reg'ular communication with corresponding
members of the Seminary and with the general pub-
lic—especially with the Alumni of the University, and
to preserve at least the outlines ot carefully prepared
papers and addresses. The number of pages in each
issue will be increased as rapidly as the subscription
list will warrant.* The entire revenue of the publi-
cation will be applied to its maintenance.
Address all subscriptions and communications to

F. W. BLACKMAR,

Lawrence, Kansas.



Professor F. W. Blackmar has been
employed by the National Bure^-u of Edu-
cation to write the "History of Education
in Kansas." The work will be published
in 1892,

Rev. Charles Sheldon, of Topeka,
will address the Seminary next Friday on
"Sociology from the Standpoint of a Min-
ister." The address will have especial
reference to practical work.



Our students are carrying on practical
investigation in Kansas and vicinity. Mr.
J. M. Challis is working on the subject of
"Kansas Railroads;" Mr. H. S. Hadley
on "Alliance Co-operation Stores;" Mr.
Raymond on "Popular Plans for More
Money;" Mr. Noble on "Paper Money;"
Mr. Fred. Kellogg will prepare a paper on
the "Land Question in Oklahoma;" Mr.
Harry Hall will prepare a paper on
"Municipal Government in Kansas City."
This and other similar work give evidence
of the practical work of the seminary.



The paper in the present number of
Seminary Notes, contributed by Mr. F.
H. Olney, was read at the University
before the class in Sociology of which
Mr. Olney was a member.

The following is a list of the correspond-
ing members of the Seminary:

Hon. Geo. R. Peck, Topeka.

Hon. Chas. Robinson, Lawrence.

Hon. James Humphrey, Junction City.

Hon. T. Dwight Thacher, Topeka.

Hon. Frank Betton, Topeka.

Maj. J. K. Hudson, Topeka.

Chancellor J. H. Canfield, Lincoln.

Hon, J. S. Emery, Lawrence.

Hon. B. W. Woodward, Lawrence.

Col. O. E. Learnard, Lawrence.

Hon. C. S. Gleed, Topeka.

Hon. Charles F. Scott, lola.

Mr. D. S. Alford, Lawrence.

Mr. Scott Hopkins, Horton.

Hon. Fred. A. Stocks, Blue Rapids.

Col. H. M. Greene, Lawrence.

Hon. Wm. A. Phillips, Salina.

Rev. W. W. Ayres, Lawrence.

Rev. C. G. Howland, Lawrence.

Rabbi Henry Berkowitz, D. D., Kansas
City, Mo.

Principal W. E. Higgins, Topeka.

Mr. Noble Prentis, Newton.

Rev. Chas. M. Sheldon, Topeka.

Hon. S. O. Thacher, Lawrence.

Principal F. H. Clark, Minneapolis.

Principal W. H. Johnson, Lawrence.

Mrs. A. O. Grubb, Lawrence.

Mr. W. A. White, Kansas City, Mo.



The following periodicals are taken by
the Department of History and Sociology:

The Public Opinion, Forum, The Na-
tion, The Book Chat, The New England
Magazine, The Chautauquan, The Quar-
terly Journal of Economics, The Review
of Reviews, Harper's Weekly, Publications
of the American Economics Association,
Papers of the American Historical Asso-
ciation, The Johns Hopkins University
Studies, Publications of the American Sta-
tistical Association, The Revue des deux
Monde (French Dept. pays for one-half),



6S



SEMINAR V NO TES.



The Political Science Quarterly, Free
Russia. In addition to these the depart-
ment takes the following newspapers: New
York Tribune (semi-weekly), New York
Evening Post (semi-weekly), Baltimore
Sun, Nashville American, Atlanta Consti-
tution, Louisville Courier- Journal, Spring-
field Republican, Chicago Inter-Ocean,
St. Paul Pioneer Press, Philadelphia Press,
St. Louis Globe-Democrat, San Francisco
Bulletin, Kansas City Times (daily), Kan-
sas City Journal (daily). These are
weekly papers when not otherwise desig-
nated. Besides these the department has
access to a very large number of local
dailies, monthly magazies and periodicals.
By means of these the students of the
department may be well informed on
current topics.

NEW PUBLICATIONS.

The latest publication of the American
Economic Association is a monograph on
"Municipal Ownership of Gas in the
United States," by Edward H. Bemis,
Ph. D., professor in Vanderbilt Univer-
sity. This is by far the most complete
study that has yet been offered on the
subject of gas supply. The monograph
is largely made up of the comparison of
nine cities in the United States in which
municipal ownership obtains. Mr. Bemis
has made a thorough study of the subject.
He has gained most of his information by
personal visits to the towns and by actual
investigation of the conditions of the
various plants, and by the aid of scholars,
students and business men. The highest
rate paid for gas in any of the nine cities
is $1.50 per thousand cubic feet; the
lowest is seventy-five cents. Mr. Bemis
shows conclusively the advantages of mu-
nicipal ownership and predicts a large
increase in the number of cities adopting
it.

We have received from McMillan & Co.
of New York, a copy of "A History of
Political Economy," by J. K. Ingram,
LL.D., Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin,
with a preface by E. J. James of the



University of Penn. This is by far the
best history of political economy that has
yet been published in English. It is not
like Blanqui's history of economic sys-
tems but a history of economic thought.
A true history of political economy is the
history of those principles and theories
advocated by the economists of different
periods. The author of this volume is
faithful to his subject and gives a clear
and logical presentation of these events of



Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 11 of 62)