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arly men and women, people who take the
reviews and the magazines, and who think
intelligently, and the average preacher
gets along pretty well. If he gets a little
dull and prosy his audience is too well
bred to do any thing worse than take a
nap. But face him with a crowd of brake-
men, street cleaners, hod carriers, and
men who toil with their hands, and he is
helpless. His education has educated him
away from men. And there is something
radically wrong, I believe, in any process
of education which turns out of our semi-
naries every year men who can preach
only to a class. I do not believe it is a
matter of genius, or of disposition, or
temperament which makes it possible for
a preacher to reach all sorts and conditions
of men. It is a matter of willingness and
humility, and love, and service, and study,
and industry. It is a matter of being all
things to all men, if by any means we may
save some.

The pastor of one of the Presbyterian
churches in Topeka has joined with me in
a plan for the better understanding and
education of the negro in Topeka. It
happens that just across the street from
our respective churches is an entire dis-



trict known as Tennessee Town, where
about 1,200 negroes have their homes.
There are four churches in that district —
four denominations. The three active
colored pastors have signified their willing-
ness to assist in any way to make the plan
of Mr. Harris and myself a success. I
feel no hesitation in making this personal
mention of work in this liije, for the reason
that I take for granted one of the objects
of this Seminary is to get all we can out
of one another, and instead of waiting to
be pumped I simply work the handle
myself. With this understanding, this lit-
tle obtrusive pronoun "I," will, I trust, be
pardoned for being so loud and conspicu-
ous in this paper. The plan is as follows:
We advertise a series of lectures, to be
given on Monday nights, every other week,
beginning with an illustrated chemical and
electrical lecture on "Light." This will
be followed by lectures on "One Dollar
and What it Can Buy," "A Quart of
Whisky and What it Can Do," (to be given
by my Presbyterian brother) "What the
Negro Has Done for Himself Since the
War," "What Has Been Done for the
Negro Since the War," with two or three
topics yet to be arranged. These lectures
will be for boys and young men only.
Admission by ticket, free, of course, but
restricted to those who have secured
tickets. These we place in the hands of
the pastors and others in the district for
distribution. We take turns at the dif-
ferent churches for our meeting places,
there being no prejudice on the part of
the masses against going into the church
building, as there is with the more enlight-
ened Anglo-Saxon. This work of the lec-
tures is to be supplemented by house to
house visiting (I dislike the word "visita-
tion," it sounds too much like the small-
pox or yellow fever), and by every other
possible means of learning the actual con-
dition of the black man.

Now this plan, in actual working, may
fail. But I have the sublimest confidence
that it won't, unless there is some reckless
handling of the chemicals the first night



SEMINAR V NOTES.



8i



and the removal thereby of one of the
necessary lecturers. Of this I am certain,
an honest attempt to solve hard questions
in the human problem will be blessed in
some way, I know it will. And the
preacher of all men, must meet men in
daily life and as souls> The sociological
problem with me is not simply an interest-
ing problem in history, or like the theory
of the fourth dimension in space, or like
an exceedingly difficult proposition in
Euclid. Sociology with me means life,
with eternal for its adjective. And to me
it seems like a self-evident proposition that
the preacher must know the facts if he
would do any effective s'ervice in the line
of 'a true sociology. Charles Booth, the
author of that admirably exhaustive publi-
cation, "The Life and Labor of the Peo-
ple in London," has called attention to the
fact that much of the philanthropic and
charitable work of London has been done
blindly. The causes which underlie pov-
erty and crime and hardship have not been
studied. And he endeavors to show that
a thorough personal survey of the subject
is necessary to any remedy proposed for
the existing conditions. I remember when
I was a boy in Southern Dakota, before it
was a state, there was a regular government
survey of the government lands. But it
was done so superficially by ignorant men
who were in it for the politics and the
money, that nearly all of it had to be sur-
veyed again, and some of it three times
before it was at all correct. The preacher
is to-day suffering from this kind of sur-
veying in the field of humanity. He is
compelled to do it all over again. He
finds that it is not sufficient that another
man has been over the ground. He must
go over it himself. He may be compelled
to accept much of the work of scholarship
from other men. He may follow the work
already done by specialists in science.
But in the field of humanity I believe he
must do much at first hand himself. That
is his business. Not writing sermons, and
delivering addresses, and studying the
Bible. That is not the preacher's main



business. His business is humanity and a
knowledge of it from personal acquaint-
ance, so that when he faces men from the
pulpit it may be with the courage and
sympathy which are the result of having
faced them six other days where life is
most a reality to the average man. In
other words, the preacher must get his
sermons more out of men and less out of
books.

I cannot help believing that the preacher,
in his relation to sociology, is beginning
to take on an aroused and growing feeling
of power and responsibility. It is dawn-
ing upon me like the stealing of the light
out of the sea to the passenger in mid-
ocean who has been watching the horizon
for a clear day, that Jesus Christ, the
greatest sociologist of the world, meant to
teach the blessedness of the human exis-
tence in this world. It is not true, that
taunt of the masses that Christianity
preaches a heaven, but offers no hope for
this world. Christianity preaches a heaven
in earth. It is "thy kingdom come, thy
will be done in earf/i as it is in heaven."
And the preacher is just beginning to feel
the force of that teaching which said,
"Seek ye first the kingdom of God, and
all these things," (the food, clothing, de-
velopment,) "shall be added unto you."
We are not afraid to preach to a man that
if he will seek God he will be blessed in
this world, because that is the plain teach-
ing of the great Master. And it is a very
hopeful sign to me that the church and
ministry of the present age is making
a study of how men have to live in this
world, and how much wages they get, and
how many hours they put in, and what
time they have for religious and intellectual
life. We are learning that it is very hard
work to convert a man who is hungry;
but still the need of more personal work
and study is very great. A. S. Barnctt,
the rector of St. Jude's in Whitechapel
district, one of the leaders in the Toynbee
Hall and University Extension movement,
recently claimed {^Christian Union Octo-
ber TO, 189 1,) that the success of the worlc



82



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



in the East End was due to public legisla-
tion and private philanthropy going hand
in hand. There never will come a time
in the history of this world when machinery
can take the place of bowels. Laws and
enactments cannot do all the work; in-
deed, good laws are necessarily the result
of the action of good men. As long as a
heart beats on the globe, so long the need
of sympathy will exist, and the preacher
to-day stands at the very front of all true
sociological advance. He can do splendid
service for the teacher and the statesman.
He must do it if he would see the church
what it ought to be — a grand extension
movement of God's kingdom among men.
I shall be satisfied with this brief presen-
tation of my own thought, if the result
shall be to center thought upon the real
need of personal touch with the problem,
and the everlasting factor of love which
truly underlies all true effort for the uplift
and outgrowth of society. There are only
two supreme commands over a man in
this world. The first is, that he love God
with all his being. The second is, that he
love his neighbor as himself. All valuable
and necessary work and study in this
world hang on the fulfilling of those two
eternal, sublime principles. All the study
we can make of the social organism; all
the ink and paper we wearily or egotisti-



cally put together on the subject, may not
affect the real problem any more than
blowing pretty soap bubbles in the face of
a cyclone will stop it, unless love to God
and men control the private act and the
public service. I have yet to find any
thing in the social systems of mankind
which can take the place of love. There
is nothing. And I, for one, as I view this
great study of sociology, which is only
another name for the fatherhood of God
applied to the brotherhood of man, cannot
suppress a prayer of intensity that the
ministry of this generation may rise to its
opportunity, and ignoring sectarianism and
forsaking foolish discussions of doctrines,
unite in one great crusade for the deliver-
ance of the holy sepulchre of humanity
from the pagan defilement of the world
and the flesh and the devil. And do it by
meeting the enemy in hand to hand com-
bat in actual battle, where no quarter is
asked or given, and where to perish will
be to win eternal fame as a true defender
of the faith of mankind. In an age so
heroic as this it would be a pity if heroes
were wanting. We shall see a perfect
social system in the world, when love is
supreme, and not before, for God himself
is love. All this from the preacher's
standpoint. Chas. M. Sheldon.



SEMINARY REPORTS.






Irrigation.

^HE Seminary met in regular session
^^ on October 30, Prof. Blackmar pre-
siding.

Irrigation in Egypt was the first paper
on the progam, and was read by Miss
Humphrey. The paper was a digest of
the government report of that title, issued
in 1889 by the United States. Miss
Humphrey said that we may safely infer
that the processes of irrigation actually
in use have been in a great measure be-
queathed to us by the most remote ages.
Until the present century, overflow basins



were used both in Upper Egypt and the
Delta. This process was uncertain and
dangerous. Mehemet Ali abolished basins
in Lower Egypt and dug canals, thus in-
troducing the inundation process of irri-
gation, which is now in use in one-third of
Egypt. With the aid of a diagram Miss
Humphrey then explained the construction
of dykes built for this purpose. The paper
closed with a description of the control
and management of irrigation by the gov-
ernment.

Mr. Hallowell read a paper on "Irriga-
tion in Italy and Spain," based on -a



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



83



report on Irrigation in France, Italy, and
Spain, by State Engineer Hall, of Cali-
fornia, and giving the history of irrigation
in those countries. He said that in the
time of Rome's greatness the streams
were the common property of the people.
The ownership then changed to the feudal
lords of the middle ages, next to the kings,
and finally to the state; but during these
times the royal governments and the muni-
cipalities were constantly struggling for the
right of control. Since the settlement of
these disputes, by placing the control of
water rights in the hands of the govern-
ment, commendable laws have been passed
and the development of irrigation pro-
moted. The paper gave a close descrip-
tion and explanation of these laws, and
mentioned the advantages of irrigation to
the countries considered.

Mr. Ross read a paper on "Irrigation
in California." This paper was also upon
the authority of Engineer Hall, of Cali-
fornia. It gave a history of the subject
in the western states of the Union, outlined
the plans in use in California, and treated
of the problems presented in bringing irri-
gation into more general use. The prin-
cipal difficulty is the limited water supply.
It is proposed to remedy this by the use of
storage water reservoirs, and the paper
gave a description of the largest of these
and closed with a prophecy of what irriga-
tion may do, in the future, for the West.

The last paper of the session, "Irriga-
tion in Kansas and Colorado," was read
by Mr. Noble. He said that he had given
such information on the subject as he
could obtain from the newspaper bureau.
The paper presented the past and present
of irrigation in these states, stating that
Colorado is much in advance of Kansas,
owing to the favorable natural features
found in that state and showing that the
natural features of Kansas are in general
so unfavorable to irrigation that many im-
provements in present pr(^cesses will be
necessary before it can become a great
factor in reclairning to cultivation the arid
land of the state.



Reading references on the subject of Ir-
rigation are: "Theory of Irrigation," Eel.
Engtn, 12, 435; "Irrigable Lands of
Arid Regions," Century, 39, 766 (Powell);
"Irrigation of Arid Lands," Popular
Science Monthly, 36, 364; "Irrigation of
Western Lands, " A^ijtM American Eeview,
i5°> 37°^ "Irrigation in the United
States," Natiofi, 47, 390; " Irrigation in
the Southwest," iV<a;//tf«, 45, 474; "Irriga-
tion in California," Eel. Engin, 16, 79;
"Irrigation in Egypt," Century, 17, 342;
"Irrigation in Egypt," Athenaeum, 2,
389; "Irrigation," Eel. Engin, 35, 445;
"Irrigation in Australia," Century, 28,
425; "Irrigation in China," Popular
Science Mo?ithly, 37, 821; "Irrigation in
India," North Americati Revietv, 77, 439;
"Irrigation Works in India," Contempo-
raiy Review, 27, 549; also Eel. Engin,

I, 76; 15, 113; 17. 140-

F. S. Jackson, Reporter.



Canada.
The subject for discussion in the stu-
dents' Seminary, of November 13, was
' ' Canada. " Three papers were presented.
The first paper, by Prof. Sayre, was enti-
tled " Notes of a Traveler," and was a very
interesting account of the writer's experi-
ence and observations in Canada during
the past summer. Prof. Sayre noted par-
ticularly the difference existing between
city and rural population in Canada, and
the apparently conservative tendency of
the latter class. He also called attention
to the fact that the separation in feeling
between the French and English parts of
the Canadian people was still in existence,
a separation which has been of the greatest
importance in the historical development
of the nation. This antagonism is most
evident in the matter of religion, but Prof.
Sayre was of the opinion that it would
some time be an effective force in consid-
ering the question of annexation. In his
estimation the French were, as a class,
favorable to the United States. The
greater part of Prof. Sayre's paper was
taken up with a description of Canadian



84



SEMINARY NOTES.



customs and manners, to which it is im-
possible to do justice in a brief report.

"The Government of Canada," as des-
cribed by Mr. Simmons, in its present
form, dates from the passage by the
Queen's parliament in 1867, of the British
North American Act. In form the gov-
ernment resembles that of our own country,
the essential difference being that parlia-
ment delegates power to the people in
Canada and the people delegate powers to
congress in the United States. The Do-
minion has a constitution and is nominally
under the authority of the mother country,,
but practically independent. The governor
general is appointed by the crown, but is
not accepted unless the provinces are
willing. The provinces choose the lower
house, but the upper house is appointed
by the governor general. The prime min-
ister controls the action of the latter officer,
and being head of the cabinet is much
more powerful than any other man in the
state. The "yespower of the upper house
is much greater than the no power;" and
taken altogether the legislative branch of
the government is less centralized than our
own. The ministry is composed of fifteen
members, nominated by the premier and
appointed by the governor. The latter
officer also has a nominal veto power.
The judicial system is much more simple
than that of United States, consisting of
supreme court, superior courts in the prov-
inces, and district courts, besides justice
courts. All officers of justice, except
police judges and justices of the peace,
are appointed by the governor general.
The judicial and executive systems are
much less democratic in Canada than in
our own county.

The third paper, presented by Mr. Rush,
was on the subject of "Canadian Annex-
ation." Mr. Rush began his paper by
stating that less than three years ago Sen-
ator Sherman said: "The United States
has its index finger forever pointing to a
union with all that lies north of us as our
manifest destiny." This expresses the
sentiment of the average American citizen,



and he feels that his nation must only
keep up the pace she has held the last
seventy-eight years to make our grand
republic extend from the Isthmus of Pan-
ama to the Arctic Ocean in the near
future. Looking over the history of their
country it is small wonder that the citi-
zens of the United States feel that their
government will soon cover the continent.
Canada, exceeding the United States in
area by over a half a million square miles,
possesses all the resources that nature can
give to make a nation great. Its wealth,
both actual and potential, is enough to
excite the cupidity of a much less ambi-
tious and aspiring nation than our own.
The commercial advantages of the country
are almost as desirable as its natural wealth.
The water ways, besides furnishing an
easy road to the interior, furnish much
easier access to both Europe and Asia
than does that of any other country on the
continent. The commercial advantage is
more desirable, because it has once been
enjoyed. The selfish desire for commer-
cial advantages, including the saving of an
expensive customs system along the border,
should not alone be allowed to govern the
action of the people in this matter. Con-
sidered from the politico economic side
annexation will open new fields and afford
the Canadian youth as good an opportu-
nity at home as he has in the United States
and he will not emigrate. The Union will
also give the Dominion a republican gov-
ernment. On the other hand the farming
and aristocratic classes are prejudiced
against annexation from selfish motives,
and the idea that the United States will
absorb their country and its people. The
commercial class favors the union, and has
gained much power by the exposure during
the past summer of political corruption in
their boasted "pure government" and the
greater knowledge of the debt it owes. A
per capita debt of ^46. 60, together with a
16 per cent rate of increase in population,
as compared 'with a 25 per cent rate in
America, should make the latter country
hesitate before forming an alliance.

M. M. Raymond, Reporter.



SEMINARY NOTES.



S5



HISTORICAL STUDY AT JOHNS HOPKINS.



■^^HE editors of the Seminary Notes
^l have planned to give a comparative
view of the nature and extent of historical
study in the principal universities of Eu-
rope and America. It is intended to give
in each number a short description of the
work done in prominent institutions. These
sketches must, of a necessity, be quite
meagre on account of limited space, but
they will, at least, call attention to the
growth of historical study and present the
best methods now in vogue. Our readers
will remember to have seen descriptions
of Cornell and Michigan in a previous
number. To-day an outline of Johns
Hopkins study is given.

At the Johns Hopkins Universitj a stu-
dent is greatly impressed with the spirit of
helpfulness that prevades the entire work.
To such as are earnestly seeking knowledge
and are willing to pay for it with the full
amount of hard work necessary to its at-
tainment, means of improvement and wise
direction are at hand in time of need.
This spirit of helpfulness does not end
with the bare preparation of students, for
a prevailing idea is that scholarship is at
its best when it is serving the purpose of
helping humanity. While a high standard
of scholarship is urged arid maintained,
the service of education is emphasized as
against mere scholasticism. That a higher
education is for the benefit of society at
large, though obtained through individual
effort is a maxim worthy of consideration.
"Democracy in education" is the best
democracy and the only one that has pre-
serving qualities. The majority of the
students attending the university are there
for the purpose of preparing to help others
in the pursuit of knowledge and in ser-
vice to humanity.

A student having been ushered into the
presence of President Oilman for the first
time, stated that he had come to the Uni-



versity for the purpose of attaining a
higher scholarship and for laying a broader
foundation for usefulness. President Gil-
man welcomed the student, and said "I
think we can quicken you." It is this
quickening process, this enthusiasm for
knowledge and scholarship that seeks utility
in the service of letters or humanity which
marks the student life at Johns Hopkins.

The historical department has given
especial attention to the humanitarian side
of history and education. While its scholar-
ship is of a superior kind the placement of
this in useful service to human society
as an educative principle is considered
paramount. This inspires every student
with a desire to contribute to "the sum of
human knowledge," and to lend his assis-
tance to the general upbuilding of society.
While it is a school of research; while the
Roman and the Greek receive their due
share of attention, the typical American
is the ideal and modern society in all of its
phases the chief field of operation.

The methods employed in instruction
are what may be termed the Americanized
German, and are those in general use in
most modern institutions with varied char-
acteristics. The chief features of the
methods pursued at Johns Hopkins are as
follows: First, lecture courses by instruct-
ors with accompanying readings by mem-
bers of the class; thorough examinations
follow on notes taken at lectures and on
the authorities consulted. The title of the
department is "History and Politics, " which
is of wide signification. History, social sci-
ence, and political economy are included
in this heading. The lectures then cover
a wide range in institutions, public admin-
istration, social problems, and political
economy. The second phase of the work
is that of general lines of special investi-
gation, carried on by the students under
the personal guidance of instructors. These



86



SEMINAR V NO TES.



investigations require a great deal of hard
work, and are carried on with such thor-
oughness that their results are usually-
published. A student generally extends a
single investigation over a period of years.
Many of the results of this feature of the
work are represented in the Johns Hopkins
Studies in Historical and Political Science,
of which eight series and ten extra volumes
are now published. The third phase is a
general historical seminary, where students
and instructors meet around a common
table for the purpose of comparing and
criticising results of work, of studying the
most recent phases, of political, social,
and economic life, and the books and
periodicals representing them. The Sem-
inary meets in the Bluntschli library, as
do most of the classes. This library should
be termed a historical laboratory, for it is
here that the student finds the materials
with which he works and where he carries
on the work of scientific investigation.
Other special phases, such as the Eco-
nomic Conferences, which are held weekly,
for special investigation of problems in
economics and frequent meetings of general
study are also held.

During the present academic year
(1891-92) the following courses are an-
nounced:

1. Historical Seminary, two hours, Prof.
Herbert B. Adams.

2. History of the Nineteenth Century,
one hour, Prof. Herbert B. Adams.

3. Roman History and Politics, two
hours, Prof. Herbert B, Adams.

4. History of Political Economy, two
hours. Prof. Richard T. Ely.

5. Economic Conferences, one hour.



Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 14 of 62)