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not uo far enoutih. Tlie authorities should



I04



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



insist that every graduate and every pupil
be compelled to devote himself to a trade
or to practical and theoretical farming,
so that he may have a certain means of
earning his living. As it is only those
who desire, learn trades; it should not
be a matter of choice. To the present
time there has not been shop room enough
to give more than a limited number in-
struction in trades. The United States
government should see to it that nothing
is wanted in this respect. At present new
buildings are being constructed for indus-
trial purposes, and I presume that it is the
plan of the superintendent to make the
industrial features of the school more
prominent and to insure to every boy and
girl a means of earning a living.

The most unfavorable phase of Indian
education is seen in the attempt of the
educated Indian to harmonize with his
surroundings. Much of the good effect of
education is lost on account of the lack of
opportunity for the Indian to use his edu-
cation and the lack of knowing just how
to make a successful entrance to industrial
and civil life. In this respect the govern-
ment should exercise more care "and see to
it that the efficient work of the schools be
not lost. The following examples will
illustrate this point:

Example 7. An Osage Indian was at
Haskell three years. During which term
he became proficient in farming and gar-
dening. In hi.s school work he had
advanced to the fourth grade. He went
home with the expectation of returning
soon to complete his education. 'He was
persuaded by his relatives and friends to
marry. He settled down to the life of a
camp Indian and the force of his educa-
tion is lost.

Kxamj^le 8. An Osage Indian who was
at Haskell Institute three years. While at
school he learned to speak English fluently.
He went home determined to become a
farmer and stock raiser. lUit soon he
yielded to the influences of the old life
that surrounded him and is now living the
life of a cam}) Indian. He married a



squaw and is living in a tent eight feet
square.

Example 9. An Osage Indian girl.
She was at Haskell Institute three years.
While there she learned to do all kinds of
house work, sewing and fancy work. In
fact she became a most complete house-
keeper. After returning home she wished
to again return to Haskell and complete
her education. Her parents refused to
grant her permission, and to avoid further
complications sold her to a blanket Indian
for a number of ponies. After being com-
pelled to live a life of degradation and
misery for about two years she died, and
thus passed to a world where we trust her
education would be of some use to her as
it was doubtless of little benefit here.

Example 10. A Pawnee Indian boy
who made a good record for three years
at Haskell. While there he learned the
blacksmith's trade. He learned to speak
English fluently, and did fairly well at his
books. After returning home he was
influenced by the surroundings and became
a blanket Indian. He married a school
girl and they both became degraded to
the common camp life, influenced in every
way by the camp Indians whose ways they
imitated.

Example 11. A Pawnee Indian girl
who made a splendid record at Haskell
during a period of three years. During
this time she obtained a fair common
school education and 'had become profi-
cient in all kinds of house work. Two
months after having returned to the home
of her parents she was observed to be in
full Indian dress, having abandoned the
style of dress used at school and was cook-
ing meat in Indian style over a bed of
coals in the center of the wigwam. It is
needless to say that dust and ashes were
the principal seasoning. She kneaded the
bread on the same blanket that was used
to sleep in at night. An observer asked
her if she liked this kind .of life. She
replied "No, but he (pointing to her
father) won't let me come back to school."
Education had fitted her for a better life,



SEMINARY NOTES.



los



but the parent forced her to comply with
the conditions of degrading service. Soon
after she was married to a common blanket
Indian, which means that she is lost in the
common herd and that her education will
not save her from ruin.

Example 12. A Ponca Indian girl who
spent five years at school in Haskell. She
was considered a very bright and intelli-
gent young girl. She was adjutant of the
girls' battalion for some time. She was a
good cook, a good seamstress, and an ex-
cellent housekeeper. She married a young
man who held to the old regime. She
now carries the water, chops the wood,
builds the fires and gets the breakfast
while her Indian helpmeet is lying in bed.
She even has the pleasure of applying her
quickened intellect to the pleasant task of
harnessing the horses while her so-called
better half seeks repose.

Example 13. Example thirteen was an
Arapahoe Indian boy. He was at Haskell
for four years. During this time he learned
farming and gardening. He also worked
at the harness-maker's trade. He had
obtained a good use of the English lan-
guage. But in the summer of 1890 he
returned to his home and is now a blanket
Indian, living as a man of the tribe.

Example 14. A Ponca girl who went
to Haskell for two years. She learned to
do all kinds of house work. She spoke
English fluently. Returning home she
married a blanket Indian and entered upon
the degrading life of a blanket squaw. In
the summer of 1890 she was observed car-
rying one papoose on her back, another
strapped on a board, while two others
followed behind.

Example 15. An Osage boy spent two
years at Carlisle. Then he went home to
stay for a short time and afterwards went
to Haskell Institute, where he remained
for about two and one half years. He
learned the harness-mtaking trarie at school.
He returned home, married a squaw and
became worthless.

Example 16. A Cheyenne boy went to
the Arapahoe boarding school for a num-



ber of y»ars, then he went to Carlisle for
a short time. From Carlisle he was sent
to Fort Wayne, Indiana, to attend college,
and, so he says, to study for the ministry.
After leaving Fort Wayne he returned
home for a time and then came to Haskell.
He finally secured a permit to enter the
State University. He did not succeed
very well at the University, and subse-
quently returned to Haskell. At Haskell
he went to work in the tailor's shop. He
finally gave up school and returned to the
reservation to engage in the Y. M. C. A.
work at home. This in turn was given up
and his time is now spent in roaming over
the Cheyenne reservation, apparently with-
out thought of rendering service to him-
self or anybody else. He has adopted
the former habits and customs of his tribe
and draws his rations with the other worth-
less wards of the nation.

Example 17. A young man who went
to Carlisle for three years. After taking
a vacation for a short time he entered
Haskell for three and one half years.
After this he returned to Carlisle for two
years. During the summer of 1891 he
was observed in a state of nature under the
care of an Indian doctor. He had an
excellent character in every way. But he
said that "he must either get away from
the tribe or go back to old habits."

Example 18. A Cheyenne Indian boy
who spent either three or five years at
Carlisle. After a short vacation he entered
Haskell, where he remained three years.
At the latter place he thoroughly mastered
the tailor's trade. He was made superin-
tendent of the tailor shop at Haskell, and
after returning to the reservation he per-
formed a similar office. While in charge
of the tailoring establishment at the Chey-
enne reservation the camp Indians would
continually ask him for money and pres-
ents. Being of a generous nature he found
at the end of the month that he had inva-
riably overdrawn his salary, or in other
words, had spent more than he had earned.
He finally became discouraged and went
to camp and married a squaw, and now



io6



SEMINAR V NO TES,



lives like his fellows, on the rations of the
government. He was a good workman in
every respect, but the surroundings of the
reservation were against his success and
he failed. The begging propensity of the
average Indian on the reservations is un-
limited. The various traders understand
this, and of a necessity feel compelled to
charge a high price for goods in order to
make up for the many presents which it is
policy to give. I am told by one ac-
quainted with the Osage agency that the
Indians expect to receive all of their
tobacco gratis. This last example illus-
trates, very clearly what chance a young
man may have for success if turned back
to the tribe. All are interested in retard-
ing his progress and in bringing him back
to the level of camp life. While if he is
capable of earning anything the old tribal
spirit comes in to claim its share.

Example 19 records the results of
education in the case of another young
Cheyenne. He spent a term at Haskell,
during which time he was president of the
battalion, president of the Y. M. C. A.,
and, in fact, a leader in all school work.
After returning to the agency he was cor-
responding secretary of the Y. M. C. A.
He, too, finally became discouraged and
succumbed to the influences of camp life.
He married an Indian woman with three
children and now the government gener-
ously supports him and his family. Yet
who can doubt that had this young man
had a fair chance under favorable influ-
ences that he might have been a success.
It is true that the Indian youth probably
has not the character nor the opportunity
to compete with the average white boy
who is well educated. There are not now,
and we are not to expect it for many years,
the necessary qualities in the Indian youth
which incite him to make a place where
there is none. In this he cannot compare
with the average white American. Yet it is
the duty of the government to give him
the best opportunities possible; and while
he is taught self-reliance in the schools,
opportunity should be given him for its



exercise under circumstances not wholly
against him.

Example 20. Another young Cheyenne
who spent four years at Haskell and stayed
in other institutions for a considerable length
of time, has gone the way of the useless
and the do-less. While in Haskell he was
adjutant of the battalion and was noted as
a superior officer. He was a good farmer
and could read and write English well.
He owns 160 acres of land and his squaw
has another tract of the same size. But
in practice he is a veritable camp Indian.
He receives his rations from the govern-
ment and does nothing towards his own
support. He lives with his family in a
tepee about six by eight feet, and just
high enough to receive him standing. He
is now living with his second woman since
leaving school.

Example 21. The sister to example 14
had been in Haskell for a term of six
years and had advanced to the sixth grade.
She had practically forgotten her own
language. When she reached the agency
she cried to be brought back to school,
but her mother refused to allow her to
come back. She said that her daughter
had forgotten her native language and that
she did not want her daughter to adopt
"white man's ways." She lived sixty
miles from the agency in order to keep
the child from running away. Her brother
was asked to use his influence to have the
girl returned to school, but he responded,
"No, mother would kill me if I did."
This is a clear case in which the govern-
ment should take its own course and bring
the girl back to school. The only hope in
Indian education is with the younger gen-
erations. There is no hope for the average
adult who has not already been educated.
It is the duty of the government to see to
it that the younger generation is nut ruined
by the older.

Example, 22. A young Indian girl who
spent three years and a. half in Haskell
became an expert seamstress, dress cutter,
and fitter; besides all this she was a good
cook and familiar with all general house-



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



107



keeping. She had a fair common school
education and spoke English well. She
was found by a visitor in a tepee living as
a blanket Indian, having adopted the full
dress of the camp Indian. She was living
upon the rations of the government. The
secret of her life is, that all of those with
whom she now comes in contact are striv-
ing to make her adopt the methods of
camp life and to return to the customs of
the tribe. Indeed the Indians of the camp
are very careful to use every influence to
induce educated Indians to return to their
old customs. They ridicule their fine
clothes, make sport of their language, and
in every way make it disagreeable to the
students returning from school, until having
no other alternative they are at last forced
to yield to the old regime.

Example 23. A young Indian was at
Haskell four years. Returning to the res-
ervation he had no opportunity to exercise
his education. He had a good knowledge
of farming and gardening. He became
one of the worst boys on the reservation.
He is addicted to drink and is frequently
in the lockup. But the boy can hardly be
blamed, and it is not the fault of the edu-
cation, for his father and older brother are
known to be bad characters.

Example 24. A girl was at Haskell
four years. During this time she had
thoroughly mastered all kinds of sewing,
tailoring, and fancy work. She was a very
capable girl. After returning to the res-
ervation she married an Indian and is now
living a camp life. There was nothing
else for her to do.

These may seem isolated examples. It
may be stated that of sixty-seven boys
who have been investigated as to the
results of their education after their at-
tendance at Haskell, it was found that only
three were doing anything beyond the life
of an ordinary camp Indian. They were
living in blankets and attending ghost
dances. Without a single exception, when
asked "why are you doing this way," the
answer was^: "Because I have nothing else
to do."



The conditions of tribes vary much with
respect to education, and their dispo-
sition toward educational improvement
is varied. Some tribes observe and pos-
sess a progressive spirit, while in others
there is a strong tendency downward.
The foregoing examples are taken from
a variety of tribes. The true way to
study the nature and capacity of the
Indian is by tribes. Much care should be
given to the diiferent characteristics of the
tribes. While it would be a great plan to
break up tribal relations as rapidly as pos-
sible, close observance of existing condi-
tions must be made by those who deal
with the Indian in a moral, religious, edu-
cative, or political sense.

But the great difificulty is still with all
tribes, whether semi-civilized, barbarous,
or wild. It is the problem of contact with
the white race and the adjustment of their
lives to the conditions of modern civiliza-
tion. Wherever an inferior and a superior
race have come in contact there has always
been more or less difficulty. This difficulty
cannot be avoided, but must be met and
solved on right principles. The race
problem is as old as history itself, but we
observe it more closely and distinctly in
relation to the Indians of the West than in
any other place. Formal treaties and
agreements may be made between the in-
ferior and superior races; they may be
able to get along peaceably with one
another, or there may be constant dis-
cord and disagreement. The superior
race may dominate over the inferior, or
stand in the parental position towards it,
and still there may be for a time unity and
peace. But the moment the attempt is
made to force the inferior race into com-
petition with the superior by education;
to turn it out in the common struggle for
existence, unprotected and unassisted by
any power, the inferior race will be over-
come by the superior in the struggle for
existence. One of the most striking illus-
trations of this is found in the contact of
the Americans with the Spanish neophytes
of th^ southwest. The franciscan fathers



io8



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



at an early date came into California,
gathered the savages into villages, in-
structed them in the elements of learn-
ing and in the practice of the ordinary
industrial arts. Over thirty thousand
Indians were thus instructed in the elements
of civilized life. Through one hundred
years this civilization of the Indian went
on. Property was accumulated, fields cul-
tivated, harvests were reaped. Great
herds of stock roamed over the pastures,
fruit and flowers developed around them,
and one would say to look upon this picture
that, indeed, at last a method had been
discovered by which the savage of the
forest could be forced to adopt our modern
civilization. Yet, all of this was merely
appearance, the whole education was ac-
complished by imitation — the self-deter-
mining principle in religion or in industry
had not yet developed.

The missionaries were to the Indians as
parents. They watched over them as
children and called them such. The In-
dians knew nothing of independent action
or self-government. So long as the mis-
sionaries were with them, and over them,
they could carry on the imitative process
of education, but once left alone there was
nothing for them but to be crushed out of
existence. The difficulties which arose
after the conquest of California by Mexico
need not be recounted, sufficient to say
that the neophytes were left unprotected
in their contact with the white race and
soon went down before them. Of the
thirty thousand in 1834, which were appa-
rently living so happy in their crude vil-
lages and missions, only four thousand
remained in ten years after. The rest
were scattered up and down the coast,
knowing not where to go or what to do.
Thousands returned to their wild life, and
in a short time but little effect could be
seen of the great civilization wrought by
the padres.



Here, then, lies the great Indian problem
of to-day. No one need criticise the
progress that has been made in our best
schools. They are thorough, .earnest, and
efficient; they make the Indian self-sup-
porting, and turn him from the schools so
that he may compete with the Anglo-
Saxon in the industries of life.

They attempt to keep him from the
reservation where the overwhelming influ-
ences of the tribe and the tepee and the
camp shall not reach him. This, indeed,
is the true problem of Indian education.
The schools should not stop, but go on
with more vigor and more spirit than ever;
they should receive all that is necessary to.
make them thorough and efficient and
painstaking. But some attempt, at least,
should be made to carry the results of this
education beyond the walls of the school
room. The government must see to it
that this education shall not be lost; that
the tribal life of the Indian, with its baneful
influences, shall be broken up; that those
who are prepared with practical trades
shall have an opportunity for their exer-
cise; that they shall be given a chance to
till the soil; that they shall be given an
undisputed title to the land; that all gov-
ernment support shall be withdrawn from
the tribes and they shall be put in the way
of earning a living. If they fail to earn a
living through sloth or idleness, let them
take the punishment which nature has ap-
pointed them. The government must deal
with the Indian problem as a matter of
business, and not as a matter of sentiment.
It should see that the tribes are broken up
as soon as possible; that lands be rapid-
ly apportioned; that education shall be
pushed as rapidly as possible; that justice
shall be given to all, but that the system
of begging and ration support shall be
abolished at once in every case where sub-
sistence is ])ossible to the Indian.

F. W. Blackmar.



SEMINARY NOTES.



109



SEMINARY REPORTS.



Municipal Government.

■^rPHE meeting of the Seminary Friday,
^§ December 4, discussed the subject of
"Municipal Government Abroad." Prof.
Hodder presided, and after making some
introductory remarks, comparing the gov-
ernment of American and foreign cities,
called upon Mr. Wilber Kinzie for a paper
upon "Municipal Government in Eng-
land." Mr. Kinzie introduced his paper
by a short sketch of the development of
local government. The present system is
an outgrowth of the one introduced at the
time of the Norman conquest. At first
the towns were ruled by officers of the
crown. But the people demanded a voice
in their government and local authority
passed into the hands of justices, part of
them elective and part of them appointed
by the Crown. The system at present is
very confused and needs reorganization.
Uniformity was given to the government
of all English cities, except London, by
the Municipal Corporation's Act of 1835.
An act of 1882 revised the earlier one and
incorporated all subsequent amendments.
Glasgow may be taken as a good example
of the form of government established by
these acts. It is governed by a single
general council, elected by the rate payers
and serving without salary. This council
is divided into committees, each one of
which has a certain branch of the govern-
ment under its control. The city is
remarkable for the rapid progress it has
made in the housing of the poor and in
the construction and management of public
works. It has public baths, lodging
houses, and wash houses. Its reading
rooms are the best in Great Britain. The
city owns and operates its own gas works,
and built its own street railroad and leased
it to a private company upon such favor-
able terms that the road will repay the cost
of construction and yield the city a large
revenue in addition.



Mr. E. W. Smith read a paper on the
"Government of London." The position
of London is exceptional as the Municipal
Corporation's Acts did not apply to it. It
is necessary to distinguish clearly between
the metropolis and the "city," or corpor-
ation of London. The former covers
about 120 square miles and has nearly five
million inhabitants, while the latter con-
sists of only a square mile in the heart of
this vast aggregation of people and has a
population of only about 50,000. Until
within two years the metropolis had no
general government. It was divided into
numerous districts and vestries, each gov-
erned by a local vestry board similar to
those of small towns in the country. But
in 1889 the whole metropolis was made an
administrative county and was given a
representative council, elected from the
various districts and the city. This council
will eventually obtain full control of all
municipal affairs and constitute a city
government proper. The "city" is still
governed by the guilds, a relic of medi-
sevalism. The members of the guilds, or
liverymen, as they are called, elect the
aldermen and the aldermen are advanced
in turn to the office of Lord Mayor,

Mr. H. B. Hall illustrated "Municipal
Government in France" by describing the
organization of the city of Paris. The
government of Paris is highly centralized.
The principal power is in the hands of the
Prefect of the Seine, appointed by the
central government. The people have the
right of electing a general council, which
exercises legislative powers. For admin-
istrative purposes the city is divided into
twenty districts, and each has a mayor
and council, subject to the Prefect and
the general council. Paris has led the
way in changing mediaeval alleys into
modern avenues. The greatest improve-
ments were made between 1852 and 187 1
under Louis Napoleon.



SEMINA RY NO TES.



H. E. Copper read a paper on the gov-
ernment of Berlin. He said that it was
while Napoleon I. was holding Germany
in check that the present municipal system
was inaugurated by Baron Von Stein,
minister to Frederick William III., of
Prussia. The government of Berlin is
vested in a mayor, council, and magistracy.
The city council, or lower house, is elected,
one third by each of the three groups into
which the voters are divided according to
their taxes. It is composed of io8 mem-
bers and elects the mayor and members of
the magistracy, or upper house. The
magistracy consists of thirty-four members,
including the mayor. The mayor and a
part of the magistracy, whose whole time
is taken up by their offices, receive pay,
the other members of the magistracy do
not. The mayor need not be, and quite
frequently is not, at the time of his choice,
a resident of the town of which he is



Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 18 of 62)