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elected mayor. But he must be a grad-
uate of a German university. The city
has its own gas plant and sells more than
enough gas annually to pay the interest on
the original investment. As a business
corporation Berlin is a model city.

W. D. Ross, Reporter.

Argentine Republic.
The Seminary was called to order by
Professor Blackmar on Friday, December
II. After the reading of the minutes of
the last meeting Miss Morrow was intro-
duced and gave an address on the subject
of "The Argentine Republic." The points
emphasized were: Argentine Republic has
a beautiful landscape and a healthful cli-
mate with a temperature ranging from the
freezing point in winter to 90 ° in summer.
The climate resembles in some degree that
of California. The productions are varied,
and are rice, coffee, and sugar, and, of
late, the cereals are being cultivated and
a fine quality of wheat and flax raised.
The mineral deposits are rich, having
enough coal, by some estimates, to last
the Republic 2,000 years, yet it imports
most of its fuel from England. Immense

cattle and sheep ranches are still found
here. The people are descendents of the
Spaniards, mixed with the Indian, Italians
and other European races, but they retain
the Spanish language and customs. Before
the recent financial crisis there were very
few poor people there. Argentine has a
state religion which is Catholic. Other
religions are tolerated, provided those who
wish to establish a church get permission
from the government. Education is com-
pulsory between the ages of six and four-
teen. The school system was modeled
after that of our country, and many
teachers were taken from the United States.
There are two universities, supported by
the national government, and each state
has a lower form of school which is called
the normal college leading up to the uni-
versity. Below these are the primary
schools, supported by the cities, and also
the kindergarten. The proficiency of some
of their professional schools surpasses that
of ours. Co-education does not exist,
except in some of the primary schools.

Argentine Republic has fourteen states,
governed much as are our states and united
under one federal constitution, modeled
after the constitution of the United States.
The present form of government was es-
tablished in 1852, and superseded a dicta-
torship. The president holds office for
six years and cannot succeed himself.
Although the government is republican in
form yet the restrictions upon the ruling
party are nominal only. It is a military
government, except in name,

The present financial disturbance was
brought on by circulating paper money in
great quantities. The national treasury
was at first full of gold, but this was all
drained from the country in foreign trade
while the paper remained at home. The
state is very rich in resources, and it is
thought that if some one were found to
govern it properly it would soon pay its
enormous debt and become wealthy. Ar-
gentines think that they are a peculiar
people, and that all the laws of poliirical
economy do not apply to them, and they


see nothing else to do now but to go on
printing paper money. The crisis almost
resulted in a political revolution, but the
president resigned and saved the overthrow
of the government.

W. M. Curry, Reporter.

Civil Service Reform.
The Seminary met on Friday, January
15, Professor Blackmar presiding.

The subject for discussion was opened
by Mr. Truitt, with a paper on the "De-
velopment of the Spoils System." The
growth of this system was due to a defect
in the constitution, which gave powers of
appointment to the president, but, although
the spoils system had early become an
institution in some of the states, it was
some time before it affected the federal
government. Washington and Adams,
together, removed only eighteen persons
from office, and these were not removed
by party causes. Jefferson was so scrupu-
lous that he would appoint no relative to
office, no matter how well qualified. He
was the first to see the evils which would
eventually result from placing such powers
of appointment in the hands of the presi-
dent and sounded a warning against it.
But the federal offices were still very few,
and it was thought that the president's
sense of duty, as well as the noble preced-
ents set by the first presidents would cause
him to act justly. With the rapid growth
in population, however, the number of
officers was also enormously increased,
party organization became more perfect,
and finally Andrew Jackson announced
the principle "to the victors belong the
spoils," and astounded the whole nation
by turning out in one year two thousand
officials to make way for his own adherents.
Although it has always been condemned
by the best citizens of every class, on
account of the immense advantages af-
forded by it to the party in power, the
spoils system has continued in full force
from the time of Jackson until now. But
it is to be hoped that it will soon be a
thing of the past. The civil service reform

bill of 1883 is a long step in the right
direction, and public sentiment is ripe for
further reform in the same line.

Mr. Fullerton followed with a paper on
the "Pendleton Act of 1883." He said
that in 1853, thirty years before the pass-
age of the Pendleton act, a bill was passed
requiring civil service examinations for
inferior offices, but only those recom-
mended by United States senators and
representatives were permitted to take the
examinations; so that the only effect was
to place the power of appointment in the
hands of congressmen. In 1872 General
Grant instituted a civil service examina-
tion similar to the present system, but
congress refused to make any appropria-
tion for carrying it out and it fell through.
The present system was instituted in
1883. By its provision no official is under
obligation in any way to assist the admin-
istration for purely party purposes; not
more than two persons from the same
family may hold office; and, of course, the
most important provision, concerning the
examinations, is included. For this pur-
pose the officials, to which the act is
extended, are divided into four classes:
the departmental service at Washington,
the customs service, the postal service,
and the railroad mail service. Each of
these has a separate general board of ex-
aminers, and also local boards as many as
may be necessary. All local examinations
may be appealed to a special board of
appeal. When any one wishes to be a
candidate for any office under this act he
fills out the blanks which are sent to him,
stating his age, name, etc. This must be
signed by five persons. His name is then
enrolled on the list of candidates, and
when an examination occurs within a con-
venient distance he is notified. If he
passes his name is placed on the books
and he is given a place when a vacancy
occurs. The name of the candidate is
represented on the examination paper by
a number, so that the examiners are not
influenced by any personal prejudice.
When the candidate is appointed he must


serve six months on probation. In 1887
15,852 persons were examined, of whom
10,746 passed and 5,106 failed. The
average age of the candidates is about 32.
The principal difficulty in the system has
been in its practical application, but this
difficulty is being rapidly overcome.

Mr. Cann concluded the discussion with
a paper on the advantages of the merit
system. He said that the civil service was
composed of men who had either been
appointed from motives of charity or as a
reward for party service. While the only
test should be efficiency, yet the political
machine controlled the power of appoint-
ment, partly through bribes and partly
through the fear they were able to inspire.
The merit system of competitive examina-
tions, if faithfully carried out, would do
away with this evil. It would also abolish
the degrading spectacle of two hundred
thousand people scrambling for office after
every national election, for every officer
would hold his position for life unless
removed for a worthy cause. The trouble
lies in the fact that the law is not obeyed.
The power of appointment still lies in the
power of the congressman and he still uses
it to place his henchmen in office. Be-
sides this it takes his time from his real
duties. Garfield said that in his day con-
gress took one third of its time to distribute
the offices. With the rapid increase of
population and consequently of offices, it
may happen that at some day it may almost
shut out the business of legislation. Spoils-
men try to throw the merit system into
contempt by saying that it is Chinese; and
try to arouse prejudice against it on the
ground that it is English. But we are not
so narrow and bigoted that we cannot see
the benefits of a reform, unless we originate
it; and it is certainly un-American to put a
man of merit out of office to make way for
the henchman of a politician. The ad-
vantages of the merit system are efficiency
of service, justice to the officer, the lessen-
ing of political corruption and the allow-
ance of more time to congress for legisla-
tion, while its good effects may be felt

throughout the coimtry in the lessening of
partisanship and the bringing into clear
light the questions which have been ob-
scured by party prejudices.

J. W. Park, Feporter.

The First Principles of Money.

The Seminary met at 4 o'clock on Fri-
day, January 22, to hear a paper by Hon.
Joel Moody on "The First Principles of
Money." Prof. Blackmar presided.

Senator Moody introduced his subject
by taking issue with Walker's- definition of
money — "money is a medium of exchange,
a means not an end." A medium is that
thing through or by which a thing passes;
money is not a medium. Money is the
measure of all commercial things, value
springs from those inherent qualities in
man that cause him to desire certain things
more than others. The commercial value
of anything is alone connected with man.
Eliminate man and you eliminate value.
Neither can anything have value without
having utility. Price is simply the measure
of value, the measure of value is money.
Value, a relative term, must be measured
by something concrete. All things must
be measured by a concrete unit, as exten-
sion, capacity, weight, value. It is neces-
sary that a standard shall be fixed by law.
Money was invented by man to avoid
barter. By the invention of money com-
merce has become a science. Money
must have existed before the civil state.
It brought the state into existence. Even
the most barbarous tribes have something
that stands for money.

But money must have certain requisites.
It must serve as a measure of value and
have value in itself. Money must possess
lasting qualities. "True money lives,
false money dies." All the meta-ls have
been used as money, but simple lessons in
metallurgy have led to the adoption of gold
and silver. By its vast use to man money
has obtained its value. Gold and silver
came to be used through a natural choice.
Money must also possess malleability, di-
visibility and weight. Gold does not have



to be coined before it can be called money.
Some claim that metal is not a necessary
element in a scientific definition of money,
that a fiat law can create money. The
government can no more create money
than it can value, gravity or extension.
Civil law cannot create money. If it
could a nation could maintain itself without
taxation. It would make the legislative
will the measure of all values. If law
cannot create value, and if what is created
has no value, it will not last. It is not
the fiat law, nor the stamp of the mint, nor
the inscription "In God We Trust," that
gives money value.

On account of the lateness of the hour
Mr. Moody was unable to read all of his
paper, but Prof. Blackmar made the state-
ment that although it would be impossible
to have the remainder of the paper at a
meeting of the Seminary, because of an
already completed program, yet he had
secured the promise of the senator to
appear before the class on Political Econ-
omy before long and finish the subject.
At that time opportunity will be given for
questions or criticisms by the students in
accordance with the custom of the Semi-
nary. C. A. Peabody, Reporter.


|F the two hundred and seventy courses
offered at Harvard University twenty-
seven are credited to the department of
History. At least twenty others, which
are listed under Political Economy, Se-
mitic, Hebrew, Greek. Latin, and Fine
Arts, might well be called history courses-
If any student wishes to make a study of
any time or institution not covered by this
large number of courses, facilities are
offered him in the different seminaries to
explore almost any field. In fact the
student's own ch©ice sets almost the only
limit to the range of historical work done
in Harvard University. This desirable
condition is, however, a matter of recent
growth. The memory of Harvard's young-
est professors runneth back to the time
when the "text-book" method of teaching
history was still in vogue, when a student's
historical acquisitions were measured by
pages of text committed or dates and facts

A story is still told of the amazement
which almost overcame the instructor
when Prof. Taussig, then a student, one
day ventured to introduce into his recita-
tion some facts gathered outside the regular
text-book and thus made a brilliant and
.interesting recitation. But all such things

are of the past, and if Harvard did not
introduce what we are pleased to term the
"Modern Scientific Method" of teaching
history, she is, at present, certainly behind
no American university in the use of that
method; but one of the history courses is
now given as a text-book study.

The history work here may be divided
into three classes:

First. The preliminary courses, which it
is expected will be taken in the Freshman
or Sophomore years, must precede the
advanced courses. In these the lectures
and two or three books contain most of
the matter, for which the student will be
held responsible. The supplementary work
which he is required to do is not extensive,
and, in the general European history
course, takes the form of geographical
study by the use of maps, illustrating the
political divisions of Europe at different
periods. These preliminary courses are
attended by from 150 to 300 men, and
each instructor has an assistant, whose
business it is to hold short conferences
with each member of the class; give them
aid or information on any point, and sat-
isfy himself that the work of each man is
being done faithfully.

What may be called the second division



of the history work is well typified by
Prof. Emerton's course on the Reforma-
tion, or Prof. Hart's course in United
States History. In these the students are
more advanced and more work is expected
of them. Topics are studied critically,
and each man must form his own opinion
from the evidence presented. He also
supplements by his own reading the out-
line or skeleton of the period, which is all
that the professor attempts to give in his
lectures. Besides, special reports, biblio-
graphies and biographies are required from
each student. The man who attempts to
depend on the lectures alone will find
himself at sea when Prof. Emerton asks,
as he did on our examination, full two
thirds of the questions on points which he
has not mentioned in the class room.
Prof. Hart says that a man cannot pass
kis examination without doing the supple-
mentary reading, even if he should learn
the lectures verbatim. The importance
which he attaches to the student's part of
the work is also indicated by the topical
outline of about three hundred pages,
which serves as a guide to the collateral

Some of the professors, however, test a
man's reading by requiring two or more
theses during the year and then examine
only on the lectures. In a few courses if
a man pays close attention to the lectures
and keeps them well in mind h pass

satisfactorily without doing any reading.
By what I have said of the examinations I
only mean to indicate the minimum amount
of work which will enable one to pass.
Almost any one of these courses can prof-
itably employ half of a man's time, and
the encouragement and facilities offered
tempt all real students to spend enough
time on each subject to get a clear knowl-
edge of it.

But I must pass to the third class of
work which each year occupies a more
important place in the historical work
done. This is what is known as the semi-
nary work. There are four seminaries
given; but as they are much alike, and I

am best acquainted with the one in Amer-
iean History, conducted by Professors
Hart and Channing, my description will
be confined to it. This Seminary was
established in 1885 with six members, and
has increased each year till there are now
seventeen members, each of whom selects
some special topic for investigation and is
expected to embody the results of his work
in a thesis. Many of the reports thus
produced have been printed in the Papers
of the American Historical Association, in
the Harvard Historical Monographs, or
in book form.

The Seminary meets each Monday even-
ing. At the earlier meetings of the year
the instructors lecture on the methods of
historical investigations and on the mate-
rials of American History. At later meet-
ings the students report upon their inves-
tigations and discoveries. Each report is
discussed by the instructors and fellow
students. New books, which are likely to
prove of interest to members of the Semi-
nary, are reviewed by some members.
Each member of the Seminary has half
an hour a week set apart for personal con-
ference with the professor. At this con-
ference he reports progress and receives
suggestions and instructions for the next
week's work. Thorough, scholarly work
is encouraged, and each student becomes
a master of his particular field. If he
does not write history himself he knows
how it should be written, and learns to
estimate at its true historic worth any
work which may come before him.

The wide range of studies is shown by
the list of- courses in history:


I. Mediaeval and Modern History,
Asst. Prof. Channing.

2. Constitutional Government, Prof.

3. Roman History to the Reign of Dio-
cletian, Mr. Bendelari,

4. The Middle Ages, from Charlemagne
to Dante, Prof. Emerton,

5. History of Wejit^r^i E^ufope, from



the Germanic Invasions to the Treaty of
Verdun, Mr. Bendelari.

6. The First Eight Christian Centuries,
Prof. Emerton.

7. The Era of the Reformation in Eu-
rope. Prof. Emerton.

8. History of France to the Reign of
Louis XIV., with special reference to in-
stitutions. Dr. Snow.

9. Constitutional History of England
to the Sixteenth Century, Dr. Gross.

10. American History to 1788, Asst.
Prof. Channing.

1 1 . European History during the Seven-
teenth Century and the first half of the
Eighteenth, Mr. Bendelari.

12. European History from the Middle
of the Eighteenth Century, Prof. Macvane
and Asst. Prof. Channing.

13. Constitutional and Political History
of the United States, Asst. Prof. Hart.

15. Elements of Public International
Law — History of Treaties — Dr. Snow.


2 1. Early Mediaeval Institutions, Mr.

22. The Sources and Literature of
English Constitutional History, Dr. Gross.

23. History of the Government and
Institutions of France to the Reign of
Louis XIV., Dr. Snow.

25. English Constitutional History from
the Tudor Period to the Accession of
George I., Mr. Bendelari.

26. History of American Institutions,
Asst. Prof. Channing.

27. Government and Administration in
the United States — National, State, and
Municipal — Asst. Prof. Hart.

28. History of Continental Europe
(chiefly of France and Germany) since the
Seven Years' War, Prof. Macvane.

29. Constitutional History of England
since the Accession of George I., Asst.
Prof. Channing.

30. Federal Government — Historical
and Comparative — Asst. Prof. Hart.

3 1 . Leading Principles of Constitutional
Law — selected cases, American and Eng-
lish — Prof. Macvane.

32. The Historical Development of In-
ternational Law, Dr. Snow.
20. Courses of Research.

I. Seminary in Mediaeval History:

(a) Church and State, Prof. Emerton.

(b) Municipal History, Dr. Gross.

(c) Political Institutions, Mr. Bendelari.

II. Seminary in Modern History and Di-


(d) Social History, Prof. Macvane.

( e) English History in the Stuart Period,

Mr. Bendelari.

(f) Diplomatic History, Dr. Snow.

III. Seminary in American History, Hart
and Channing.


Economic History of Europe and Amer-
ica since the Seven Years' War, Mr. Cole.

Railway Transportation, Asst. Prof.

History of Tariff Legislation in the
United States, Prof. Dunbar.

Theory and Methods of Taxation, Prof.

Banking and the History of the Leading
Banking Systems, Prof. Dunbar.

Babylonian — Assyrian History from na-
tive sources with comparison of the Greek
and Roman writers — Prof. Lyon.

History of Israel — -Political and Social —
Prof. Lyon.

History of the Hebrew Religion, with
comparison of other Semitic religions,
Prof. Toy.

Political and Literary History of the
Bagdad Califate, Prof. Toy.

Political and Literary History of the
Spanish Califate, Prof. Toy.

Three Centuries of Greek History (600-
300 B. C), Prof. Wright.

The Life of the Ancient Athenians, Prof.
J. W. White.

The Reign of Tiberius — the Annals of
Tacitus — Prof. Smith.

The Athenian Expedition to Sicily, Prof.

The Constitutional History of Athens
and the Judicial Process of the Athenian
Courts, Prof. Goodwin.

History of Ancient Art, Prof. Norton.

History of Roman and Mediaeval Art,
Prof. Norton.

Wm. Hill.








the seminary of

Historical and Political Science.

State University, Lawrence, Kansas.

Frank W. Blackmar. \

Frank H. Hodder, i ' ' ' Editors.

Ephraim D. Adams, j

Terms, Ten Cents a Number, - Fifty Cents a Year

^-r* HE purpose of this publication is to increase the
(ffl) interest in the study of historical science in the
^^ University and throughout the State, to afford
means of regular communication with corresponding
members of the Seminary and with the general pub-
lic—especially with the Alumni of the University, and
to preserve at least the outlines ot carefully prepared
papei-s and addresses. The number of pages in each
issue will be increased as rapidly as the subscription
list will warrant. The entire revenue of the publi-
cation will be applied to its maintenance.
Address all subscriptions and communications to


Lawrence, Kansas.

It may be of interest to readers of
Seminary Notes to know that Prof. F.
W. Blackmar's article on Indian Educa-
tion, published in this issue, will appear
shortly in the Review of Reviews, and in
the Annals of the American Academy. The
text of the article may differ somewhat
from that published in the Seminary
Notes, but in substance it will be the
same. Another view of the same subject
is also to appear in the Charities Review.

Prof. Blackmar is a firm friend of the
existing system of Indian education. His
article merely asserts that the great need
is for a further extension of that system,
so that the Indian youth shall be forced
to take a position on equality with his
American competitor.

On January 22 Hon. Joel Moody read
a paper before the Historical Seminary
which was of unusual interest to the stu-
dents, both because of the personality of
the writer and because of the entertaining
manner in which he treated the subject

under discussion. A report of that portion
of his paper which he was able to finish is
to be found in another column. Mr.
Moody's definition of money differed some-
what from that usually given, but it would
be unfair to either accept or reject his
ideas before hearing the remainder of his
paper. He is to appear again shortly

Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 19 of 62)