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before the class in Political Economy, and
will at that time give the students oppor-
tunity for discussion.

The sketch, this month, of the study of
History in American colleges, treats of
History in Harvard University. It was
written by Mr. Wm. Hill, a former student
of K. S. U., now pursuing special work in
American History at Harvard. Mr. Hill
is evidently enthusiastic over the lecture
system, and his description of the charac-
ter of the work done under that system is
inspiring. It has always been found that
with every step in the direction of sepa-
rating epochs of history into short periods
for special class room study, the value of
the lecture system increases. Owing to
lack of space it was found necessary to
omit a portion of Mr. Hill's paper, relat-
ing to library facilities at Harvard. It
will be published at another time.

Some three years ago a movement was
set on foot to erect a monument at Delfs-
haven, Holland, the place from which the
Pilgrims sailed when they started for the
new world, the object being to recognize
in this way the debt of gratitude due the
Dutch for the asylum afforded the Pilgrims
during their twelve years' residence In
Amsterdam and Leyden. The attempt to
raise subscriptions was met by the objec-
tion that the Pilgrims were not well
treated in Holland. This charge has been
carefully investigated by the leaders of the
movement and found to be without founda-
tion. A pamphlet on "The Influence of
the Netherlands in the Making of the
English Commonwealth and the American
Republic," by Dr. W. E. Grifiis, is one of
a number that are now being circulated in
the interest of the Delfshaven memorial.



Dr. Griffis discusses principally the in-
fluence upon English life of the thousands
of Dutch who fled to England to escape
the Spanish persecution, and the influences
upon the Pilgrims while in Holland and
the Dutch ideas they took with them to
the new world.

In Holland, at this time, there was
much greater liberty than in England.
There was religious toleration of all Prot-
estant sects, and even Catholics and
Jews were permitted private exercise of
their religion; there was a free press, free
schools, a free land; that is land was held
in fee simple and there was a system of
registration of deeds and mortgages. Other
things, having no precedent in England,
which the Pilgrims learned to know in
Holland were written constitutions, pre-
scribing and limiting the powers of public
officers, secret written ballots, a court of
supreme authority, a union of law and
equity, and, in the local administration of
justice, a public prosecuting ofhce, cor-
responding to what we now call the district
attorney, and the right of the accused to
counsel for defense. All of these improve-
ments became a part of the institutions
that grew up in New England, and we are
in all probability much more largely in-
debted to Holland for them than has been
commonly supposed. Upon this subject
we are promised an extended article by
Douglas Campbell, entitled "The Puritan
in England, Holland, and America."

Lavisse's "Political History of Eu-
rope," noticed in another column, contains
many interesting historical generalizations.
In the conclusion, after calling attention
to the fact that the present condition of
Europe is apparently dependent upon force
alone, the author outlines the part which
may, perhaps, be played by the America
of the future. His statement of this is so
interesting that a portion of it is here

"The relations between the Old World
and the New are not necessarily peaceful.
Down to the present the latter has had no

foreign policy; still the Monroe Doctrine,
'America for the Americans',' is a policy.
If it is ever applied to the islands of
America (premonitory signs of this are not
wanting), it will cause a conflict between
the two worlds. American civilization is
pacific. All these new nations grow and
multiply in the midst of peace. Peace is
thus their vocation, but, as if it were con-
trary to the eternal order of things, the
United States are beginning to use their
treasury surplus for the construction of
war vessels. Armaments are ruining Eu-
rope, while American wealth is producing
armaments. * * * After having seen
so many changes, states come into exis-
tence and perish, empires crumble that
had hoped for eternal life, we must foresee
new revolutions, deaths and births.

"All force exhausts itself; the faculty of
guiding the course of history is not an
inalienable possession. Europe, which
inherited it from Asia three thousand years
ago, will not, perhaps, retain it forever."

It is not, however, the indication of
America ^s the future seat of political
power, that is most noticeable in this quo-
tation, but rather the thought that the
world has reached no fixed stage in poli-
tics; that all things are yet to change, and
to change quickly. This thought is to be
found in nearly every recent writer on
European politics. Even if no war comes
to change the map of Europe, yet the
pressure of the present armaments upon
each government is so great that something
is likely to give way before long. The
young reformer of Europe believes that
he will live to see the day when his reforms
shall be adopted, but he also frequently
believes that this can only be accomplished
by a use of force, in a measure. In the
United States we are wont to assume that
we have no need of troubling ourselves
about our international relations, and,
perhaps, it is true for the present that there
is no danger of a war which can in any
way seriously affect the whole United
States. But our economists, our writers
on social questions, all our thoughtful men,


recognize that for the United States, in
the industrial world, there are questions
coming to the front which may be of as
great a source of trouble to us as are
boundary lines to European nations.

Whether in Europe or in America histo-
rians will find many indications of the
spirit of change. The institutions of the
world have not yet become stable.

Hon. Frank H. Betton, State Labor
Commissoner, will address the Seminary
on Friday, February 5. His topic will be
some subject in connection with the work
of Bureaus of Labor Statistics.

The practice of gerrymandering is once
more brought into prominence on account
of the creation of the new congressional
and legislative districts. This abominable
practice has been resorted to by each of
the great political parties, from time to
time, and in every instance it brings with
it shame and disgrace in the eyes of all
fair minded people. The practice origi-
nated in the year 181 2, after the memor-
able contest between the federalists and
the democrats in the state of Massachu-
setts. The democrats succeeded in elect-
ing their governor with majorities in both
houses of the legislature. In order to
make the victory permanent, and secure
the election of democratic United States
senators in the future, the party in power
proceeded to re-divide and arrange the
senatorial districts, in order to make a
democratic majority in each. They dis-
regarded county lines and constitutional
rights, but the law was passed and signed
by Elbridge Gerry and became effective.
The opposition papers denounced the ac-
tion in severest language. Among the
most bitter in exposing the fraud was Mr.
Russell, then editor of the Boston Sentinel.
To him is accredited the origin of the
name "Gerrymander," referring, of course,
to Elbridge Gerry, The story is as fol-
lows: It seems that Mr. Russell had taken
a map of Essex county, on which was
represented in particular colors the differ-
ent towns that had been divided off in

the most grotesque manner. Mr. Gilbert
Stuart, the eminent painter, happened in
the room one day and stood looking at
the map. He finally said that the colored
districts looked like some monstrous ani-
mal. Thereupon he took a pencil and
drew head, wings, claws and tail to the
supposed body. "There, said the artist,
"that will do for a salamander." Mr.
Russell looked up from his work and ex-
claimed: "Salamander! Call it a Gerry-
mander! " From that time on the notorious
process was called gerrymandering. Since
then there have been several noted prac-
tices of gerrymandering by different states
and Elbridge Gerry's name has been
handed down to posterity by being attached
to a notorious system.

A paper before the writer contains a
discussion of the question of gerrymand-
ering lately practiced with so much success
in Wisconsin. The paper is an able doc-
ument by Mr. A. J. Turner, of Portage,
Wis. Mr. Turner presents the constitu-
tional and legal phases of the question,
and shows graphically and conclusively
that the people have been politically
wronged. A diagram of Fond du Lac
county shows the second assembly district,
composed of three townships, completely
enveloped by the first and second districts,
together composed of eighteen townships.
The average population of each assembly
district was, in 1890, 16,868; while some
districts had but six or seven thousand;
one had over thirty-eight thousand. Mr.
Turner sums up the results of the act as
follows: "One hundred and sixty-eight
thousand eight hundred and nine people
who participated in the senatorial election
in 1890 may vote for senators again in
1892. Two hundred and thirty-one thous-
and two hundred and eighteen people who
voted for senators in 1888 will not have
an opportunity to do so again until 1894.
So, senators elected in 1890 will represent
for two years 387,122 people who had no
voice in their election. Or, 168,809 peo-
ple will have two representatives from 1892
until 1894, and 231,218 people must go



entirely represented for the same period."
Other notable instances in Ohio, Penn-
sylvania and South Carolina clearly illus-
trate how the people may be defrauded of
their rights by this process. It is to be
hoped that the strong, vigorous words of
Mr. McKinley, of Ohio, will be regarded
by the coming legislature, and that any
necessary division of districts will be car-
ried on with the utmost fairness to all
classes of the people. There are so many
new congressional and legislative districts
to establish since the last census, that it is
to be hoped that a general policy of fair-
ness will prevail. No good can come from
such temporary robberies.

The railroad question assumes new and
interesting features every day. The trial
ordered against the trans- Missouri Freight
Association may result in disbanding the
association. If it does it is interesting to
see what will be the influence upon traffic
associations in general. The case at
Wichita was also won against the railroads
and in favor of shippers to inland points.
The decision in the case of the Maine rail-
road, in regard to the pass system, may
be made universal in practice. These
items all point toward the determination
of the state and the federal governments
to assume a more definite control of the
railroad system. Each year witnesses some
gain in this direction. Although we are
far from an effective management of rail-
roads by legal enactments, we may be
encouraged to look forward to a time when
the railway service of this country will be
carried on in a harmonious and system-
atic manner, without detriment to ship-
pers and passengers on the one side and
without loss to the companies on the

The eighth annual meeting of the Amer-
ican Historical Association was held in
Washington December 29 to 31, 1891.
Interesting papers were read by historical
scholars from all parts of the United States.
One of the most important papers was
that by President Adams, of Cornell Uni-

versity, on Columbus. Of this paper.
Prof. H. B. Adams, of Johns Hopkins,
the secretary of the association, in a short
account of its proceedings gave the fol-
lowing report:

"In view of coming events, which cast
their Columbian shadows before, the his-
torical paper which eclipsed all others in
popular interest at the Washington meet-
ing and in the Associated Press reports
that flashed over the whole country, was
President Charles Kendall Adams' account
of ' Recent Discoveries Concerning Colum-
biis.' Perhaps the best and fullest report
was printed in the New York Times Janu-
ary I, 1892, the morning after the original
paper was read. This widespread popular
report not only ushered in the Columbian
year, but it was literally the first general
announcement to the American people that
Columbus landed from the west rather
than from the east; that is to say, he
sailed around Watling's Island and entered
the New World on the Chicago rather than
on the New York side.

"Besides this -true view of the landfall
of Columbus, President Adams gave his
audience, and at the same time, the coun-
try at large, the latest and most authentic
information regarding the recent discovery
of the burial place and remains of the
discoverer himself. It seems that those
patriotic body-snatchers, who, in 1795,
undertook to remove Columbus to Spanish
Havana from San Domingo, which by
the Treaty of Bale had just become
French territory, took the wrong coffin.
Not until the years 1877 was the true
Columbus rediscovered in another vault
on the right hand of the altar in the cathe-
. dral at San Domingo. There has been
much controversy between the Cubans
and the San Domingoans upon the exact
location of the holy sepulcher of the
Western world; but Rudolf Cronan, a
German traveler and historical critic, re-
viewed the whole question in 1891, and
has now established the fact that the re-
mains of the great discoverer are still lying
in the cathedral at San Domingo."


President Adams has in preparation
a short life of Columbus to be published
in the series entitled "Makers of Amer-

The president of the association, elected
for the ensuing year, is James B. Angell,
of Michigan University. The next meet-
ing is to be held in Chicago during the
Columbian exposition.

The eminent Belgian economist and
publicist, Emile de Laveleye, died at
Liege on the 3d of January. Professor
de Laveleye was, perhaps, more widely
known than any other recent writer on
economic subjects. He was born at Bruges
in 1822, studied law at the University of
Ghent, but has devoted himself principally
to the study of political economy. Since
1864 he has been professor in the Univer-
sity of Liege. His published writings are
very numerous and many of them have
been translated into English and German.
The books best known in English transla-
tion are a "Manual of Political Econ-
omy," widely used as a text-book in
colleges, "Socialism of To-day," a sum-
mary of socialistic theories, and "Primitive
Property," perhaps his most important
work. Prof, de Laveleye belonged to the
ethical school of economists, but in much
of his work approached closely the methods
of the historical school. In his own
country he has always exerted great influ-
ence, notwithstanding the fact that he was
a Protestant among Catholics.


A. Lovell & Co., No. 3 East 14th St.,
New York, have begun the publication of
a series of "American History Leaflets,"
to be edited by Profs. Hart and Channing,
of Harvard University. The plan is sim-
ilar to that of the "Old South Leaflets,"
which is to reprint in each number some
important historical document and in this
way to encourage the study of history, as
far as circumstances permit, at first hand.
The first number, just received, contains
the letter of Columbus to Santangel and
an extract from his journal, both describ-
ing his discovery. The "Leaflets" are to
be bi-monthly. The remaining numbers
for the year will contain the Ostend Man-
ifesto, extracts from the Sagas describing

voyages of the Northmen, extracts from
official declarations embodying the Monroe
Doctrine, documents relating to the treaty
of 1763, and extracts from papers relating
to the Behring Sea controversy. The
"Leaflets" will be very useful to students
and teachers in both schools and colleges.
The price is thirty cents for the year, or
five cents per copy.

Macy's "Our Government," (Ginn &
Co., Boston,) is a new and revised edition
of a text-book already widely and favor-
ably known. The author claims that the
governmental institutions of our system
are so related that no one of them can be
thoroughly understood without a knowl-
edge of all. Accordingly the discussion
of local, state and national governments
is not entirely separated, but so united as
to present a view of them as a whole.
Upon this plan Part I. traces the origin of
local institutions, then the origin of the
states and their union in the nation, and
compares the state and national govern-
ments. Similarly Part III., on the admin-
istration of justice, treats first of state and
then of the federal courts. Part II, dis-
cusses "Matters chiefly local," and Parts
IV. and V. treat of "Matters chiefly fed-
eral." The strong point of the book is its
skillful union of historical and expository
material. We think that no other text-
book on the subject traces so carefully and
clearly the origin and development of our
institutions. Throughout the style is in-

"Political History of Europe," is the
title of a book recently received from
Longmans, Green & Co. It was written
by Ernest Lavisse, and was translated
from the French by Charles Gross, Ph. D.,
of Harvard University. In the translator's
preface we notice that recognition is made
of assistance rendered by Prof. A. G.
Canfield, of K. S. U.

The book does not attempt to give in
detail specific causes or results of historical
events. The purpose is evidently to des-
cribe in general the formation and political
development of the states of Europe, and
to state clearly and simply their present
condition and mutual relations. In this
the author has succeeded admirably, al-
though in some places the book may prove
somewhat diificult reading to any one not
thoroughly acquainted with the facts of
history. The author's five pages of "con-
clusion" are full of suggestive ideas with
regard to the future of both Europe and





FOR 1891-2.


Instruction in this department is given by
^means of lectures, recitations, reports, dis-
cussions, and personal direction in study and
research. As the library is an indispensable
iaid in the pursuit of the following courses,
students are expected to become acquainted
with the best methods of collecting and
classifying material^ and of writing and pre-
senting papers on special topics. All lectures
are supplemented by required reading and
class exercises.

Facts are essential to all historic study; yet
the aim is to take the student beyond the
mere details of events— to inquire into the
origin and development of society and the
philosophy of institutions. While the study
of the past is carried on with interest and
thoroughness, the most important part of
history — that which lies about us — is kept
constantly in view. The history of other
nations, other political systems and other
forms of administration, are studied, that we
may better understand our own. To under-
stand present social and political institutions,
and to give an intelligent solution of present
problems, is the chief aim of instruction in
historical science.


Now embraces European History, American
History and Oivil Government, the History
of Institutions, Sociology, and Political Econ-
omy. The work in American History will be
continued with enthusiasm and thorough-
ness. Classes having begun this work will
continue without a break. The importance
of this work needs no comment. The prepa-
ration for good citizenship demands, among
other things, a thorough knowledge of the
growth of nationality, and the history of our
industrial, social and political development.
These, with financial experiments and nation-
al diplomacy, receive marked attention. The
text of the Constitution and Constitutional
Law occupy a prominent place in the study
of this branch.



1. Englisli History. Daily. Descriptive
history. A careful study of the English peo-
ple, including race elements, social and polit-
ical institutions, and national growth.

2. The History of Civilization. Lectures
daily, embracing ancient society, and the in-
tellectual development of Europe to the
twelfth century. Special attention is given
to the influence of Greek philosophy, the
Christian church, the relation of learning to
liberal government, and to the rise of modern

3. Political Economy. Daily. The funda-
mental principles are discussed and elabo-
rated by descriptive and historical methods.
All principles and theories are illustrated by
exaiuples from present economic society. A
brief history of Political Economy may be
given at the close of the course.

4. French and Gfemian History. Daily.
Descriptive history; including race elements,
social and political institutions, and national
growth. Especial attention given to French

5. Historical Method and Criticism. One

hour each week. Examination and classifi-
cation of sources and authorities; analysis of
the works of the best historians; collection
and use of materials, and notes and biblio-

6. Statistics. Two hours each week. Sup-
plementary to all studies in economics and
sociology. The method of using statistics is
taught by actual investigation of political
and social problems. The history and theory
of statistics receives due attention.

7. Journalism. Lectures three hours each
week. Laboratory and library work. Legal
and Historical. — Ten lectures by Prof. E. D.
Adams. English.— T\v^T\ty-fv\Q lectures by
Profs. Dunlap and Hopkins. Neivspaper
Bureau, Magazines, and Sj^ecial Phases of
Journalism. — Prof. Adams.

The course was prepared especially for
those students who expect to enter journal-
ism as a profession. Although the instruc-
tors have no desire to create a special School
of .Tournalism for the purpose of turning out
fully-equipped journalists, they believe that
this course will be very helpful to those who
in the future may enter the profession. The
course will be found highly beneficial to stti


dents who want a special study in magazines
and newspapers as a means of general cul-
ture. The course is under the direction of
this Department, but the professors named
above have kindly and generously consented
to assist in certain phases of the work, which
occur more particularly in their respective

8. American History. Instruction is given
daily for two years in American History.
The course embraces Colonial History and
the Local Government of the Colonies, the
Constitutional and Political History of the
Union from 1789 to the present time, the for-
mation of the Constitution, and an analysis
of the text of the constitution itself.

9. Local Administration and Law. Three
conferences each week during the first term,
covering the Management of Public Affairs in
districts, townships, counties, cities, and
States. This course is intended to increase
the sense of the importance of home govern-
ment, as well as to give instruction in its
practical details.

10. Public Finance and Banking-. Two con-
ferences each week during the first term, on
iSTational, State, andMunieipal Financiering;
and on Theoretical and Practical Banking,
with the details of bank management.


11. English Constitutional History. Two

hours each week. A special study in the
principles and growth of the English Consti-
tution. This course may be taken as a con-
tinuation of number one. As it is a special
study of Constitutional History, students
ought to have some preparation for it.

12. Renaissance and Reformation. Lec-
tures two hours each week, with required
reading and investigation. This course may
be taken as a continuation of number two.
It includes the Revival of Learning through-
out Europe, with especial attention to the
Italian Renaissance; a careful inquiry into
the causes, course, and results of the Refor-
mation. The course embraces the best phases
of the intellectual development of Europe.

13. Advanced Political Economy. Three
hours each week, consisting of («) lectures on

Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 20 of 62)