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Jews were created by heaven for the ex-
press and sole purpose of serving as spies
on Russia. Austria imagines, therefore,
that among the reasons for the expulsion
of the Jews there is the desire on the part
of Russia to get rid of a population, a
portion of which has been betraying her
plans to a probable rival for the territories
of Turkey, the "sick man" of Europe.

It is perhaps true that Russia still holds
to the belief that "the road to Constan-
tinople leads through Vienna," but it will
hardly be accepted as probable that she
had any such thought in determining upon
the expulsion of the Jews.



The February number of the Magazine
of American History prints a minority
report of the electoral commission which
has never before been made public. It
was prepared by Judge Josiah G. Abbot,
of Massachusetts, but not issued as the
minority decided not to appeal from the
decision of the majority. It will be
remembered that the commission consisted
of five justices of the supreme court, five
senators and five members of the house of
representatives. The commission thus
constituted consisted of seven democrats
and eight republicans and nearly all ques-
tions were decided by a strict party vote.
Judge Abbott was one of the democratic
members from the house. His report is
not a judicial review of the findings of the



majority but a protest, not altogether calm
and temperate in language, addressed
"To the people of the United States."
It is fortunate the document was not
issued at the time of its preparation. It
might have prevented popular acceptance
of the decision of the commission, which
was surely the only peaceful solution of
the problem possible. As historical ma-
terial the document is important as show-
ing the line of action proposed, though
not adopted, by the defeated party.



In the January number of the Annals df
the American Academy, Leo. S. Rowe has
contributed an article on "Instruction in
French Universities." The writer calls
particular attention to the instruction given
in Public Law and Economics in the law
faculties, and informs us that it is only
within the last few years that Political
Economy has been thought worthy of a
place in the state institutions, although
French economists have always been
among the foremost writers on the subject.

Incidentally he gives some interesting
historical information with regard to the
condition of universities under the first
Napoleon. All faculties of learning were
then considered as organs of the govern-
ment, one of whose main objects was
to support the administration, as is illus-
trated by one of Napoleon's decrees, which
reads:

"All the schools of the Imperial Uni-
versity will take as the basis of their
instruction:

"ist. The precepts of the Catholic
religion.

"2d. Fidelity, to the Emperor, to the
Imperial Monarchy, depository of the
happiness of the people, and the Napoleonic
Dynasty, guardian of the unity of France
and of the liberal ideas proclaimed by the
constitution.

"3d. Obedience to the academic stat-
utes, whose object is to insure the uni-
formity of instruction, and which tend to
create citizens attached to their sovereign,
to their country, and to their family."

Perhaps there is nothing in this which
demands more than a spreading of .the



142



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



sentiment of loyalty or of patriotism, but
to the American the insistence upon the
idea of Napoleon and the Monarchy as
being the "depository of the happiness of
the people," seems curious indeed. To
the student of history it is only one more
point in evidence of that constant surveil-
lance which Napoleon kept upon all phases
of life and action. It is a credit to him
that he recognized the immense power of
learning. He wished to direct the chan-
jiels in which it should flow.

Perhaps the most famous evidence of the
will of Napoleon to control thought and
opinion is that so frequently given by the
newspapers as the worst example of what
censorship of the press used to be. In
1805 he told the editor of \}i\& Moniteur
that the only way to avoid supervision by
censors was " to avoid the publication of
any news unfavorable to the government
until the truth of it was so well established
that the publication became needless."



Recently the announcement has been
made that Prof. Richard T. Ely has re-
signed his professorship of Political Econ-
omy in Johns Hopkins University and
has accepted a position in the University
of Wisconsin at Madison. He is to be at
the head of a new school of political
science, and will be assisted by the able
teachers already at Madison, as well as by
some instructors to be brought with him
from Johns Hopkins.

According to a Baltimore letter the new
■school is to cover a greatly enlarged field.
Training and preparation will be given to
those who desire to enter the civil service.
Lawyers and journalists are to study the
economic bearing of practical every day
subjects; administrative and legislative
questions are to be examined in the state
legislature which meets at Madison. At
the same time the usual theoretical work
is not to be neglected; indeed under Prof.
Ely- it is certain that the union of the
theoretic and practical work will reach a
high grade of efficiency.

Dr. Ely, although still a young man,



has published numerous books and pam-
phlets upon economic subjects, and is
well known as a writer, both in this coun-
try and abroad. He is perhaps best
knov^n by his '' Labor Movement in Amer-
ica " and by his writings on taxation in
American states and cities.

It is evidently a fact that the movement
of the last year has been toward the trans-
fer of noted teachers from the east to the
west. Scholars are wondering who will
be asked to fill Dr. Ely's place at Johns
Hopkins.

During the month of February Volume

IX of Studies in Historical and Political
Science, published by Johns Hopkins Uni-
versity, was received at the library. It
contains monographs by W. W. Willoughby
and W. F. Willoughby, on "Government
and Administration of the United States;"
by D. C, Steiner on "University Educa-
tion in Maryland," with a sketch of Johns
Hopkins University by Pres. D. C. Gil-
man; by W. K. Williams on "The Com-
munes of Lombardy from the VI to the

X Century;" by Andrew Stephenson on
"Public Lands and Agrarian Laws of the
Roman Republic;" by Toyokiche lyenoga
on"Constitutional Development of Japan;"
by J. H. T. McPherson on "History of
Liberia;" and by F. J. Turner, on "The
Character and Influence of the Indian
Trade in Wisconsin." Perhaps the most
interesting of these for students of classes
in history for the present term are the
monographs on Roman Public Land, and
on the Communes of Lombardy. The
former will be found by the members of
the class in Land Tenures to contain all
and more than is given in the class-room
lectures upon the period of the Roman
Republic; while the latter cannot fail to
be of interest to the class in Rise of
Democracy as a part of the subject studied
under the Italian Republics.



One of the principal objects of college
training is to learn how to use books to
advantage. No student can be expected
to he familiar with all the details of his



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



143



subject, but he should know where infor-
mation upon any particular topic is to be
found and to be able to find it at a mo-
ment's notice. In the same way a lawyer
cannot know all the details of the law but
he must be able to find immediately the
provisions of the statutes or the decisions
of the courts touching any particular point.
It should therefore be the business of
every student of the university to master
the arrangement of the library and learn
to make the most of its resources. A few
words upon this subject, by way of sug-
gestion, may not be out of place.

The University library is classified upon
what is called, from the name of its author,
the Dewey system. All the books are
divided into nine general classes, as fol-
lows : general works, philosophy, reli-
gion, sociology, natural science, useful
arts, fine arts, literature and history.
P^ach of these general classes is subdivided
and each of the subdivisions further divid-
ed into classes. It is not necessary to
explain the system in detail as it can best
be mastered by reference to Dewey's
"Tables and Index of the Decimal Classi-
fication" and the librarian is ready to
assist any student who may desire infor-
mation.

The most important single aid in the
use of the library is the general card
catalogue. The object of this catalogue
is to show what the library has by a given
^author or on a given subject or, in case
the student is looking for a particular
book, to inform him whether it is to be
found in the library, if he knows either
the name of the author, the title of the
book or the subject of which it treats. In
order to secure this end, each book Is
catalogued upon at least three cards.
The author card gives first the name of
the author and under it the exact title of
the book, the number and size of volumes
and any other matter that may be neces-
sary for a complete description. Books
are entered in the same way under the
names of editors, compilers and trans-
lators, so that if these be remembered they



may be found as easily as by the name ;of
the author. The rules followed in the
entry of names, pseudonyms and the like
are those prescribed in C. A. Cutter's
"Rules for a Dictionary Catalogue," and
any question that may arise as to how a
name is entered may be answered by
referring to that book. Names preceded
by a prefix are entered under the prefix
if they are English, e. g. De Quincey and
Van Buren and if they are French and the
prefix is or contains an article, e. g. Le
Sag'^ and Du Camp. In French if the
prefix is a preposition and in the remain-
ing languages, whatever the prefix, entry is
made under the word following the prefix,
e. g. De Toqueville under Toqueville and
von Hoist under Hoist. Names beginning
with M', Mc, St., Ste. , are entered as if
spelled Mac, Saint and Sainte. After a
few such simple rules are learned there
can be no trouble in the use of the author
cards. The title cards make it easy to
find a book, if the title be known and the
author's name has been forgotten or the
book is anonymous. For these cards the
leading word of the title is taken as a
catch word. If there be two or more
words that may reasonably be taken as
leading words, a card is made out for each.
Then in addition there are the subject
cards. By means of them all the books
treating of a given subject are classed
together. As far as possible, the subject
cards are arranged under the names of
countries and persons. If for example,
the student desires to find what the library
contains on the subject of German litera-
ture, the student has only to look for
Germany, literature of, and for the names
of particular writers. All of these cards,
author, title and subject, are filed together
in their alphabetical order.

Unfortunately the general catalogue is
not yet complete. Work was only begun
upon it this year, when Miss Sutliff was
appointed cataloguer, but it is being pushed
as rapidly as possible to completion. So
far the books coming under the general
head of religion have been catalogued.



1.44



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



Under literature, German, English and
American works have been listed and
under natural science all works on botany
and zoology. Books on sociology are
now being listed and the catalogue under
this head will soon be complete. There
are several very useful supplementary
catalogues. One of these on general
history and sociology is divided into two
parts, a subject and an author catalogue.
A special catalogue of American history
gives extended and careful references
chronologically by periods, giving col-
onial history first, then the revolution and
confederation and the presidential admin-
istrations in their ordef. There are also
special catalogues on civil engineering,
chemistry and pharmacy, Avhich are useful
to students interested in those subjects.
References to articles in periodicals upon
all subjects may be found in Poole's "Index
to Periodical Literature" which comes
down to 1882, and references to articles
since that date may be found in the quar-
terly continuations of that work. Very
often information upon subjects may be
found here, when nowhere else. The first
step in learning how to use a library is to
master its system of classification and the
catalogues provided to facilitate its use.



It is a subject of congratulation that
the students of the University have recent-
ly organized among themselves a mock
senate for the discussion of public ques-
tions. Similar organizations exist in other
colleges and do good work. Cornell has
a congress organized upon the plan of the
house of representatives. Johns Hopkins
has a house of commons, and there are
very probably other clubs of this kind
elsewhere. Anything that evinces interest
in current public questions and promotes
their intelligent discussion is deserving of
all possible encouragement. It is a
truth that connot be too often repeated
that -no form of government depends so
much for its safety upon the virtue and
intelligence of its citizens as a republic.
The first object of education should be to



make good men and good citizens. You
can make the first without making the
second. A man may be well meaning and
honest but lack sufficient information to
enable him to form an intelligent and
independent opinion upon intricate public
questions. But you cannot make the
second without the first. We have plenty
of intelligent men who cannot be trusted,
and they do more harm than any other
class. President Low said not long ago
that, though it was a hard thing to say, it
was the simple truth that the most difficult
thing to get in city governi:^ent was com-
mon honesty. The requisites of a good
citizen, then, are honesty and intelligence,
and honesty here means not merely that
honesty that will not steal but that other
kind which gives a man the courage of his
opinions, whatever they are and whatever
may be the consequences.

There are plenty of public questions that
the mock senate may discuss, such as the
currency, the tariff, the civil service, pro-
hibition and license, the relations of labor
and capital, public railroads and tele-
graphs, and all of them are difficult prob-
lems calling for careful thought and study.
Common sense is good as far as it goes
but it alone will not solve them. They
call for a knowledge of history, sociology
and law. And right here a suggestion
may not be out of place. If the students
who take part in this senate divide them-
selves according to preconceived ideas
into parties and take the stand upon each
question that their respective parties are
supposed to require they will lose the
greater part of the good to be derived
from the discussion. Their object will be
to win the debate and not to discover the
truth, and each one will end by convincing
himself of the strength of the position he
decides in advance to take. Under these
circumstances the senate may give its
members readiness in debate and practice
in parliamentary law but it will fail in what
ought to be its prime object, which is a
careful and unprejudiced study of public
questions. Let each question be taken
independently and upon its merits. Pre-
paration for the discussion will be neces-
sary to make it profitable but prepared
speeches will be out of place.



SEMINARY NOTES.



145



COURSES OF STUDY



IN



HISTORY AND SOCIOLOGY.

FOR 1891-2.



F. W. BLACKMAR, Ph. D.
F. H. HODDER, A. M.
E. D. ADAMS, Ph. D.

Instruction in this department is given by
means of lectures, recitations, reports, dis-
cussions, and personal direction in study and
research. As the library is an indispensable
aid in the pursuit of the following courses,
students are expected to become acquainted
with the best methods of collecting and
classifying material-^ and of writing and pre-
senting papers on special topics. All lectures
are supplemented by required reading and
class exercises.

Facts are essential to all historic study; yet
the aim is to take the student beyond the
mere details of events — to inquire into the
origin and development of society and the
philosophy of institutions. While the study
of the past is carried on with interest and
thoroughness, the most important part of
history — that which lies about us — is kept
constantly in view. The history of other
nations, other political systems and other
forms of administration, are studied, that we
may better understand our own. To under-
stand present social and political institutions,
and to give an intelligent solution of present
problems, is the chief aim of instruction in
historical science.

THE WORK OF TPIE DEPARTMENT

Now embraces European History, American
History and Civil Government, the History
of Institutions, Sociology, and Political Econ-
omy. The work in American History will be
continued with enthusiasm and thorough-
ness. Classes having begun this work will
continue without a break. The importance
of this work needs no comment. The prepa-
ration for good citizenship demands, among
other things, a thorough knowledge of the
growth of nationality, and the history of our
industrial, social and political development.
These, with financial experiments and nation-
al diplomacy, receive marked attention. The
text of the Constitution and Constitutional
Law occupy a prominent place in the study
of this branch.



OUTLINE OF COURSES.

FIRST TERM.

1. English History. Daily. Descriptive
history. A careful study of the English peo-
ple, including race elements, social and polit-
ical institutions, and national growth.

2. The History of Civilization. Lectures
daily, embracing ancient society, and the in-
tellectual development of Europe to the
twelfth century. Special attention is given
to the influence of Greek philosophy, the
Christian church, the relation of learning to
liberal government, and to the rise of modern
nationalities.

3. Political Economy. Daily. The funda-
mental principles are discussed and elabo-
rated by descriptive and historical methods.
All principles and theories are illustrated by
examples from present economic society. A
brief history of Political Economy may be
given at the close of the course.

4r. French and German History. Daily.

Descriptive history; including race elements,
social and political institutions, and national
growth. Especial attention given to French
politics.

5. Historical Method and Criticism. One

hour each week. Examination and classifi-
cation of sources and authorities; analysis of
the works of the best historians; collection
and use of materials, and notes and biblio-
graphy.

6. Statistics. Two hours each week. Sup-
plementary to all studies in economics and
sociology. The method of using statistics is
taught by actual investigation of political
and social problems. The history and theory
of statistics receives due attention.

7. Joiu'nalisuu Lectures three hours each
week. Laboratory and library work. Legal
and Historical.— Ten. lectures by Prof. E. D.
Adams. £Jngli.sh.—Twentj-five lectures by
Profs. Dunlap and Hopkins. Newspaper
Btij-eau, Magazines, and Sj^ecial Phases of
Journalism.— Vxof. Adams.

The course was prepared especially for
those students who expect to enter journal-
ism as a profession. Although the instruc-
tors have no desire to create a special School
of -Journalism for the purpose of turning out
fully-equipped journalists, they believe that
this course will be very helpful to those who
in the future may enter the profession. The
course will be found highly beneficial to stu-



146



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



dents who want a special study in magazines
and newspapers as a means of general cul-
ture. The course is under the direction of
this Department, but the professors named
above have kindly and generously consented
to assist in certain phases of the work, which
occur more particularly in their respective
departments.

8. American History. Instruction is given
daily for two years in American History.
The course embraces Colonial History and
the Local Government of the Colonies, the
Constitutional and Political History of the
Union from 1789 to the present time, the for-
mation of the Constitution, and an analysis
of the text of the constitution itself.

9. Local Administration and Law. Three
conferences each week during the first term,
covering the Management of Public Affairs in
districts, townships, counties, cities, and
States. This course is intended to increase
the sense of the importance of home govern-
ment, as well as to give instruction in its
practical details.

10. Public Finance and Banking. Two con-
ferences each week during the first term, on
National, State, andMunicipal Financiering;
and on Theoretical and Practical Banking,
with the details of bank management.

SECOND TERM.

11. English Constitutional History. Two

hours each week. A special study in the
principles and growth of the English Consti-
tution. This course may be taken as a con-
tinuation of number one. As it is a special
study of Constitutional History, students
ought to have some preparation for it.

12. Renaissance and Reformation. Lec-
tures two hours each week, with required
reading and investigation. This course may
be taken as a continuation of number two.
It includes the Ptevival of Learning through-
out Europe, with especial attention to the
Italian Kenaissance; a careful inquiry into
the causes, course, and results of the Eefor-
mation. The course embraces the best phases
of the intellectual development of Europe.

13. Advanced Political Economy. Three
hours each week, consisting of («) lectures on
Applied Economics, (6) Practical Observation
and Investigation, and (c) Methods of Re •
search, with papers by the stu^dents on
special topics. This is a continuation of
number three.

14. Institutional History. Lectures three
hours each week on Comparative Politics and
Administration. Greek, Roman and Ger-



manic institutions are compared. The his-
torical significance of Roman law is traced in
mediseval institutions. A short study in
Prussian Administration is given at the close
of the course.

15, The Rise of Democracy. Lectures two
hours each week on the Rise of Popular
Power, and the Growth of Political Liberty in
Europe. A comparison of ancient and
modern democracy, a study of Switzerland,
the Italian Republics, the Dutch Republic,
and the French Revolution, constitute the
principal part of the work, Students will
read May's Democracy in Europe.

16, Elements of Sociology. Lectures three
hours each week on the Evolution of Social
Institutions from the Primitive Unit, the
Family; including a discussion of the laws
and conditions which tend to organize
society. The later part of the course is de-
voted to modern social problems and social-
istic Utopias.

17, Charities and Corrections. Two hours
each week. Various methods of treatment
of the poor. Scientific charity. Treatment
of the helpless. Prison reform. State refor-
matories. This course is supplementary to
number sixteen. Special efforts will be made
towards a practical study of Kansas institu-
tions.

18, Land and Land Tenures. Lectures two
hours each week. This course treats of
Primitive Property, the Village Community,
Feudal Tenures of France and England, and
Modern Land-holding in Great Britain and
Ireland and the United States. Reports are
made on other countries, and on recent
agrarian theories and legislation This is an
excellent preparation for the study of the
Law of Real Property,

19, The Political History of Modern Europe,

Two hours each week, including the Napo-
leonic wars, German Federation, the Rise of
Prussia, the Unification of Italy, the Revolu-
tion of 1848, the Third Republic, the Russian
problem, etc.

20, Constitutional Law. Three conferences
each week during the second term, on the
Constitution of the United States; with brief
sketches of the institutions and events that
preceded its adoption, and with special atten-
tion to the sources and methods of its inter-
pretation.

21, International Law and Diplomacy,

Class work twice each week during the second
term; using Davis on the Rise and Growth of



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



147



International Law, and Schuylei" on the
History of American Diplomacy.

22. The Status of Woman in the United



Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 24 of 62)