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paddle your own canoe ; especially to
paddle it up stream. The easiest thing to



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



177



do is to agree with those around you and
thereby win their friendship and applause.
But without flinching think your own
thoughts and work out your own salva-
tion. Nothing in this world that is worth
the having comes without a struggle.
Change your position when you must
or ought; put yourself in larger circles;
even if you must turn your back on all
that you have held dear. Not that he
is the brightest and quickest who is
always at variance with some one. But



you should humbly and thoughtfully and
painfully if needs be go about your own
work in your own way. Be thankful for
a day and age in which the individual is
appreciated, in which all your faculties
and powers can have full sway, in which
you can think and live and speak for
yourself, and in which you are all the
more sure of a great and lasting reward.

This is the thought I hold with firm persistanee:
The last result of wisdom stamps it true;

He only earns^his freedoin:and existence
Who daily conquers them^^a'iiew.



REFERENCES ON MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED

STATES.



sHPHE municipal reports of American
'^l cities form the original material for
a study of their government. As there is
no comprehensive work relating to the
subject of our municipal institutions, it
has been thought that a list of such liter-
ature as exists in the form of articles in
periodicals and occasional lectures and
addresses might be useful. A part of this
list was printed in the Literary Bulletin of
Cornell University for January, i883. So
much has been written upon the subject
since then that the list is here reprinted
with additions bringing it down to date.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT GENERALLY.

An outline sketch of local administra-
tion should precede the special study of
city government.

Short accounts of the systems of local
government of the principal countries of
continental Europe are given in the Cobden
Club Essays: Local Government and Tax-
ation (London, 1875), edited by J- W.
Probyn. See also F. Bechard's De Lad-
ministration de la France (2 v. Paris,
185 i), with appendix on municipal organ-
ization in Europe.

The best short description of English
local government is M. D. Chalmers's Local
Government ("English Citizen" Series,
London, 1883). See also Local Admin-



istration ("Imperial Parliament" Se-
ries, London, 1887) by Wm. Rathbone,
Albert Pell and F. C. Montague. For
still shorter account read chapter 15 of
May's Constitutional History and article
on " Local Government in England" by
F. j. Goodnow in the Political Science
Quarterly (Dec, 1887) vol. 2, pp. 338-65,
and an article by the same writer on
"The Local Government Bill" in the
Political Science Quarterly (June, 1888),
vol. 3, pp. 311-333- Supplement Chalmers
with Cobden Club Essays: Local Govern-
ment and Taxation in the United Kingdom
(London, 1882), edited by J. W. Probyn.
The most exhaustive work on English
local offices is Rudolph Gneist's Self Gov-
ermnent: Comntunalverfassiing u. Verwal-
tungsgerichte in England (untranslated,
3ded., 1876). For quite full bibliography
see Gomme's Literature of Local Institu-
tions (London, 1886).

The best short outline of local govern-
ment in the United States is an article by
S. A. Galpin on "Minor Political Divis-
ions of the United States," in Gen. F. A.
Walker's Statistical Atlas of the United
States. The papers on the local institu-
tions of several of the States in the Johns
Hopkins University Studies in Historical
and Political Science are especially valu-



178



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



able. Chas. M. Andrews has articles on
Connecticut towns in the Johns Hopkins
Studies, vol. 7, and in the Annals of the
American Academy of Political Science
(Oct., 1890), vol. I, pp. 165-91. Espe-
cially important is Prof. Geo. E. Howard's
Local Constitutional History of the United
States, vol. i.: "The Development of
the Township, Hundred and Shire,"
printed as an extra volume in this series.
John Fiske's lecture on "The Town Meet-
ing," delivered at the Royal Institution,
was printed in Harper's Magazine, vol. 70,
pp. 265-272, and in his American Political
Ideas (N. Y. 1885). A different view of
the present importance of local institu-
tions is taken by Prof. S. N. Patten in an
article on the "Decay of State and Local
Governments," in the first number of the
Annals of the American Academy of Polit-
ical Science. For comparison of Ameri-
can and foreign methods, read R. P.
Porter's article " Local Government: at
Home and Abroad," Princeton Review
(July, 1879, N. s. vol. 4, p. 172), and re-
printed separately. See two articles on
"Local Government in Prussia," by F. J.
Goodnow in the Political Science Quar-
terly, vol. 4, pp. 648-66, and vol. 5, pp.
124-58 (Dec, 1889, and March, 1890).
For further reference on local self-gov-
ernment see W. F. Foster's Monthly
Reference Lists, vol. 2, pp. 23-29, and his
pamphlet of References on Political and
Economic Topics, p. 24.

For Canada, see J. G. Bourinot's "Lo-
cal Government in Canada: an historical
study," in Transactions of the Royal Soci-
ety of Canada for 1886, vol. 4, sec 2, pp.
42-70. Printed separately by the pub-
lishers, and reprinted, with a letter on the
municipal system of Ontario, in the 5th
series of the Johns Hopkins Studies. A
paper on "The Ontario Township," by J.
M. McEvoy, printed in 1889, forms No.
I of the Toronto University Studies in
Political Science.

EUROPEAN CITIES.

For the purpose of comparison, some
study should., be made of municipal gov-



ernment abroad. Dr. Albert Shaw gives
a general view of "Municipal Govern-
rnet in Great Britain," in Notes Supple-
mentary to the Johns Hopkins Studies, No.
I (Jan., 1889) and in the Political Quar-
terly, vol. 4, pp. 197-229 (June, 1886).
Of larger works on English municipal
history, mention may be made of J. R. S.
Vine's "English Municipal Institutions;
their Growth and Development from 1835
to 1879," London, 1879. Dr. Chas. Gross
has printed a very complete "Classified
List of Books relating to British Munici-
pal History," Cambridge, 1891, as No.
43 of Bibliographical Contributions of
Harvard University. Foreign experience
is of very little assistance in the solution
of the general problem of municipal gov-
ernment in the United States, but it may
be useful in indicating improved methods
of administration in particular depart-
ments of a city government. Several
cities that illustrate different forms of mu-
nicipal government may be^ taken as
examples.

LONDON.

Specially excepted from the operation of
the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835.
For outline of government read Chalmers,
chap. 10, For full description see J. F.
B. Firth's Municipal London (1876) and
his Reform of London Government and
of City Guilds ("Imperial Parliament"
Series, London, 1888). For history of
the corporation consult W. J. Loftie's
History of London (2d ed., 1884), and the
same author's small work, London, pub-
lished in 1887 in Freeman's series on
"English Historic Towns. " Both books
are based on new material, part of it
recently discovered by Bishop Stubbs.
For additional references, see Gomme,
pp. 122-134.

There have been a great many articles
on the municipal government of London
in recent periodical literature. Among
them may be cited those by W. Newall,
Contemporary Review, vol. 12, p. 73
(1873), and vol 25, p. 437 (1875); W. M,
Torrens, Nineteenth Century (iSSoj, vol



SEMINA RY NO TES.



179



8, p. 766; Alderman Cotton, Benj. Scott,
City Chamberlain, and Sir Arthur Hob-
house in Contemporary Review, vol. 41
(1882), pp. 72, 308, and 404 respectively;
the Westminster Review, for January,
1887; Dr. Albert Shaw on," How London
is governed" in the Century (Nov., 1890),
vol. 41, pp. 132-47, and on "Municipal
Problems of New York and London " in
the Review of Reviews (April, 1892), vol.
5, p. 282; James Monro on "The Lon-
don Police " in the North American Re-
view (Nov., 1890),. vol. 151, pp. 615-29,
and Sir John Lubbock on "The Govern-
ment of London " in the Fortnightly Re-
view (Feb., 1892), vol. 51, p. 159. For
a good review of the attempts since i860
to regulate the London gas supply, see an
article in the British Quarterly for Jan-
uary, 1879.

A Royal Commission on the City Livery
Company reported May 28th, 1884. See
the discussion by Sir R. A. Cross one of
the dissenting members of the Commission,
in the Nineteenth Century for 1884, vol.
16, p. 47, and by Sir Arthur Hobhouse in
Contemporary Review for 1885, vol. 47,
p. I. The most important work on the
London guilds is William Herbert's " His-
tory of the Twelve Great Companies of
London" (London, 1837). The latest
contribution to the subject is Price's
"Description of the Guildhall" (London,
1887).

BERLIN.

An excellent short account of the gov-
ernment of Berlin is given by Dr. Rudolph
Gneist, a member of the municipal coun-
cil since 1848, in the Contemporary Re-
view, vol. 46, p. 769, December, 1884.
See also the report on the "Administra-
tion of the City of Berlin" in Foreign
Relations for 1881, p. 487, made by As-
sistant-Secretary of Legation Coleman at
the request of Hon. Andrew D. White,
then Minister to Germany. Also the
articles by Prof. R. T. Ely in the Nation
for March 23 and 30, 1882, vol. 34, pp.
145 and 267. The same writer printed
an article on street cleaning in Berlin in



the Evening Post for April 6, 188 1.
Reference may be made to a lecture by
E. Eberty entitled Die A nf gab en der Ber-
liner Commttualverwaltung und die Erhcz-
hung der stadtischen Sieuern (Berlin,
1878). The Magistracy publish reports
at irregular intervals. The first, Bericht
ueber die Verwaltung der Stadt Berlin, in
den Jahren i82g bis incl. /8^o (Berlin,
1842), and the second, in den. Jahren 1841
bis incl. 1850 (Berlin, 1853), are of consid-
erable importance. A third, published in
1863, covers the. peried from 1851 to i860,
and a fourth, printed in 1882, covers the
period from 1861 to 1876. The Director
of the Statistical Bureau of the city pub-
lishes annually Das Statistische Jahrbuch
der Stadt Berlin.

The present municipal system of Prussia
dates from the reorganization of the mu-
nicipalities by Stein and Hardenberg,
Nov. 19, 1808. See Seeley's Lifeof Stein,
part 5, chap. 3, and Meier's Reforrn der
Vcrivaltung-0rganizatio7i unter Stein und
Hardenberg (Leipsig, 1881) The present
"Municipal Corporation Act" {Stcedte-
ordmmg) was passed May 30, 1853. See
Kotze, Die Preussischen Stcedte Verfas-
sitngen (Berlin, 1879); and Backoffner,
Die Stcedteordnungen der Preussischen
Monarchic (Berlin, 1S80). See also the
articles on local government in Prussia
above cited.

PARIS.

A sketch of the government by Yves
Guyot, a member of the municipal council,
may be found in the Contemporary Re-
view (March, 1883), vol. 43, p. 439-
Dr. Shaw gives an excellent short account
in an article entitled "The Typical Mod-
ern City," in the Century (July, 1891),
vol. 42, pp. 449-66. He cites as the
principal authority on the subject Maxime
Du Camp's Paris, ses organes, scs functions,
ct sa vie dans la seconde moitie du dix-
neuvienie siccle. iVn extended description
is also given in a wgrk entitled Adminis-
tration, dc la Ville de Paris, written by
Henri De Pontich under the direction of
Maurice Block (Paris, Guillaumin, 1884).



SEMINAR V NO TES.



The Rapports et Documents and Procees-
Verbaux of the municipal council are
printed yearly in three large quarto vol-
umes, and the municipal bureau of statis-
tics issues an annual report.

OTHER FOREIGN CITIES.

Statistics of all important German cities
are given in Dr. M. Neefe's Statistisches
Jahrbuch Deutscher Stcedte, Erster Jahr-
gang, Breslau, i 890. Financial statistics
of the great European cities are given in
Joseph Koeroesi's BuUetm Atifiual der
Einance des Grandes Vil'les, Dixieme
Annee, Budapest, 1890.

A short account of the municipal gov-
ernmeLt of Vienna is given in a report by
Mr. Kasson in Foreign Relationsfor 1879,
p. 64, and an extended account in Dr.
Felder's Die Gejttemde- Verwaltutig der
Reichs-haupt und Residenzstadt Wien (Vi-
enna, 1872). Prof. F. G. Peabody gives
a sketch of Dresden in an article entitled
"A Case of Good City Government,"
in the Forum (April, 1892), vol. 13, p. 53.

The following relate to various British
cities: Dr. Shaw's "Glasgow, a municipal
study," in the Century (March, 1890),
vol. 39, pp. 721-36; the same writer's,
"Municipal Lodging Houses," in No. i
of the Charities Review (Nov., 1891);
Julian Ralph's "The Best Governed City
in the World" (Birmingham) in Harper's
Magazine, vol. 81, pp. 99-1 11 (1890), and
Thos. H. Sherman's report on "Liverpool,
its Pavements, Tramways, Sewers and
Artisans's Dwellings," in Consular Re-
ports (June, 1890), vol. 33, pp. 284-303.

AMERICAN CITIES,
LEGAL STATUS.

The comparison of the provisions of
the state constitutions relating to munici-
pal corporations see F. J. Stimson's Amer-
ican Statute Law (Boston, 1886), vol. i,
articles 34, 37 and 50. Note the classifi-
cation of municipalities in Ohio. On the
the relation of municipalities to the states
consult the chapter on "The Grades of
Municipal Government " in Judge T. M.
Cooley's Constitutional Limitations (6th
ed., Boston, 1890) and a short chapter at



the close of the same author's Principles
of Constitutional Law. Judge J. F. Dil-
lon's Treatise on the Law of Municipal
Corporations (4th ed., 2 vols., Boston,
1890} is the standard authority on the
subject. Note the introductory historical
sketch. A new text-book on the Law of
Municipal Corporations by Chas. F.
Beach, Jr., is announced as "in press " by
Houghton, Mififlin & Co. Reference may
may also be made to Judge Dillon's
Law of Municipal Bonds (Chicago. 1877)
and to A Treatise on Municipal Police
Ordinances (Chicago, 1887) by N. T.
Horr and A. A. Bemis, of the Cleveland
bar. The authors of the last work say in
their preface that "The necessity for it
arises from the fact that, except in those
cities and towns where the municipal
council has the assistance of regularly
employed legal advisers, the limits of
lawful legislation are apt to be exceeded."
Numerous references to articles in law
journals are given on pp. 386-388 of
Jones's Index to Legal Periodical Litera-
ture (Boston, 1888). An article by J. R.
Berryman on " Constitutional Restrictions
upon Legislation about Municipal Corpo-
rations," in the American Law Review
(May-June, 1888), vol. 22, p. 403.

STATISTICS.

The following Reports of the Tenth
Census treat of this subject : vol. i, Pop-
ulation; vol. 7, Valuation, Taxation and
Indebtedness; vol. 18, Social Statistics of
Cities: New England and Middle States
(reviewed in the Nation, vol. 44. p. 256);
vol. 19, Social Statistics of Cities: South-
ern and Western States. •
, Scribner's Statistical Atlas of the United
States (N. Y., 1883), exhibits the figures
of the census graphically (p. xlv, statistics
of pop.ulation). Plate 21 illustrates the
growth of American cities since 1790.
There were then only eight cities of eight
thousand inhabitants, and the population
of New York was 33,131. Plate 30 gives
ratios of different nationalities to total
population in the fifty largest cities.



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



Plate 76 gives net per capita debt in the
one hundred largest cities.

The nth census will give very full sta-
tistics of cities, but though some of the
results have been announced in bulletins,
none of the final reports have yet been
issued. These results have been summa-
rized by Hon. Carroll D. Wright in the
Popular Science Monthly for 1892, vol.
40. On "Urban Population" see p. 459;
on "Social Statistics of Cities" p. 607,
and on "Rapid Transit" p. 785.

On movement of population see an
article by B. G. Magie, Jr., in Scribner's
Monthly (Jan., 1878), vol. 15, p. 418 ;
Prof. Richmond Smith's "Statistics and
Economics," p. 264 in vol. 3 of the Publi-
cations of the American Economic Asso-
.ciation, and a study on the "Rise of
American Cities " by Dr. A. B. Hart in
the Quarterly Journal of Economics (Jan.,
1890), vol. 4, pp. 129-157. Cf. work by
E. Levasseur, entitled Les Populations
Urbaines en Erance, coniparees a celles de
VEtr anger (Paris, 1887).

The Annual Statistician, published by L.
P. McCarty, San Francisco, gives the fol-
lowing statistics for leading cities : num-
ber of votes registered and polled; number
of voting precincts ; strength of police;
losses by fire and number of fire-engines
and firemen; value and capacity of gas
and water works; number and character
of street lights; vital statistics; number of
murders, suicides, and executions; length
of a.treet railroads and cost of motive
power; telegraph and telephone mileage ;
number of saloons and cost of licenses;
attendance and cost of schools ; annual
tax-rate, expenditure and the public debt.
Wm. W. Goodwin's Directory of the
Gas Light Companies (N. Y., A. M. Cal-
lendar & Co.) and the same writer's paper
on "Statistics regarding the Gas Compa-
nies of America," read at the Fourteenth
Annual Meeting of the American Gas
Light Association, held in Philadelphia in
October, 1886, printed in the American
Gas Light Journal for December 16, 1886,
and reprinted separately, gives the num-



ber of gas companies, number of public
lamps, price of gas, method of manufac-
ture, &c.

The Manual of American Water Works,
by M, M. Baker, has succeeded the Sta-
tistical Tables of American Water Works,
by J. J. R. Croes, both published by the
Engineering News Co,, New York. These
annuals give for each city the ownership
and date when water works were built; the
source and mode of supply; cost, debt,
and rate of interest; annual expense and
revenue from consumers and the public;
the number of miles of pipe and kind of
pipe for mains and services; the number
of taps, meters, and hydrants; the ordi-
nary and fire pressure and daily consump-
tion. The first works in the United States
for public supply were built at Bethlehem,
Pa., in 1754. New York was first sup-
plied in 1799, and Philadelphia in 1801.
Water in both cities was pumped by steam
engines and distributed through bored
wooden logs.

FINANCE.

Vol. 7 of the Reports of the Tenth
Census, compiled by Robert P. Porter,
gives statistics of local taxation and in-
debtedness, and a summary of the pro-
visions of the several state constitutions
limiting the rate of taxation, the amount
of municipal debts, and the purpose for
which they may be contracted. See p.
674 for an analysis of the purposes for
which the debt outstanding in 1880 was
contracted. The eleventh census will give
similar data. Mr. Porter published an
article on municipal debts in the N. Y.
Banker's Magazine for September, 1876,
and another in Lalor's Cyclopaedia of
Political Science, vol. i, p. 730. Cf. also
his article in the Princeton Review, n. s.,
vol. 4, p. 172. For a further study of
this subject, read Prof. H. C. Adams's
Public Debts (N. Y., 1887), Parts, chap.
3. See also G. W. Green's article on
" Municipal Bonds " (Lalor's Cyclopaedia,
vol. 2, p. 920); Prof. S. N. Patten's
' ' Finanztvesen dcr Staatcn und Stcedte dcr
NordanieriJzatiischen Union (Jena., 1878);



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



C. Hale's "Debts of Cities" (Atlantic,
vol. 38, p. 661) for the law of Massachu-
setts; D. L. Harris's "Municipal Econ-
omy " (Journal of Social Science, vol. 9,
p. 149) for the experience of Springfield,
Mass., and articles in Bradstreet's for
February 10 and March 3, 1883, for a
comparison with local debts in England,
and H. B. Gardner's "Statistics of Mu-
nicipal Finance " in the Publications of the
American Statistical Association (June,
1889), vol. I, pp. 254-67. On the debt
of New York City see the paper by Wm.
M. Ivins cited below. A Statement of
Facts Concerning the Financial Affairs of
the City of Elizabeth, N. J., which has
the largest per capita debt in the United
States, was published by some of the citi-
zens of that place in January, 1886.

Municipal taxation is treated at length
in Prof. R. T. Ely's Taxation in American
States and Cities (New York, 1888). The
Reports of the Commissioners Appointed
to Revise the Laws for the Assessment
and Collection of Taxes in New York
(1871 and 1872) contains much valuable
material. The members of the Commis-
sion were David A. Wells, Edwin Dodge,
and George W. Cuyler. The first report
was reprinted in New York by Harpers,
and were both reprinted in England by the
Cobden Club. Cf. also Wells's "Theory
and Practice of Local Taxation in Amer-
ica," in the Atlantic Monthly for January,
1874; "Rational Principles of Taxation,"
a paper read in New York, May 20, 1874,
(Journal of Social Science, vol. 6, p. 120);
and his "Reform of Local Taxation" in
the North American Review for April,
1876. On the evils of double taxation
■see a paper on "Local Taxation" by
William Minot, Jr., read in Saratoga,
September, 5, 1877, and printed in the
Journal of Social Science, vol. 9, p. 67.
See Report in 1876 of New Hampshire
Tax Commission, composed of Geo. Y.
Sawyer, H. R. Roberts, and Jonas Liv-
ingstone; and Report of the Michigan
Commission (House Journal, February 23,
1882). A similar Commission, appointed



by the City of Baltimore, reported in Jan-
uary, 1886. The Report contains, in
addition to the recommendations of the
Commission, a paper by Prof. R. T. Ely,
entitled "Suggestions for an improved
system of Taxation in Baltimore." A
further article on "Municipal Finance"
maybe found in Scribner's Magazine (Jan-
uary, 1888), vol. 3. pp. 33-40.

GENERAL DISCUSSIONS.

The Report of the Commission to de-
vise a Plan for the Government of Cities
in the State of New York (Assembly Doc.
vol. 6, No. 68, 1877) is very important.
The Commission was appointed by Gov-
ernor Tilden, with Wm. M. Evarts as
chairman. The constitutional amendment
proposed by the Commission was discussed
by E. L. Godkin in the Nation, vol 26,.
p. 108. See also the Report of the Com-
mission to devise a Plan for the Govern-
ment of Cities of the State of Pennsyl-
vania (Harrisburg, 1878), and Governor
Hartranft's message of January 4, 1876,
advising the appointment of the Commis-
sion.

The following papers have been printed
in the Johns Hopkins University Studies
in History and Political Science: "The
City of Washington," by J. A. Porter, in
vol 3; "The Town and City Government
of New Haven," by Charles H. Lever-
more, in vol. 4; " City Government of
Philadelphia," by Edward P. Allinson and
Boies Penrose; "City Government of
Boston," by James M. Bugbee; and "City
Government of St. Louis," by Marshall
S. Snow, in vol. 5; the "Municipal Gov-
ernment of San Francisco," by Bernard
Moses, and the "Municipal Government of
New Orleans," in vol. 7. Extra volume
I, of these Studies is The Republic of
New Haven : A History of Municipal
Evolution (Baltimore, 1886), by Charles
H. Levermore. The paper on New Haven
first mentioned is a reprint of chapter 8
and 9 of this work. Extra volume 2 is
entitled Philadelphia, 1681-1887. A Study
of Municipal Development (Phila., 1887),
by Edward P. Allinson and Boies Penrose.



SEMINARY NOTES.



183



The study of Philadelphia before cited is
a preliminary sketch of the larger volume.
Vol. 2 of Prof. Geo. E. Howard's Local
Constitutional History of the United
States, to be printed in this series, will
treat of the " Development of the City
and Local Magistracies."

A number of articles relating to city
government have appeared in the Forum :
''The New York Aldermen," by E. S.
Nadal (Sept., 1886); "Our Political
Methods" relating to New York, by David
Dudley Field (Nov., 1886); "Waste by
Fire, "by Clifford Thompson (Sept., 1886);
" English and American Fire Services,"
by H. D. Purroy (Nov., 1886); "A Letter
to the People of New York," by Howard
Crosby (Dec, 1886); "A Letter to the
People of Philadelphia," by Henry C. Lea
(Jan., 1887); "Overgrown City Govern-
ment," by James Parton (Feb., 1887);
"Remedies for Municipal Misgovern-
ment," by Amos K. Fiske (April, 1887);
"The Congestion of Cities," by E.
E. Hale (Jan., 1888); ." Obstacles to
Good City Government," by Pres. Seth
Low (May, 1888), vol. 5, p. 260; "The
Government of American Cities," by An-
drew D. White (Dec, 1890), vol. 7, pp.
3S7"72; "One Remedy for Municipal
Government," by Pres. C. W. Eliot (Oct.,
1891), vol. 12, pp. 153-168, and "A Case
of Good City Government " (Dresden),
vol. 13, p. 53 (April, 1892).



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