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Prof. James Bryce's well known work
on The American Commonwealth (Lon.
and N. Y. , 1888) contains the following
chapters on municipal government : chap-
ters 5.0 and 51, "The Government of
Cities;" chap. 52, "An American View of
Municipal Government in the United
States," by Pres. Seth Low; chap. 59-64
explain the working of party machinery ;
chap. 88, "The Tweed Ring in New York
City," by F. J. Goodnow, and chap. 89,
"The Philadelphia Gas Ring."

"Solid for Mulhooly," by Rufus E. Shap-
ley, called out by the rule of the gas ring
in Philadelphia, printed anonymously in
188 1, and reprinted in vol. i of Spofford

and Shapley's Library of Wit and Humor
(Phila., 1884) is an excellent satire on
machine methods in city politics.

Simon Sterne has an article on the
"Administration of American Cities" in
Lalor's Cyclopaedia of Political Science,
vol. I, p. 460, and another with the same
title in the International Review, vol. 4,
p. 361. See also his Suffrage in Cities
(No. 7, Putnam's "Economic Mono-
graphs," o. p.) and his Constitutional
History of the United States (N. Y.,
1882), pp. 257 and 266-274. Mr. Sterne
was a member of the New York Commis-
sion. For other short accounts of muni-
cipal government see John Fiske's Civil
Government in the United States, chap.
5, and W. C. Ford's American Citizen's
Manual, Part i, pp. 66-83.

Hon. Seth Low, formerly Mayor of
Brooklyn and now President of Columbia
University, has printed a speech on
"Municipal Home Rule," delivered in
Brooklyn, October 6, 1882; an address
on "Municipal Government," delivered
irj Rochester, N. Y., February 19, 1885
(printed by the Municipal Reform League
of Rochester); an address on "The
Problem of Municipal Government," de-
livered before the Historical and Political
Association of Cornell University, March
16, 1887 (printed by the University);
"The Problem of City Government," re-
printed from the Civil Service Reformer
for April, 1889, as No. 4 of the Notes
Supplementary to Johns Hopkins Univer-
sity Studies; "The Government of Cities
in the United States," in the Century
(Sept., 1891), vol. 42, pp. 730-36, and
other papers cited above.

Wm. M. Ivins, Ex-Chamberlain of New
York City, published an article on "Mu-
nicipal Finance" in Harper's Magazine
(Oct., 1884), vol. 69, pp. 779-87, and a
pamphlet on The Municipal Debt and
Sinking- Fund of the City of New York,
containing an argument on hearing before
the Governor, June 2, 1885, and an his-
torical review of the funded debt and of
the operations of the sinking-fund since


their foundation. In an article on ''Mu-
nicipal Government," Political Science
Quarterly (June, 1887), he shows that the
changes in municipal organization have
been incident to the extension of the general
functions of government and gives an analy-
sis of the system of government in New York
City. His Machine Politics and Money
in Elections in New York City (Harper's
"Handy Series," N. Y., 1887) describes
the working of the election laws, and ad-
vocates the adoption of the essential
features of the English system. For the
English law in full, see Leiy and Foulkes's
Parliamentary Election Acts (London,

Prize Essays on Municipal Reform, writ-
ten for the Cambridge Civil Service
Reform Association (Cambridge, 1884),
contain "The Selection of Municipal
Officers: their Terms and Tenures," by
T. H. Pease, of Chicago, 111.; "The Ap-
pointment of Municipal Officers," by John
Prentiss, of Keene, N. H. ; and "The
Selection and Tenure of Office of Mu-
nicipal Officers," by Prof. H. T. Terry,
of the University of Tokio, Japan.

Reference may be made to Franklin
Ford's Delusive Methods of Municipal
Financiering, a paper read before the
Municipal Society of New York in the
spring of 1879, and a pamphlet on The
New York City Charter (N. Y., 1882),
comprising a number of articles that had
appeared in Bradstreet's Journal. Mr,
Ford's papers on municipal government,
read before the Social Science Associa-
tion of Philadelphia and the American
Association at Saratoga, have neverbeen

The revision in 1881 of the city charter
of Newton, Mass., started a discussion of
municipal methods. A majority of the
Commission reported one plan, and a
minority another. Francis J. Parker, one
of the minority, published A Study of
Municipal Government in Massachusetts
(Boston, 1881), and the discussion of the
subject was continued by Mr. Parker and

Prof. W. F. Allen in the Nation, Sept.,
1881, vol. 2iZi PP- 169 ^'^d 196-

The Massachusetts Society for Promot-
ing Good Citizenship arranged a course of
lectures on municipal government, which
was delivered at the Old South Meeting
Plouse in Boston during the winter of
1889. The course was as follows: "The
Trustworthy Citizen, " by Rev. C. F. Dole;
" The Rise of American Cities," Prof. A.
B. Hart; "Birmingham," by Rev. John
Cuckson; "Berlin, the Model City, " by
Sylvester Baxter; "The New Ballot Sys-
tem, " by R. H. Dana; "The True School
Board," by W. A. Mowry; "The Govern-
ment of Boston," by Hon. Henry H.
Sprague; "Josiah Quincy, the Great
Mayor," by Hon. Mellen Chamberlain,
and "The Possible Boston," by Rev. Ed-
ward E. Hale. An abstract of the lec-
tures was published by the society and
some of the lectures were printed in "Lend
a Hand," a monthly magazine edited by
Dr. Hale.

Ex-Mayor Wm. R. Grace wrote of the
"Government of Cities in the State of
New York" in Harper's Magazine (1883),
vol. 67, p. 609. The committee of the
New York Senate on cities in 1890 took a
mass of testimony respecting the govern-
ment of cities in the State, which was
transmitted to the legislature April 15,
1 89 1, and printed in five large volumes.
Volume 5 contains the general laws for
the incorporation of cities in other States
and much information respecting citiea in
New York. Senator J. S. Fassett sum-
marized the results of the investigation in
an article entitled "Why are our cities
badly governed ? " printed in the North
American Review (May, 1890), vol. 150,
p. 631.

The following discussion of the general
subject of municipal administration may
be cited: Dormau B. Eaton's "Municipal
Government" (Journal of Social Science,
vol. 5, p. i), a paper read in Boston May
13) 1373; Samuel Bowles's "Relation of
State to Municipal Governments, and the
Reform of the Latter " (Journal of Social



Science, vol. 9, p. 140), a paper read in
Saratoga, Sept. 7, 1877; John A. Kasson's
"Municipal Reform" (North American
Review, Sept., 1883, vol. 137, pp. 218-
30); Robert Mathews's "Municipal Ad-
ministration " (Address before the Fort-
nightly Club of Rochester, N. Y., Jan.
20, 1885); Charles Reemelin's "City
Government," a paper read at the meeting
of the American Association for the Ad-
vancement of Science, held at Ann Arbor,
Mich., in August, 1885; G. M. Browne's
"' Municipal Reform " (New Englander,
Feb., 1886, vol. 45, p. 132); Carter H.
Harrison's "Municipal Government," an
address delivered before the Nineteenth
Century Club of New York City, Nov. i^,
1886; F. D. Crandon's " Misgovernment
of Great Cities" (Popular Science Month-
ly, vol. 30, pp. 296 and 520); G. F. Par-
sons's "The Saloon in Politics" (Atlantic
Monthly, Sept., 1886, vol. 28, p. 414);
John D. Cutter's open letter in the Cen-
tury (May, 1887), vol. 34, P- 15 7j sug-
gesting the re-establishment of guilds for
the purposes of city government; Gama-
liel Bradford's "Municipal Government"
in Scribner's Magazine (Oct., 1887), vol.
2, pp. 485-493; papers on the city as a
peril in " National Perils and Opportuni-
ties," discussions of the conference of the
Evangelical Alliance in Washington, D.
C, Dec, 1887; James Parton's "Munici-
pal Government" (Chatauquan, Jan.,
1888, vol. 8, p. 203); E. L. Godkin's
"Criminal Politics" (North American
Review, June, 1890, vol. 150, pp. 706-23)
and "A Key to Municipal Reform"
(North American Review, Oct., 1890, vol.
151, pp. 422-31) O. S. Teall's "Munici-
pal Reform " (Cosmopolitan, March,
1891); article by F. S. Holls on "Com-
pulsory Voting as a means of Correcting
Political Abuses " (Annals of the Ameri-
can Academy of Political Science, April,
1891, vol. I, pp. 586-614); papers by May-
ors of Bostonj Baltimore, Buffalo and St.
Louis, entitled "How to improve munici-
pal government " (North American Re-
view, Nov., 1891, vol. 153, pp. 580-95;

a paper by W. D. Lewis on " Political
Organization of a Modern Municipality "
and one by F. P Prichard on "The Sci-
ence of Municipal Government" in the
number of the Annals of the American
Academy of Political Science for January,
1892, and Julian Ralph's "Western Modes
of City Management " (Chicago) in Har-
per's Magazine, April, 1892, vol. 84, p.
709. *


Papers on "The Relations of the Mod-
ern Municipality to Quasi-Public Works,"
edited by Prof. H. C. Adams and printed
in vol. 2 of the Publications of the Amer-
ican Economic Association, and an ex-
cellent paper by A. H. Sinclair on
"Municipal Monopolies and their Man-
agement," printed as No. 2 of the To-
ronto University Studies in Political
Science, discuss the relations of cities to
water works, gas and electric lighting and
street railways. A commission appointed
to investigate this subject in Washington,
D. C, has made an extended report in
favor of municipal ownership. See for
brief discussions Sir T. H. Farrer's "The
State in its Relation to Trade " (London,,
1883), chap. 10, and C. W. Baker's "Mo-
nopolies and the People" (N. Y., 1889),
chap. 5. Arguments against public own-
ership are given in Lieut. Allen R. Foote's
pamphlets "Municipal Ownership of In-
dustries" and "Municipal Ownership of
Quasi Public Works," Washington, D. C,
1891. Prof. Goodnow cites an article by
Dr. Hack on German water works in the
Zeitschrift fuer die gesammte St^atswissen-
schaft, 1875, vol. 34, p. 307. The sub-
ject of public ownership of gas works is
fully discussed in two monographs printed
in the Publications of the American Eco-
nomic Association, one by Prof. E. J.
James, entitled "The Relation of the
Modern Municipality to the Gas Supply"
in vol. I, and the other, by Prof. E. W.
Bemis, entitled "Municipal Ownership of
Gas Works in the United States " in vol.
6. "Gas in Foreign Countries" is the
subject of a special consular report issued



by the Department of State in 1891. Cf.
the references under the head of statistics,
and the article on "London Gas" in the
Quarterly Review for January, 1879.
Bronson C. - Keeler favors municipal
ownership in his article on " Municipal
Control of Gas Works " in the Forum for
Nov. 1889. The contest over the natural
gas bonds, issued by the city of Toledo,
was set forth in a pamphlet printed by the
Gas Trustees in 1889. Arguments against
public ownership of electric light works
are given in a pamphlet on " Municipal
lighting," by M. J. Francisco, Rutland,
Vt. , 1890. Some important information
is collected in a Report on the Use of
Streets by Private Corporations, made by
a special committee of the Boston Board
of Aldermen and printed aS City Docu-
ment 144, 1890. A. H. Sinclair gave
an account of the short experiment made
by Toronto in municipal ownership of
street railway in his article on "The To-
ronto Street Railway " in the Quarterly
Journal of Economics (Oct., 1S91), vol.
6, pp. 98-105. The Consular Report for
Dec, 1 89 1, contains a short account of
"Tramways and Water Works in Eng-


A series of articles on rapid transit in
cities, by T. C. Clarke, is announced by
the publishers of Scribner's Magazine for
the current year (1892). This subject
received special attention in the eleventh
census. Simon Sterne described "The
Greathead Underground Electric Rail-
way" in London in the Forum for Aug.,
1891, vol. II, p. 683. Dr. E. R. L. Gould
gives statistics of "Park Areas and Open
Spaces in American and European Cities"
in the Publications of the American Sta-
tistical Association (June, 188S), vol i,
pp. 49-61.

On sanitary questions consult Ervvin F.
Smith's Influence of Sewerage and Water-
Supply on the Death- Rate in Cities (a
paper read at a Sanitary Convention in
Ypsilanti, Mich., July i, 1885, and re-
printed from a Supplement to the Annual

Report of the Michigan State Board of
Health for the year 1885) and the numer-
ous references given in the notes. Cf.
also Dr. L. L. Seaman's Social Waste of a
Large City, a paper read before the
American Association for the Advance-
ment of vScience, Aug. 20, 1886 and print-
ed in Science, Sept. 24, 1886. An address
on "Public Health and Municipal Gov-
ernment" delivered before the American
Academy of Political Science was printed
as a supplement to the Annals of the
Academy for Feb., 1891. For references
on the charities of Baltimore, Phila-
delphia, New York, and Boston, see Prof.
H. B. Adams's " Notes on the Literature
of Charities" (Johns Hopkins Studies,
vol. 5. no. 8). An important series of
articles on "The Poor of Great Cities" is
in course of publication in Scribner's
Magazine (1892). Albert Shaw's article
on "Municipal Lodging Houses" in the
first number of the Charities Review was
cited above. On the subject of education
see John D. Philbrick's City School. Sys-
tems (Circular of Information- no. i,
1885, issued by the National Bureau of


Many of the papers already cited,
especially the Johns Flopkins Studies and
the articles in the periodicals, relate to
particular cities, but have been referred to
above because of their more or less gen-
eral application. A special study may be
made of New York, and a few notes on
other cities added.


For a brief account of the system of
Government see the article on "New
York" by E. L. Godkin in the Encyclo-
paedia Britannica (9th ed., vol. 17). Dr.
J. F. Jameson's "Origin and Development
of the Municipal G-overnment of New
York City" (Magazine of American His-
tory, May and September, 1882), gives a
sketch of municipal government down to
182 1. A portion of each volume of the
Manual of the Corporation (,28 v., 1841-
71), after that for 1846, is devoted to a



history of the city. The volume for 1868
contains a reprint of old charters. The
fact that James Parton in Oct., 1866
(North American Review, vol. 103, p.
413), attributed the growing evils in the
government of the ci.y to the abolition of
household suffrage is interesting in con-
nection with the recommendation of the
Commisson of 1877. See also in the
North American Review, "The Judiciary
of New York" (July, 1867, vol. 105, p.
148), and Charles Nordhoff's " Misgov-
ernment of New York" (Oct., 1871, vol.
113, p. 321). An account of the Tweed
ring may also be found in the North
American Review, in a series of articles
by C. F. Wingate, entitled -'An Episode
in Municipal Government," beginning in
the number for Oct., 1874, and ending in
the number for Oct., 1876. On the same
subject cf. A. H. Green's Three Year's
Struggle with Municipal Misrule in New
York City, a Report made by the Comp-
troller to the Board of Aldermen, Feb. 18,
1875. ^'^'^ S. J. Tilden's "Municipal
Corruption," Law Magazine and Review,
X. s. vol 2, p. 525 (London, 1873). See
also Geo. H. Andrews's Twelve Letters on
the Future of New York (N. Y., 1877).
The entire second volume of the Statutes
of New York for 1882 is devoted to the
present charter of the City of New York,
or the "Consolidated Act," as it is called.
The Investigation of the Department of
Public Works in 1884 was printed in
Senate Doc. no. 57, 1884; and the inves-
tigation by the committee, of which Theo-
dore Roosevelt was chairman, was
reported in Assembly Docs. nos. 125,
153, and 172, 1884. The Report of the
Investigation of the New York Consoli-
dated Gas Company forms Senate Doc.
no. 47, 1886. The committee found that
in 1883 the gas trust declared dividends
of from 23 to 2>Z P^r cent. Of recent
.articles on cost and methods of elections
cf. W. M. Ivins's articles cited above ;
Theodore Roosevelt's "Machine Politics
in New York City" in the Century (Nov.,
1886), vol. ■TjT^, p. 74; J. B. Bishop's

Money in City Elections, an address read
before the Commonv/ealth Club in New
York, March 21, 1887 (reported in the
Evening Post and reprinted separately) ;
the same writer's "The Law and the
Ballot," Scribner's Magazine (Feb., 1888),
vol. 3, p. 194; and the Nation (vol. 44,
pp. 180 and 204) ; A. C. Bernheim's
"Party Organizations and their Nomina-
tion to Public Office in New York City" in
the Political Science Quarterly, (March,
1888) vol. 3, pp. 97-122, and the same
writer on "The Ballot in New York" in
the Political Science Quarterly, M[arch,
1889, vol. 4, pp. 130-52 ; and Dr. Shaw's
"Municipal Problems of New York and
London" in the Review of Reviews, April,
1892, vol. 5, p. 282.


Johns Hopkins Studies cited above ;
E. V. Smalley's article on the "Commit-
tee of 100" in the Century (July, 1883),
vol., 4, p. 395; the Nation, Nov. 26,
1885 ; Publications of the Philadelphia
Social Science Association for 1876 and
1877, on the subject of building associa-
tions. The reform charter or the "Bullitt
Bill, "which went into effect April, 1887, is
said to be a model municipal constitution.


Reports of the Citizen's Association,
beginning in 1874.


Report of the Commission on the City
Charter and Two Minority Reports (Docs.
120, 146, and 147, 1884). The first
Report contains an outline of the munici-
pal governments of New York, Brooklyn,
Philadelphia, Baltimore, St. Louis, and
Chicago. See also Reports of the Citi-
zen's Association.


J. F. Tunison's Cincinnati Riot: its
Causes and Results (Robt. Clarke & Co.,


The Yearbooks contain in the appen-
dices much valuable historical matter.



That for 1880 gives a sketch of the de-
velopment of the city government; that
for 1883 a description of the centennial
celebration, with an historical review; and
the last volume contains an account of the
earthquake of August 31, 1886.


The Johns Hopkins Study was reviewed
m the Nation for January 14, 1886, p. 26.
Though not strictly within the scope of
this list, reference may be made to Dr. A.

R. Spofford's address before the Mary-
land Historical Society on The Founding
of Washihgton City (J. Murphy & Co.,


Town and City Government in Provi-
dence, a Study in Municipal History,
by Geo. G. Wilson, Providence, Tibbitts
& Preston, 1889.



fr^URING the first term of the present
^^ collegiate year a course on Statistics
was given. This course included a his-
torical review of the development of sta-
tistical work, lectures on the preparation
of schedules, the gathering of statistics,
and the correction of returns, and prac-
tical work in the proving and graphic
illustration of statistics by means of maps
and diagrams. At the close of the course
it was suggested by a member of the class
that some information in regard to college
expenses at Kansas State University be
collected. This suggestion was adopted,
and five gentlemen spent some consider-
able time in sending out requests for
information, in securing returns by per-
sonal work among the students, and in
making up tables for tabulation. These
gentlemen were H. C. Riggs, T. W. Butch-
er, S. Ploughe, R. F. Whitzel, and J. G.
Galbreath. The summaries of expense
given later do not in any way show the
amount of work which was done, inas-
much as all the preliminary tabulation is
of course omitted in this article.

The request for information which was
sent out, and to which Chancellor Snow
very kindly gave his approval, was as

"The class in Statistics has undertaken
to secure some reliable information re-
garding cost of living per school year for
students attending our University. It is
therefore desired that every student to
whom this circular is sent, return an
answer within a week's time, to the sub-
joined itemization of expenses.


"i. — Sign your name and give the
course you are pursuing and the class of
which you are at present a member, in the
space left for that purpose. The reason
for requesting your signature is merely to
secure authenticity of statistics. That
portion of the circular containing your
signature will be detached by Mr. E. D.
Adams, instructor in Statistics, from the
portion giving expenses. Only the latter
portion will be seen and used by the class
in compiling the figures given, so that
there can be no knowledge of the person-
ality of any one answering this circular.

"2. — Each student is expected to an-
swer for the expenses of the college year,
of ten months, ending June loth, 189 1.
Indicate the class year for which the ex-
penses are given by drawing your pen
through that year named in the heading at
the top of the next page.


''3. — -When it is impossible to give ac-
curate figures for the items of expense
called for, make a close estimate, arid
upon entering the item place the letter E
after it.

" 4 — Place this circular in the enclosed
envelope, seal, and deposit it in one of the
boxes standing in the hall of the main
building and in the hall of the law build-

" F. H. Snow, Chancellor."


Class Course

Expenses of the ist, 2d, 3rd, 4th, Year.


I — Tuition and Laboratory fees,

2 — Books and Stationery

3 — Clothing

4 — Room Rent-.

5 — Furniture

6 — Board

7 — Fuel and Light

8 — Washing

9 — Sundries ■ . . .




As will be noted in reading this request
each student is asked to give expenses of
the preceding collegiate year. Thus the
senior returned expenses of the Junior
year; the Junior of the Sophomore year
and so on. No student therefore returned
expenses for more than one year, and the
average expense for any one year, as given
below, is merely the average expense of
the members of one particular class. This
is a fault, but it could not be avoided if
accurate returns were to be secured. If
the same request for returns of expenses
is sent out in future years, still more
interesting information may be secured,
showing the average expense of each class
for each year spent in the University.

Before giving the figures, it is necessary
to make some further statements regard-
ing them. The statistics do not show
expenses of the Senior year. Suffi-
cient returns could not be secured from
graduates to justify any computation of
an average for this year. The Statistics

show only averages for goitlcinen sttuicnts.
Requests were sent to the ladies of the
University, but not more than a dozen
returns were made. Such returns as came
in were very carefully made out, but were
not sufficient in number. The returns
from the ladies the University were there-
fore omitted in making up the averages.
The item, "Tuitions and Laboratory
fees," is not given as a separate item as
called for in the returns, but is included
in "Sundries." It was at first intended
to give an average expense for each course
as well as for each class, but this was
found impracticable, and the item men-
tioned was therefore dropped. All returns
which were not made out in the form
prescribed in the request, with name,
class, and year of expense, all returns in
which the total given did not coincide
with the sum of the items, and all returns
from students having homes in Lawrence,
in which case some of the items did not
apply, were dropped in making up the
averages. Returns were made by students
who are making their way through the
University, paying their room rent, board
&c., by means of some sort of work, and
not in cash. These returns were of course
very low in some instances, as will be
seen by looking at the table of "Highest
and Lowest Expenses." It was decicded
however that they could be legitimately
used in estimating average expense for
the student who comes here to secure an
education, and they were therefore in-
cluded. Excluding students having homes
in Lawrence, and ladies of the University,
the percentage of students for each ex-
pense year, represented in the averages
given, is as follows: Freshman year, 67
per cent.; Sophomore year, 84 per cent;
Junior year, 79 per cent.; Junior Law
year, 88 per cent. With the qualifica-

Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 31 of 62)