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tions, already mentioned, it would seem,
therefore, that the average expense should
be fairly accurate.

The following table gives an average for
each year, for each item and total, and
averages of all years for each item and



igo



SEMjTX.I R ] ' A'O TES.



total. It may perhaps be noticed that the This difference of 2 cents is due to several

perpendicular and horizontal footings for divisions necessary to strike averages in

the final average total expense for all years which the rule oF counting i for every .55

do not agree. The perpendicular footing or over was not followed. This difference

is as given in the table, ^294.98, The was discovered to late to locate the

horizontal , footing would be $295.00. error,

I. — Average College Expense.



Freshman Year. . .
Sophomore Year,

Junior Year,

Junior Law Year,



Grand Average of above years, .



Books
and
Station-
ery.



Cloth-



$431 68
62 13
.55 00



32



Room

Rent.



!f32|30

41 58
43 03
28 03

36



Board.



24



$93,76
100 50
115 00
96 08

101 I34



Fuel

and

Light.



$ 6
5



Wash-
ing.



Ill
11
16
12



06



Sun-
dries.



24



Total.



$274 91



309
335
260

294



It is unnecessary to comment at length
upon these averages. They show the
usual steady increase for each year spent
in college. In the table this increase
seems to be due to the items of room rent,
board, washing, and sundries, indicating
that the increased expense of each year
oyer the last comes from those things
which go to make up the comforts or
pleasures of student life. The Junior
Law year shows an unusual expense for
books, and a remarkably low expense for
most of the other items. The Sophomore
year seems to indicate a desire for fine
raiment- the Junior year for good board
and cleaner clothes. That which is most



noticeable, however, in the whole table'is
the low total expense for each year. The
highest average total given, that for the
Junior year, of $335.04 is less than would
be expected in this institution. An aver-
age expense for all students of $294.98
certainly puts a University education
within the reach of any one who is willing
to work hard for it, and this is the avei'age
and not the lowest expense.

The following table gives the highest
and lowest expense reported for each item
for each year, and the highest and lowest
expense reported for each item for all
years. The table is merely intended to
show the wide variation of expense, and
the low expense possible for each item.



II. — Highest and Lowest Expense Reported for each Item.







■a

CS

1





3


FRESHMAN


Highest.


$32 .'iO


YEAR.


Lowest.


lo'oo

1 1


sophomore


Highest.


40


00


YEAR.


Lowest.


11


00


JUNIOR


Highest.


35


24 j


YEAR.


Lowest.


10


00 j


JUNIOR
LAW


Highest.


50


00

1


YEAR.


Lowest.


-7


90 j


FOR ALL

YEARS

RETURNED.


Highest.


.51J

7


00 '
90 j


Lowest.









$103


00


9


25


185


00


26


00


100


00


21


00


90


00


11


45


185


00


9


25



$75 ) I

I i

I
18 .50 I

__ I '

80u0 i



20 25



12 00



12 00



$140 to



2 -rt



$13



$24'30
3 39



20



00



00



40



39



$215



100 00
1935

11,1, .50
10 00

215 00
9 18



$533 25
139 00

L

523 00
154'a8

_!_

459 1 00

i

I

190 00

I

345 '00



533



00



SEMINAR V NO TES.



19:



It will be noticed that this table merely
gives highest and lowest expense for each
item, treating the item "total" as having
no connection with the other items in the
same line. Each item in each year, there-
fore simply stands for itself and has no
relation to other items. Thus the sum of
the line of items of "highest expense" in
the Freshman year, is of course greater
than the "total" given as highest for that
year, and the sum of the line of items
given for "lowest expense" in the Fresh-
man year is less than the "total" given as
lowest for that year. The same rule
applies to the remaining years and to the
line showing "all years."

Both the highest and lowest total ex-
pense for all years are found in the
Freshman year. In the next year these
two extremes are nearer together, and in
the next year, nearer yet. This would
seem to show that the tendency was to-
ward a lessening of high expense and an
increase of low expense as the years go
by. If, however, the tables of individual
expense had been published it would be
seen that the returns of highest and lowest
expense for the Freshman year were ex-
ceptions from the general run of returns
for that year, that the same was true of
the Sophomore year, while the returns for
the Junior year did not stand out as such
marked exceptions to the general run of
returns for that year. These items of
highest and lowest expense do not, ther-
fore, really indicate any violation of that



which is accepted as a law of college
expenses, i. e. that each additional year
brings additional expense.

It is somewhat a matter of surprise here
also that the highest return for total col-
lege expense is no more than it is.
^533-25 is undoubtedly an unusual ex-
pense for K. S. U., but it would be
regarded as a wonderfully low expense
in many institutions, whose facilities and
instruction do not surpass our own.
There are no means of knowing whether
the lowest total expense given, $139, was
handed in by a student who was working
his way through or not. Some students
work their way through the school year
with less cash expenditure than this. The
next lowest total expense given in the
table, $154.28, was reported by a student
who stated, on his return slip, that this
amoimt represented his exact expenses for
the college year, without assistance from
any work.

Other colums than that of the total are
of interest in making comparisons between
classes, etc. The reader can discover
some curious comparisons if he cares to
take the trouble. The result of the whole
series of figures is to impress one with the
fact that the average Kansas young man
does not intend to waste any money. He
comes to the University with a definite
purpose, and spends money for the neces-
saries of life, but beyond that he does
not go.

E. D. Adams.



SEMINARY REPORTS.



Pensions.



'FIE Seminary met April 15. The
subject discussed was pensions and
pension legislation. Mr. R. D. Brown
read a paper on United States Pension
Legislation, the substance of which is as
follows:



Opinion on the subject of pensions in
this country is divided. There are on the
one hand those who complain that the
government is miserly and ungenerous to
those who fought for it and prevented its
dissolution, and on the other hand those
who maintain lliat llie ixmsion roll is



SEMINARY NOTES



already too large ; that the government
has been generous beyond reason. But
let us look for a short time at a few facts
in the history of pension legislation, in
order that they may assist us in forming a
right conclusion in regard to the matter.

There were engaged in the war of the
Revolution 278,021 men. Of these there
were pensioned 62,069, or 22.3 per cent,
of the whole, and to them there has been
paid in pensions 146,082,000. In the
War of 1812 there were engaged 527,054
men. Of these there were pensioned 60,670
or 1 1. 1 per cent, of the whole, and there
has been paid them in pensions $36,310,-
000. In the Mexican war there were
engaged 72,260 men, of whom there had
been pensioned up to 1887, 11,308, or
15.5 per cent of the whole. To them
there has been paid in pensions $13,000,-
000. In the Civil War there were in
actual service not more than 2,100,000
men. Of these there were on the pension
roll June 30, 1891, 676,160 men, or 32.2
per cent, of the whole, and the amount
paid in pensions for the fiscal year ending
with that date was $.118,548,956. This it
must be remembered is only what was
paid out in pensions for the one year
ending June i, 189 1. The subjoined
table shows the number on the roll and
the amount paid in each semi-decennial
year since the Civil War:

Year. No. on RoU. Amount Paid.

1865 85,986., .. $8,525,153

1870 198,686.... 27,780,811

1875 234,821 29,683,116

1880 250,802 57,240,540

1885.. 345.125 65,693,706

1890 537,944. . . .106,493,790

The commissioner of pensions estimates
that there will be on the roll in 1895,
1,050,000 names.

There were living, June 30, 1891, as
shown by the report of the commissioner
of pensions, 1,208,707 ex-soldiers of the
Civil War. Of these 904,000, or 74 per
cent, were either pensioners or applicants
for pensions. 74 per cent, of the sur-
vivors of the Civil ^Var have made oath



that on account of wounds or diseases,
they were incapacitated for manual labor,
and the commissioner of pensions prom-
ises us that before June 30, 1895, nearly
90 per cent, of the survivors of that war
will have made oath to the same effect,
and that their claims for pensions will
have been allowed.

In 1891 Great Britain disbursed in pen-
sions $25,000,000; P'rance, $29,851,000;
Germany, $13,283,000; Austria, $12,245,-
000; Russia, $18,000,000; and the United
States $118,548,956. It will thus be seen
that the United States pays annually in pen-
sions about four times as much as any
other power, and $20,163,956 more than
all the great nations of Europe combined.
It costs the United States annually for
pensions $27,026,461 more than it costs
Germany to maintain a standing army of
449.342 men.

Mr. Thornton Cook followed with a
paper the subject of which was "Notes on
Pension Legislation." The substance of
this paper was as follows: All pension
laws were special up to 1792. In that
year the first general law was enacted. In
1818 a dependent pension bill for veterans
of the Revolutionary War was passed.
Service pensions are now allowed to vet-
erans of the War of 181 2 and of the
Mexican War. In 1890 pensions were
allowed to dependent veterans of the Civil
War.

Since the late war the rates of pensions
have been increased very rapidly. In
1866 the rate for total disability was
placed at $25 per month. It is now $72.
The rate for partial disability has been
increased in the same proportion.

On pension claims filed subsequent to
June 30, 1880, arrears were granted.
Many attempts have been made to pass a
bill granting arrears on all pensions; but it
is not likely that such a bill will soon be
enacted.

Veterans are allowed to apply their
time of service on the residence necessary
to secure a homestead.

In the report of the pension commis-



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



^93



sioner the complaint is frequent that
existing acts permit a great deal of fraud;
but there is probably no more fraud prac-
ticed than is inevitable uuder laws with
such liberal provisions.

After some discussion the Seminary
adjourned.

J. H. Sawtell, Reporter.

Status of Woman.

■grPHE Seminary met on March 22, to
(glisten to papers on the "Status of
"Woman. "

Miss Nina Bowman read a paper on
the "Property Rights of Women." In
primitive times women were thought to
have no rights at all. In France no mar-
ried woman has any property rights and
the common law prevails.

In England women have no voice in
parliament. A single woman has the
same rights of property as a man ; has
the same protection of law, and is subject
to the same taxes. After marriage the
husband has absolute power over the
wife's jewels, money and clothes. In
1870 a law was passed which gave women
a right to their separate earnings.

In America the common law restrains
married women from all custody over
their own property, either real or personal.
Since 1848 many changes have been made
in the property rights of married women.
In our own state the wife has full power
over her own property and earnings and
may dispose of them in any way pleasing
to her. After marriage a woman may sue
and be sued in the same manner as if not
married. A woman may convey or mort-
gage her own property without her hus-
band's signature, but the husband in
disposing of property must secure his
wife's signature.

Miss Amy Sparr then read a paper on
"Woman's Suffrage." The woman ques-
tion is still young in years, but its strength
and growth are not to be measured by its
age. Those who have taken the practical
side of the question are those who have
made such remarkable progress. In Eng-
land women have been admitted Lo man\-



electoral privileges and to public work
involving great responsibility. Mr. Glad-
stone and Mr. Mill have aided much in
changing public opinion in England.
Great progress is being made with the
general public but is much less assured
and rapid in Parliament. In England,
Scotland and Ireland women may vote for
nearly all elective officers.

In the United States women have with
difficulty succeeded in getting the right to
vote in municipal elections in a single
state, namely Kansas, where they have the
right to vote for any city or school
officers. Several states have admitted
women to the membership of school
boards of primary public schools. In
Wyoming women vote at all elections and
in Kansas they have full local suffrage.
All statistics show a gain in women's
votes.

Following this a paper on "Women in
the Professions " was read by Miss Maggie
Rush. It began with women in the min-
istry. Once women were not allowed to
sing in church choirs because Paul had
commanded that they should keep silent.
The Univeralist church was the first to
open the doors of its theological schools
to women. About fifty women have been
ordained in this church. Theological
seminaries for women have been opened
in Oberlin, Ohio ; Evanston, Illinois, and
Boston. As lawyers women in England
have been permitted to qualify for and
practice as attorneys at law. The first
woman admitted to the bar in this country
was Arabella Mansfield, of Iowa, in 1869.
Seven women have been admitted to
practice before the supreme court of the
United States. Most law schools now
admit women. Some women prefer office
practice and others court work. In
Wyoming and Washington mixed juries
have^ been tried and found perfectly
satisfactory.

Women have taken a stand in medicine
which is rapidly growing in favor. Dr.
Elizabeth Blackwell was the first Avoman
ph\'sician. She graduated in 1849. The



194



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



American Medical Association first ad-
mitted women to membership in 1876.
In 1880 there were 2,432 women regis-
tered as physicians in the United States.
Teaching is peculiarly adapted to women.
Women were recognized as teachers for
the first time in 1789. VaSsar, Wellesley,
and Bryn Mawr all have women among
the members of their faculties.

Miss Martha Thompson then read a
paper on ''Women in Industrial Pursuits."
More than one-half of the human family
consists of women and the greater portion
of these must earn their own living. As
they become more skillful and capable
their wages will be brought more on an
equality with those of men. Women do
not work together as men do, and their
political disabilities deprive them of the
influence which men often have to con-
trol wages. In the largest cities about
three hundred different employments are
open to women.

Factory work brought women into com-
petition with men. When sewing machines
were introduced one Avoman could do the
work for which formerly six had been
required. In large cities many homes
have been provided for working girls,
where they can secure board, protection,
and recreation. Many women who are
not compelled to work for bread, work for
pin money and can work for much less
than otherwise ; therefore wages are de-
creased. A great many women will not
enter domestic service because they think
it more servile and menial than other
employments. In Massachusetts 64 per
cent, of the women are engaged in house-
keeping and laundry work.

Eleanor Blaker, Reporter.



Railroads.



AnnHE Seminary met on April 29, to
,^§ consider the railroad problem. Mr.
J. M. Challiss began the discussion with a
paper on "Legislative Control, " review-
ing some points of the railroad situation.
He said :

When we consider the size and magni-



tude of the railroad system, the vast army of
workmen employed, the cities and business
interests effected, and that the railroad offi-
cers are but human, we should be careful
before we speak and legislate on the control
of so vast a system. The railroad is in a sense
public property from the right of eminent
domain and from its uses. The charter
given by the state, the state regulations
and restrictions all strengthen the idea of
public property. With the exception of a
few water ways the railroad has a mono-
poly of traffic and to prevent unjust rates
the law says that only a reasonable charge
shall be made. A reasonable charge is
not easily defined with so many different
classes of freight and where the expenses
of transportation are so varied. Discri-
mination in rates is made that all industries
may be developed. Rates cannot be
uniform even at different points of the
same road as the cost of construction and
maintaining vary with the character of the
country. The system of "watered stock"
makes it almost impossible to get any just
basis upon which to adjust rates. Where
several roads touch at the same points a
competition springs up for the traffic to
those points and discriminations are made
against the towns intermediate. To avoid
the injurious effects of rate wars the roads
pooled that they might keep rates uniform.
The United States abolished the pools and
virtually put in their places the traffic
associations by compelling the roads to
keep posted in public, schedules of uni-
form rates and fares which cannot be
altered without notice. It was thought
that this would stop the "cut-throat"
competition, but it did not. It is still in
the interest of the shipper to take a cheap
rate and a rebate offered by the road.
The long and short haul law discriminates
against the western man by trying to make
rates more uniform. This gave rise to
shipping centers at intermediate points as
it became cheaper to ship half way and
then re-ship for the remainder than to ship
through from start to destination. That
railroads can make better rates on long



SEMINA R \ - NO TES.



195



distance hauls is shown by the statements
of railroad men that for ten miles the cost
averages six cents per mile ; for one hun-
dred miles, three cents : for five hundred
miles, one cent ; and for one thousand
miles, . 78 cents. The rate discriminations
led in 1883 to the appointment of the
Kansas board of railroad commissioners,
who have been given wide jurisdiction
•and are undoubtedly doing much good.
Some advocate government ownership as
then rates will be lower and more uniform.
This cannot be, as discriminations must
be made and as large and small amounts
of business regulate rates for those roads.
As long as society remains as it is, as long
as in politics the spoils belong to the
victor, as long as the federal officers have
the elective franchise, the railroads cannot
go into the hands of the government.
Humanity, reason and justice will in time
overcome the evils of this question.

Mr. W. M. Raymond then read a short
paper on "Freights and Fares," which
treated of the principles which regulate
these and the tendency to a reduction.
Competition and combination are neces-
sary with the many systems of roads as
they must co-operate to carry the goods
to destination. The complicated question
of adjusting tariffs so as to bear equally
where they should without unjust discrim-
ination led to the formation of the great



traffic association. The Alantic Ocean,
Mississippi river and Erie canal regulate
the rates in the east, but in the west the
rates are higher as it has no great water
ways. The Railroad wars are ruinous
both to the railroad company and to the
shipper. Uniformity is best for all. Cars
must carry freight both ways. Rates are
determined in three ways. (i) Goods
which must be hauled and quickly at that,
are placed in the high list, while (2) goods
which must be hauled cheaply or not at
all are given a cheap rate; and (3) dis-
criminations between shippers according
to the amount of business. If this is to
be considered as a public service then
there should be no such discrimination as
fixes the rate in the third case. In the
eastern, states as early as 1869 commis-
sioners were appointed by the state to
look after the rate discrimination, and in
1887 the United States congress created
the Interstate Commerce Commission
which at first met with little favor but
which has shown itself a good thing.
Improvements in business and its manage-
ment, improvements in the roads, and
the development of the country tend to
reduce the rates. Freight rates have
been greatly reduced, and during the past
ten years the passenger rates have been
reduced about one-half.

Wm. J. Krehbiel, Reporter.



ig6



SEMINARY NOTES.



■ SEMINARY - NOTES. -

PUBLISHED ON THE FIRST DAY OF OCTOBER,
NOVEMBER, DECEMBER, FEBRUARY, ■
MARCH, APRIL AND MAY,
BY

the seminary of
Historical and Political Science.

State University, Lawrence, Kansas.
Frank W. BlacJzmar. \

Frank H. Hoddcr, ' ' " " Editors.
EpJiraini D. Adams, j

Terms. Tea Cents a Number, - Fifty Cents a Year

'T^ HE purpose of this publication is to increase the
(0) interest in the study of historical science in the
^ University and throughout the State, to afford
means of reg'ular communication with corresponding
members of the Seminary and with the general pub-
lic—especially with the Alumni of the University, and
to preserve at least the outlines ot carefully prepared
papers and addresses. The number of pages in each
issue will be increased as rapidly as the subscription
list will warrant. The entire revenue of the publi-
cation will be applied to its maintenance.
Address all subsci'iptions and communications to ■
F. W. BLA.CKMAK,

Lawrence, Kansas.

With this issue Vol. i of the Notes is
completed. Undertal^en as an experiment
the Notes has proved a success, in the
hearty reception with which it has met
both in the University, the State, and
without the State. Encouraging letters
of approval have been received from all
quarters, especially from colleges in the
extreme east and extreme west. The
Notes will be continued next year, begin-
ning the second volume with the October
number. Its object will be the same as in
the past, to publish reports and papers from
the Historical Seminary, to furnish a
place where suggestions and comments
upon historical and economic study may
be made, and occasionally to give in full,
articles of interest to the department of
History and Sociology. The Notes will
attempt, as it has during the past year, to
supply something of value not only to
students, but also to alumni and others
who are interested in sociological work.



ciples of Money" to the class in Political
Economy on April 13th. Mr. Moody
sent his manuscript to Senator John Sher-
man who read it and made some very
favorable comments up on it.



The class in "The Status oi Woman "
have done such efficient work and shown
such an interest in the subject that it has
been decided to continue the study as a
permanent optional in the department of
History and Sociology.



The Notes regrets that it was impossble
to publish all of Chancellor Canfield's
interesting address on "Rise of Individu-
alism." It was at the writer's own sugges-
tion, however, that the abstract was made
which appears in this number.



The article giving references upon mu-
nicipal government in this number of the
Notes will be of value to all students of
municipal institutions. It contains a list
of all references upon the subject up to
date, and is the most complete and accu-
rate thing of the kind ever published.
Prof. Hodder has been asked this year to
make out such a list for publication by
eastern institutions but has preferred to
furnish it for home use in K. S. U. first
of all.



Senator Moody read the remainder
of "his valuable paper on the "First Prin-



The intellectual improvement of the
people of the west is the most noticeable
feature of progress of the last two or three
years. They are everywhere organized
into clubs, societies, and circles, and
gathered together into little groups to
discuss the topics of the day. Among
them are strong logical thinkers and
substantial men as well as the narrow and
visionary reformer. The strongest and



Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 32 of 62)