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Seminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science online

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best quality of the late popular movement
is its educational feature. The people
are making a great effort to inform them-
selves on political and economic subjects.
There has been consequently a great
demand for assistance in the study of
political economy and kindred subjects.
Realizing that this demand exceeds the
supply of well ordered assistance it was



considered a good plan to organize a
branch American Economic association.
Consequently meetings were called in
Kansas City, Lawrence and Topeka, and
as a result the Southwestern Economic
association was organized as a branch of
the American. The following officers
were elected: F. W. Blackmar, president;
L. H. Holmes, vice president j John Sulli-
van, Secretary and treasurer and J. E.
Peairs, Herbert L. Doggett, and four
additioxial members of the executive
committee of which the officers are ex-
officio members. The following consti-
tution was adopted :

Article i. The name of this society
shall be the Southwestern Economic Asso-
ciation and it shall be a branch of the
American Economic association.

Article 2. The object shall be the
promotion of economic education and the
special study of the economic problems of
the southwest.

Article 3. Any person may become a
member of this association by the pay-
ment of $3, payable in advance, which
will entitle him to the privileges of the
American Economic association and also
of the local association.

Article 4. There shall be three offi-
cers, president, vice president, and secre-
tary who shall also be treasurer. The
duties of these officers shall be such as
usually pertain to such offices.

Article 5. There shall be an executive
committee of seven persons of which the
three officers shall be ex-officio members.
Three of the members shall be residents
of Kansas City, two of Topeka and two of

Article 6. It shall be the duty of the
executive committee to determine the
place of meeting, to call all extra meet-
ings, to select topics for discussion,' and
to determine all questions relating to the
publication of papers.

Article 7. Meetings. There shall be
a meeting of the association on the first
Tuesday of each month, at eight o'clock

p. m., at such place as shall be deter-
mined by the executive committee.

Article 8. Local reading circles.
Members may form themselves into local
reading circles, meeting once each week
or fortnight for the purpose of special
reading and study. Such reading circles
shall have the encouragement and assist-
ance of the regular association.

Article 9. Rules of order. When
not otherwise determined by constitution
and by-laws, Roberts' Rules of Order shall
be the guide in all parliamentary actions.
Article 10. Term. The term of
office in this organization shall be one
year, until successors are elected and
qualified, beginning or ending with the
calendar year.

Article ii. This constitution may be
amended by a two-thirds vote of the act-
ive members of the association, notice
having been given of such change at a
preceding meeting.

A fair beginning has been made in the
organization, there being about sixty mem-
bers at the date of writing. It is proposed
that the members of the association shall
carry on special studies in economic
subjects which will be read and discussed
in the monthly meetings. Also, effort will
be made to secure the services of special
economists for lectures and papers. It is
hoped that the better class of these papers
will be published for the purpose of for-
warding economic education. While the
meeting places of the Southwestern Asso-
ciation will probably be confined to
Kansas City, Lawrence, and Topeka, it is
designed to form local reading circles
over a wide area in Kansas and Missouri.
This will be a good working basis for
students who desire to leave the Univer-
sity and desire to keep up their studies
and at the same time help others in an
educational way.

In our note this month on the uses of
the library, we wish to direct attention to
the Congressional Documents. The re-
cord of debates in Congress is to be found



in a series of volumes published under
different titles. The ''Annals of Con-
gress " cover the years from 1789 to 1824
in 42 volumes, the "Register of Debates,"
in 29 volumes, contains the record from
1824 to 1837. From 1837 to 1872 the
proceedings are given in the "Congres-
sional Globe," and since 1872 in the
"Congressional Record." The "Annals"
give not only the debates in Congress but
also messages, important reports and laws
of each session. The "Globe" also gives
the laws of the session. For other peri-
ods the laws must be sought in the " Stat-
utes at Large." Benton printed a very
useful "Abridgement of the Debates in
Congress," in sixteen volumes, covering
the years foom 1789 to 1850. It was
intended to reach 1856 but Benton did
not live to finish it. He worked upon it
up to the very last, however, dictating the
concluding portion in a whisper from his
death bed. The "Abridgement" is very
faithfully done, but, as was unavoidable,
is in places colored by the private opin-
ions of the editor. All of these reports,
being arranged chronologically and in-
dexed, are easy of reference.

But there is another set of documents
which are called distinctively " Congres-
sional Documents," or "Public Docu-
ments," often abbreviated to "Pub. Docs."
Before this set many students stand aghast,
appalled evidently by the uniformity of
their binding. But these volumes are
really very easy of reference, at least,
when you "know bow," and it is easy
with a very little trouble to learn how.
They are arranged by Congresses and
sessions, as for example, 31st Cong., 2d
Sess., or 4Sth Cong., 3d Sess. Under
each session documents come in the fol-
lowing order: ist Senate Journal, 2d
Senate Reports of Committees, 3d Senate
Executive Documents, 4th Senate Miscel-
laneous Documents, 5th House Journal,
6th House Reports of Committees, 7th
House Executive Documents, 8th House
Miscellaneous Documents. The Senate
and House Journals are paged continu-

ously, other documents are numbered and
each document jiaged separately. A doc-
ument may contain a single page or many
thousand. Executive Documents contain
reports of executive officers and bureaus.
Reports of heads of departments are now
printed in House Executive Documents.
Let us illustrate by reference to a par-
ticular Congress and session, using the
usual abbreviations. Take for example,
49th Cong., ist Sess., years 1885-6. ist
in Senate Journal, i vol., 2d Senate Repts.,
1-1615, II vols, that is 1615 reports of
committees bound in eleven volumes;
every volume contains an index to the
reports in the whole set; 3d, Senate Ex.
Docs., 1-226, 8 vols.; 4th, Senate Miss.
Docs., 1-192, 13 vols.; 5th, House Jour-
nal, 2 vols.; 6th, House Repts., 1-3475,
12 vols.; 7th, House Ex. Docs., 1-475,
37 vols., here we find reports of heads of
departments, beginning with that of the
Department of Si.ate, printed under the
title of "Foreign Relations," and 8th,
House Miss. Docs., 1-396, 26 vols., mak-
ing in all no vols, for ist Sess. 49th
Cong. As in the case of Senate Reports,
each volume of each set contains a com-
plete index of all the documents in its
own set. Sometimes by reason of form
or size a document is printed out of its
proper order in its set. The history of
any bill may be traced by reference to the
Senate and House Journals, the Reports
of Committees and the Congresiohal
Record. Poore's " Descriptive Catalogue
of Government Publications " gives a
chronological list of all public documents
from 1774 to 1 88 1 with index. The
" Catalogue " is not entirely satisfactory,
and its use requires patience, but so does
any work that can make any claim to be
real investigation. The Catalogue of the
Library of the Boston Athenaeum, vol. 5,
P- 3°55' title "United States," gives a
list of indexes that have been published
from time to time to parts of the public
documents in our University library,
beginning with the 28th Congress. There
is a printed list of Congressional Docu-

<;eminar y no tes.


ments from the 29th to the 46th Congress
and volumes missing in our set are check-
ed in that list. It is hoped that this
somewhat extended explanation will ren-
der more available the wealth of material
to be found among the public documents.
We close with an exercise that will test
your understanding of this arrangement.
The following are references to important
works: House Ex. Doc. No. 109, 42d
Cong., 2d Sess. ; Senate Ex. Doc, No.
58, 45th Cong., 3d Sess., and Senate
Misc. Doc. No 162, ist Sess. 49th Cong.
What are they ?

In these times of gerrymandering it
may be of interest to refer briefly to the
earliest resort to this trick in our political
history. This is quite commonly supposed
to have been the re-distribution of dis-
tricts in 1812, when Eldridge Gerry was
governor and the word was coined, but
this was by no means the first instance.
The thing itself seems to hawe been in-
vented by Patrick Henry and first applied
in Virginia in 1788. Henry had made
every effort to prevent the ratification of
the constitution and was foiled largely by
the influence of Madison. The constitu-
tion ratified, it became necessary for the
legislature to elect senators and provide
for the election of representatives. The
opponents of the constitution then ex-
erted themselves to prevent the election
of the friends of the new government and
of Madison especially. Madison was
nominated for the Senate but was defeated
by the influence of Henry. Madison
then became a candidate for the lower
house of Congress, and the committee of
the legislature, inspired it is supposed by
Henry, tried so to divide the district as to
defeat him here as well. In this attempt
they were, however, unsuccessful. Prof.
Tyler, in commenting upon this first
gerrymander, in his life of Henry, remarks
" that it was a rare bit of luck for Henry,
that the wits of Virginia did not anticipate
the wits of Massachusetts by describing
this trick as 'henrymandering,' and that
he thus narrowly escaped the ugly immor-

tality of having his name handed' down
from age to age in the coinage of a base
word which should designate a base
thing — one of the favorite, shaky manoeu-
vers of less scrupulous American politi-

The moot Senate has adjourned sine die,
not to begin work again until some time
next fall. The work which it has done
has been without doubt instructive to the
members in many ways, and has certainly
never lacked life. Indeed there has, per-
haps, been a little too much life in the
proceedings. In an editorial in the Notes
for March, just at the time when the
senate vvas preparing to organize the fol-
lowing caution was given:

"If the students who take part in this
senate divide themselves according to
preconceived ideas into parties and take
the stand upon each question that their
respective parties are supposed to require
they will lose the greater part of the good
to be derived from the discussion. Their
object will be to win the debate and not to
discover the truth, and each one will end
by convincing himself of the strength of
the position he decided in advance to take. "
That which was thus stated to be a
danger is exactly what has happened.
The members of the senate have gained
experience in parliamentary practice, and
some of them have developed such a
genius for the intricacies of parliamentary
law as to be able to completely block
action under the present rules so that
upon one occasion the president was com-
pelled to exercise the power vested in him
by the rules and adjourn the senate with-
out a vote to that effect. Many members
increased old ability, or gained new ability
to talk readily and sometimes to talk
fluently about nothing. Party lines were
strictly drawn, and the vote upon most
questions could be determined with accu-
racy before it was taken. One bill which
was introduced and made a special order,
the free silver bill, was an exception to
this rule. The members of the senate
debated the question with intelligence and
earnestnees, and yoted upon it according
to their individual belief, irrespective of


party lines, but this was a solitary excep-
tion to the general procedure.

Now skill in parliamentary practice,
readiness in debate, and ability to manage
a majority or minority, as the case may
be, are all valuable accomplishments, and
their value should not be overlooked in a
body like the moot senate. At the same
time they should not be permitted to
monopolize the attention of such a body.
Bills should be introduced of such a
nature that the debate would naturally
turn upon the intrinsic value of the sub-
ject matter under discussion, and not be
determined by party affiliations. The
silver bill was such, and others of a like
nature were introduced which were placed
upon the docket but never reached. It is
not meant that party lines should not be
drawn. In Kansas State University where
every student takes a direct and personal
interest in politics, the organization of a
moot senate without the drawing of party
lines is an impossibility. And it is not
meant that an occasional tilt of party
against party is a bad thing. Such en-
counters serve to bring out minute points
in parliamentary law. But the real energy
and work of the senate should be directed
toward knowing something about questions
of present importance, and learning how to
give expression in concise and forcible
language to such knowledge.

The Notes takes a deep interest in the
welfare of the moot senate, and desires to
do all it can to make it a success; this
criticism will therefore, we trust, be ac-
cepted in good faith.

New Publications.
"The History of the Middle Ages,"
by Victor Duruy, translated from the
French by E. H. and W. D. Whitney, and
containing notes and revisions by George
Burton Adams, professor of History in
Yale University, has recently been issued
by Henry Holt & Co. Other translations
from Duruy have served a good purpose
as text books for college classes, notably
his "History of France." This new vol-
ume is well gotten up, contains some good

maps, and is especially valuable for its
clear paragraphing and for the chapter
headings. The facts of history are stated
in an interesting manner as indeed they
are in all of Duruy's works, and although
the work is not in every instance accurate
in its statements, this fault has been cor-
rected by means of the foot notes by Prof.
Adams, whose criticisms seem in some
cases to be almost too minute. The book
has given such satisfaction that over
thirty copies were at once ordered for the
class in Mediaeval History.

"Elements of Economics of Indus-
try," by Alfred Marshall is an adaptatiori
of the first volume of his Principles of
Economics to the needs of Junior students
The abridgement consists in the omission
of many points in the minor discussion of
principles. To this is added a chapter on
Trade- Unions which is an enlargement of
the subject as presented in the first edition
of Economics of Industry published by
the author and his wife in 1879. This is
one of the best text books on political
economy among the many good ones that
have appeared in recent times. It is
clear, concise and thorough in its enunci-
ation of fundamental principles. On de-
mand and consumption, production and
supply, nothing better has been written.
In the discussion of rent it places the old
doctrine in a new light, while the chapter
on Trade-Unions is complete and authen-
tic. Space will not permit an analysis of
the work. Published by MacMillan & Co.

"The Kansas Conflict," by Ex-Gov.
Charles Robinson, published by Har-
per & Brother, New York, is a book
which will be of especial interest to Kan-
sas readers, and will be read with pleasure
by all who desire a straight forward ac-
count of the famous Missouri-Kansas
troubles before the war. The book has
been received so recently that there has
been no time to give it the careful review
which it merits. An extended criticism
or review of it will be made in the next
issue of the Notes.





FOR 1891-2.

F. W. Br.ACKMAR, Ph. D.

Instruction in this departaient is given by
means of lectures, recitations, reports, dis-
cussions, and personal direction in study and
research. As the library is an indispensable
aid in the pursuit of the following courses,
students are expected to become acquainted
with the best methods of collecting and
classifying material and of writing and pre-
senting papers on special topics. All lectures
are supplemented by required reading and
class exercises.

Facts are essential to all historic study; yet
the aim is to take the student beyond the
mere details of events— to inquire into the
origin and development of society and the
philosophy of institutions. While the study
of the past is carried on with interest and
thoroughness, the most important part of
history — that which lies about us — is kept
constantly in view. The history of other
nations, other political systems and other
forms of administration, are studied, that we
may better understand our own. To under-
stand present social and political institutions,
and to give an intelligent solution of present
problems, is the chief aim of instruction in
historical science.


Now embraces European History, American
History and Civil Government, the History
of Institutions, Sociology, and Political Econ-
omy. The work in American History will be
continued with enthusiasm and thorough-
ness. Classes having begun this work will
continue without a break. The importance
of this work needs no comment. The prepa-
ration for good citizenship demands, among
other things, a thorough knowledge of the
growth of nationality, and the history of our
industrial, social and political development.
These, with financial experiments and nation-
al diplomacy, receive marked attention. The
text of the Constitution and Constitutional
Law occupy a prominent place in the study
of this branch.



1. English History. Daily. Descriptive
history. A careful study of the English peo-
ple, including race elements, social and polit-
ical institutions, and national growth.

2. The History of Civilization. Lectures
daily, embracing ancient society, and the in-
tellectual development of Europe to the
twelfth century. Special attention is given
to the influence of Cireek philosophy, the
Christian church, the relation of learning to
liberal government, and to the rise of modern

3. Political Economy. Daily. The funda-
mental principles are discussed and ehibo-
rated by descriptive and historical methods.
All principles and theories are illustrated by
examples from present economic society. A
brief history of I'olitical Economy may be
given at the close of the course.

4. French and German History, Daily.

Descriptive history; including race elements,
social and political institutions, and national
growth. Especial attention given to French

5. Historical Method and Criticism. One

hour each week. Examination and classifi-
cation of sources and authorities; analysis of
the works of the best historians; collection
and use of materials, and notes and biblio-

6. Statistics. Two hours each week. Sup-
plementary to all studies in economics and
sociology. The method of using statistics is
taught by actual investigation of political
and social problems. The history and theory
of statistics receives due attention.

7. Journalism. Lectures three hours each
week. Laboratory and library work. Legal
and Historical. — Ten lectures by Prof. E. D.
Adams. HJngUsh.— Twenty -tive lectures by
Profs. Dunlap and Hopkins. Newspaper
Bureau, Magazines, and Special Phases of
JournalisiJi.—FroL Adams.

The course was prepared especially for
those students who expect to enter journal-
ism as a profession. Although the instruc-
tors have no desire to create a special School
of Journalism for the purpose of turning out
fully-equipped journalists, they believe that
this course will be very helpful to those who
in the future may enter the profession. The
course will be found highly beneficial to stu-


dents who v\aiit a Sptcial slucly in magazines
and newspapers as a means of general cul-
ture. The course is under the direction of
this Department, but the professors named
above have kindly and generously consented
to assist in certain phases of the work, which
occur more particularly in their respective

8. American History. Instruction is given
daily for two years in American History.
The cuurse embraces Colonial History and
the Lucal Government of the Colonies, the
Constitutional and Political History of the
Union from 1789 to the present time, the for-
mation of the Constitution, and an analysis
of the text of the constitution itself.

0, Local Administration and Law. Three
conferences each week during the flrst term,
covering the Management of Public Affairs in
districts, townships, counties, cities, and
iStates. This course is intended to increase
the sense of the importance of home govern-
ment, as well as to give instruction in its
practical details.

10. Public Finance and Banking. Two con-
ferences each week during the first term, on
National, State, andMunicipal Financiering;
and on Theoretical and Practical Banking,
with the details of bank management.


11. Euglisli Constitutional History. Two

hours each week. A special study in the
principles and growth of the English Consti-
tution. This course may be taken as a con-
tinuation of number one. As it is a special
study of Constitutional History, students
ought to have some preparation for it.

12. Renaissance and Reformation. Lec-
tures two hours each week, with required
reading and investigation. This course may
be taken as a continuation of number two.
It includes the Revival of Learning through-
out Europe, with especial attention to the
Italian Eenaissance; a careful inquiry into
the causes, course, and results of the Refor-
mation. The course embraces the best phases
of the intellectual development of Europe.

13. Advanced Political Economy. Three
hours each week, consisting of (<f) lectures on
Applied Economics, (6) Practical Observation
and Investigation, and (c) Methods of Re-
search, witri papers by the students on
special topics. This is a continuation of
number three.

14. lustituiioual History. Lectures three
liours each week on Comparative Politics and
Adn^'riistration. (ireek, Roman and Ger-

manic institutions are compared. The his-
torical significance of Roman law is traced in
mediaeval institutions. A short study in
Prussian Administration is given at the close
of the course.

15. The Riseof Pemocracy. Lectures two
hours each week on the Rise of Popular
Power, and the Growth of Political Liberty in
Europe. A comparison of ancient and
modern democracy, a study of Switzerland,
the Italian Republics, the Dutch l^epublic,
and the French Revolution, constitute the
principal part of the work. Students will
read May's Democracy in Europe.

16. Elements of Sociology. Lectures three
hours each week on the Evolution of Social
Institutions from the Primitive Unit, the
Family; including a discussion of the laws
and conditions which tend to organize
society. The later part of the course is de-
voted to modern social problems and social-
istic Utopias.

17. Charities and Corrections. Two hours
each week. Various methods of treatment
of the poor. Scientific charity. Treatment
of the helpless. Prison reform. State refor-
matories. This course is supplementary to
number sixteen. Special efforts will be made
towards a practical study of Kansas institu-

18. Land and Land Tenures. Lectures two
hours each week. This course treats of
Primitive Property, the Village Community,
Feudal Tenures of France and England, and
Modern Land-holding in Great Britain and
Ireland and the United States. Reports are
made on other countries, and on recent
agrarian theories and legislation This is an
excellent preparation for the study of the
Law of Real Property,

19. The Political History of Modern Europe,

Two hours each week, including the Napo-

Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 33 of 62)