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venge for Italian perfidy, and the demand
for England's evacuation of Egypt. In
order that we may understand the French
feeling on the Alsacian question I can,
perhaps, do no better than quote a dis-
tinguished French professor of history,
Ernest Lavisse. He says: "It is difficult
for a foreigner to understand why France
cannot resign herself to the -loss of her
provinces. 'It is the law of war,' say the
Germans. Such language would not have
surprised anyone in the last century; and
even to-day it seems natural to statesmen
of the old regime. But in the present
century France represents another policy.
Among all nations of the world she is pre-
eminently rationalistic and sensitive. She
thinks that it is not proper to treat an
aggregate of men like a herd of cattle.
She believes in the existence of a peoples'
soul. She has manifested sorrow and
sympathy for the suffering of the victims
of force. She has wept over Athens,
Warsaw, and Venice, and has not given
the oppressed merely tears. If France
assisted the United Provinces to secure
their freedom in the seventeenth century
it was only a fortunate result of the policy
of her kings ; but when the French shed
blood to deliver the United States, Greece,



Belgium, and Italy, it was an intentional
result of new sentiments. The cession of
the Alsace-Loraine did not bequeath to the
French merely the humiliation of defeat.
It did not merely open their frontier, and
place their country in a condition of intol-
erable insecurity. In taking from them peo-
ple that were French, and desired to re-
main so, the conqueror wounded the
French in their convictions, and he simply
used the old right of force. That is what
determines the character of the Alsatian
question. The French in their defeat may
claim as a singular honor, that the redress
of the wrong done to them would be a sat-
isfaction to reason and to the most gener-
ous sentiments of our time." *

And then in Russia, on the other hand
what a different situation ! The interests
of Russia, which I have already pointed
out, lie in the direction of absorbtion of
the Danubian principalities and in face of
the whole of the Turkish Empire. Such
interests can lay no claim to justification
on the ground of freedom for a kindred
race. Russian conquest does not mean
freedom neither are the inhabitants of the
Turkish doman distinctively Russian in
their affiliations. The one and only bond
of union lies in the membership- of the
Greek Church, of a considerable portion
of the people.

It is sometimes said that the reason why
Russia is a constant threat to European
peace lies in the fact that she is wholly un-
der the dominion of one man, and that
question of peace or war must therefore de-
pend upon the ambition of the Czar. In large
measure this is true. In the minds of
statesmen, the ideas and personal peculi-
arities of the Czar of Russia have more
weight than those of any other one man in
any one country, and yet the Czar is not
so free from national control that his ev-
ery wish is seen to be obeyed. There is
today no country in Europe, no, not in
the world, where the mass of the popula-
tion are so thoroughly imbued with a be-
lief in the greatness and prominence of
their national destiny and their future dom-

inance over other nations and races as are
the people of Russia. The Russian be-
lieves that the Sclavic race is the "coming
race" which is to overshadow all others,
and he has been taught by long years of
national education that the line of his de-
velopment must be toward the south and
through Turkey.

Russia is indeed benighted, her govern-
ment is sometimes tyrannical, yet her citi-
zens are the most loyal in Europe to-day.
The Russian Nihilists recognize this when
they defend the doctrine of teriarism on
the ground that there is no hope for a rev-
olution of the people in Russia; that the
only way in which a constitutional govern-
ment can be obtained is by compelling the
Czar to compel the people to accept a
change in government. It is this in-
tense loyalty of the Russian citizen
which makes the Russian nation so
tremendous a force in Europe, — always an
unknown quantity in the problem of poli-
tics — ; unknown because of its one man
power, and in the extent of its ability to
suffer and to war.

Two nations then, France and Russia,
widely separated in their institutions and
their sentiments are drawn together by the
logic of circumstances. Each is ready to
seize a favorable opportunity to secure her
ends, one for reasons partly of revenge,
partly of justice, the other because of na-
tional ambition and national belief. We do
not however that there is any definite alli-
ance fanned between them; recent events
would seem to indicate the contrary.

I have attempted in this sketch to out-
line briefly the main interests of the six
great nations of Europe, that is, the main
interests which are of international charac-
ter. It has of course been impossible to do
more than indicate in general terms the
direction in which each nation is moving.
I have not been able to discuss such ques-
tions as the Dardanlles incident of last
year, on the character of Emperor Wil-
liam II, on the speech before the Hunga-
rian Diet by Count Kalnoky. All that has
been attempted was to place before you
such facts as it is necessary to know in or-
der to read understandingly the many ar-
ticles upon European politics which ap-
pear in our magazines. I have tried to
show you, that which is, or was, national
tendency. E. D. Adams.

* Political History of Europe p p 155-157.



Opening Meeting.

■^nPHE first Seminary meeting of the
,^^ present year was called to order by
Professor Blackmar on Friday, Sept. 23,
at 4 P. M. In his introductory remarks
Professor Blackmar explained the objects
and benefits of the Seminary and then pro-
ceeded to review Present Politics and
Economics. The chief topics that are
now interesting modern thinkers in the po-
litical economic and social world were pre-
sented for thoughtful consideration. The
leading magazine articles for the month
were mentioned as food for thought. The
Professor urged the students to take an in-
terest in every day affairs, in society, to
study the political and economic problems
of living society as well as to delve in the
history of the past. He held that present
society was the most important to them and
that all historical work should finally center
in the present.

Professor Adams followed with a care-
fully written paper on the ''European Sit-
uation," which is published in this number
of the Notes.

The Homestead Strike.
The Seminary was called to order at 4
P. M., on Friday, Sept. 30. Professor
Blackmar in the chair. The work of the
seminary was of the nature of an informal
discussion of the Homestead Strike. Stu-
dents were given different phases of the
question to present. The following are
the principal points brought out.

1. Causes of the strike and lockout.

2. Was the action of the laborers justi-

3. Was the action of the company

4. Is the Pinkerton system to be com-

5. What did the strike cost the la-

6. Cost of the strike to the State.

7. Cost of the strike to the employers.

8. How may such difficulties be pre-

9. The settlement by conciliation and

10. Do strikes tend to increase wages?
Members of the Seminary manifested

great interest in the subject and a lively
discussion took place.

New Books.

One of the prominent events in the
world of historical literature, is heralded
in the announcement of Houghton Mifflin
& Co., of the early publication of ''The
Life and Letters of Jared Sparks," written
by Professor H. B. Adams, of Johns Hop-
kins University.

The position occupied by Professor
Adams, his well known ability as a writer,
and his access to a great wealth of material
all make it eminently fitting that he should
write a "worthy memorial" to the first
professor of history in Harvard College
and the friend and contemporary of Madi-
son, Jefferson, Clay, Webster, Prescott,
Bancroft, Everett, Ticknor, De Tocville
and others. We predict a warm welcome
to this prospectively greatest historical
work of the season.

From McMillan & Co., we have received
a copy of "The Theory of the State" by
Bluntschli. This well known excellent
work needs no especial comment as only a
lengthly review would be of any service.
It is a standard work on the subject written
by one who was master of the subject and
a thoroughly earnest and profound student.
It is very gratifying that the work has ap-
peared in a cheaper revised edition and it
is to be hoped that its use will become
more general. To the person seeking a
lucid presentation of the elements of
modern constitutions, and analysis of
the various theories of the modern state
no better book can be recommended.








the seminary of

Historical and Political Science.

State University, Lawrence, Kansas.

Frank W. Blackniar. \

Frank H. Hodder, \ ~ ' ~ Editors.

Ephraiiii D. Adams, j

Terms. Ten Cents a Number, - Fifty Cents a Year

"-y^ HE purpose of this publication is to increase the
(d) interest in the study of historical science in the
^^ University and throughout the State, to afford
means of regular communication with corresponding
members of the Seminary and with the general piib-
lic— especially with the Alumni of the Universitj% and
to preseive at least the outlines ol carefully prepared
papers and addresses. The number of pages in each
issue will be increased as rapidly as the subscription
list will warrant. The entire revenue of the publi-
cation will be applied to its maintenance.
Address all subscriptions and communications to

Lawrence, Kansas.

During the summer Dr. Albert Shaw,
the American editor of the "Review of
Reviews" added an article on Budapest
to the valuable series of studies of foreign
cities that he has printed at intervals dur-
ing the last two years in the "Century."
Dr. Shaw spent a year abroad in the study
of municipal government and upon his re-
turn embodied the results of his investiga-
tion in a course of lectures, delivered at
Michigan and Cornell Universities. This
course Ex-President Andrew D. White
characterized as marking an era in the
study of municipal institutions in this
country. The articles that have appeared
in the "Century" (Glasgow, Mar., '90;
London, Nov., '90; Paris, July '91, and
Budapest, June '92) give in somewhat
altered form the substance of the lectures.

Much of the article on Budapest is de-
voted to a description of the city and its
recent rapid growth. The government of
the city follows the usual European model.
There is the single large municipal council,
consisting in this case of four hundred

members elected for six years. Two hun-
dred are chosen by the electors from a list
of the 1200 largest tax-payers (men of
liberal education being rated for double
their property) and two hundred are
elected from the body of the citizens.
The executive officers (burgomaster, two
vice-burgomasters and ten magistrates) are
elected by the council for a term equal to
their own. Each of the ten magistrates is
in charge of a special administrative de-
partment. This brief outlines is enough
to show how little the methods of foreign
cities, are suited to the needs of our own.

There is some sign of an awakening in
this country on the subject of the improve-
ment of our roads. Heading magazines,
such as the "Century" and "Forum"
give space to articles upon this subject and
a special magazine has been started under
the name of "Our Common Roads "which
seeks to arouse interest by comparing
x^merican and foreign roads by means of
photographic cuts. More recently Col.
Albert Pope has addressed an open letter
to the public in which he urges that the
opportunity of the World's Columbian Ex-
position be improved to teach the great
lesson of the need, the construction and
the maintenance of good roads and he
offers a liberal subssription to any fund
that may be needed for that purpose. Dr.
Peabody, Chief of the Department of
Liberal Arts of the Exposition, truly writes
that "There can be no doubt that the sub-
ject of roads is one of paramount import-
ance to the country. Whether on the
gravelly soil of Massachusetts, the clays of
New York and Indiana, or the prairies of
the Mississippi valley our common roads
are worse than those in any other civilized
country. No other material interest in
the United States rests under so dense a
cloud of ignorance. No improvement
would so greatly aid the American farmer
as that which would give him good roads.
Of course there are many reasons why our
roads are so much inferior to those of
Europe. There is the larger area to be


covered, the comparatively short period
of settlement and the higher price of labor.
But making allowance for these causes, the
fact remains that the roads are not as good
as the time and labor spent upon them
should make them. The principal reasons
are. two; First, the wasteful system of
labor tax, especially bad in towns and
cities, and Second, .the almost universal
ignorances of the proper methods of road
making. The Centenial Exposition taught
American bakers how to make good bread.
If the Columbian Exposition will teach the
American people how to make good roads,
it will be well worth the cost.

During the summer vacation the pub-
lications of the American Statistical asso-
ciation for 1888-89 have been bound in-
to one volume and placed in the library.
These publications are probably the least
noticed of any quarterly to be found in
the reading room, and yet to all students
of Economics they should prove of the
greatest value, especially when bound into
volume form. The most noted men of
those who are interested in determing
economic and social question by an appeal
to ascertained facts write for this journal.
The leading articles published in it are all
of them scholarly inquiries, based upon
statistical methods, and drawing only such
conclusions as it seems possible to draw
logically from the data given. There are
also short suggestive articles or topics for
study and methods of work.
■ A few of the interesting articles in the
volume in the library are as follows:

Key to the Publications of the United
States Census 1880-1887.

Life Insurance in the United States.

Notes on the Statistical Determination
of the Causes of Poverty.

American Railroad Statistics.

Finance Statistics of the American Com-

Prison Statistics of the United States
for 1888.

Statistics of Divorce in the United
States and Europe.

These are but a few of the many articles,
and it is impossible to understand their val-
ue without an examination of the articles.

The "Key to the Publications of the
United States Census 1790-1886," is most
valuable to any student economics who
wishes to investigate some particular so-
cial questions, but who is appalled by the
seeming look of order and arrangement in
Census publications. The "Key" makes
it all plain. The various topics are classi-
fied under their proper heads, and the
year, volume, page and specific heading as
given. Take for example one classifica-
tion given as "Social Questions Connected
with Manufactures." Under this head
references are given in all the Census pub-
lications on trade societies, strikers and
lockouts, wages, necessaries of life, and
factory system. The publication of the
Census Bureau from 1850 down are in the
library, so that here is a good field for
some special observation of the working of
conoraic laws. To the average student,
the main difficulty has been how to get hold
of statistics. The publications of the
American Statistical Association help to
bridge the difficulty. Consider being of
great value in nothing special examination
of Social question. In addition to the
bound volume mentioned, the quarterly is
taken regularly and is to be found in the
reading room.

We have received "Compayre's History
of Pedogogy." It is the best history of
pedogogy published in English. It is not
a history of education nor does the
author make any such pretensions. Cover-
ing such a wide field it is difficult for the
author to make extended discussions of
each separate period, but the material at
hand has been carefully sifted and the
leading thoughts presented in each phase
of the developing steps of pedagogy. It
is a very valuable supplement to the work
of a class ift the history of education.





FOR 1892-93.


Instruction in this department is given by
means of lectures, conferences, recitations, dis-
cussions, and personal direction in study and
research. As the library is an indispensable aid
in the pursuit of the following courses of study,
students are expected to become acquainted
with the best methods of collecting and classify-
ing materials, and of writing and presenting
papers on special topics. All lectures are sup-
plemented by required reading and class exer-

The work of the department now embraces
five principal lines of study, namely: European
History, American History and Civil Govern-
ment, Political Institutions, Sociology or Social
Institutions, and Political Economy.

The following studies are offered for 1892-'98:


1. The History of Civilization. Lectures
daily, at 8:30. Ancient Society, and the intel-
lectual development of Europe to the twelfth
century. Special attention is given to the influ-
ence of Greek philosophy and the Christian
chutch on European civilization, the relation of
learning to liberal government, and to the rise
of modern nationality.

2. French and German History. Daily,
at 9:30. Descriptive history. Text-book.

3. Historical Method and Criticism.
Tuesday and Thursday, at 9:30. Examination
and classification of sources and authorities.
Analysis of the works of the best historians.
Library work, with collection and use of mater-
ial, notes, and bibliography. Special attention
to current historical and economic literature.

4. The History of Education and the
Development of Methods of Instruction.
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 9:30. This
course may be taken with No. 3. A course for

5. EJnglish History. Daily, at 11. Descrip-
tive history. Text-book.

6. Journalism. Monday, Wednesday, and
Friday, at 13. Lectures, laboratory and library

work. English: Twenty-five lecturts by Prof-
essors Dunlap and Hepkins; 15 lectures on the
history and ethics of journalisn, by Professor
Adams. Newspaper bureau. The principal
object of the bureau is to enable students to
form habits of systematic reading, to keep in-
formed on the topics of the day, and to preserve
clippings properly filed and indexed. This
course will be found highly beneficial to stu-
dents who desire a special study in magazines
and newspapers as a general culture.

7. Statistics. Tuesday and Thursday at
12. Supplementary to all studies in economics
and sociology. The method of using statistics
is taught by actual investigation of political and
social problems, lectures, and class-room prac-
tice. The history and theory of statistics
receive due attention.

8. American History. From the earliest
discovery to 1763. Lectures, topical reading,
and recitations. Three hours a week at 2.

9. Local and Municipal Goverment.

Lectures and topical reading. Two hours a
a week at 2.

Courses 8 and 9 are intended to be taken to- '
gether as a full study, but may be taken sepa-

10. American History. Presidential ad-
ministrations from Washington to Jackson.
Daily, at 3. Open to Seniors in full standing,
and to other students upon approval of the

1 1 . International La^v and Diplom.acy.

Lectures and recitations. Two hours a week,
at .4.

12. Political Economy. Daily, at 4. The
fundamental principles are discussed, elaborated
and illustrated by examples from present eco-
nomic societj'. A brief history of Political
Economy closes the course.


13. Institutional History. Lectures
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 8:30, on
comparative politics and administration. Greek
Roman, and Germanic institutions compared.
Historical significance of Roman law in the
middle eges. Short study in Prussian adminis-

14. Renaissance and Reformation.

Tuesday and Thursday, at 8:30. Lectures.
The revival of learning with especial reference
to the Italian renaissance, A careful inquiry
into the cause, course and results of the Refor-
mation. This course may be taken as a
continuation of number 1 .


1 5. Political History o f Modern Eu-
rope. Tuesday' and Thursday at 9:30. Text-

16. Federal Government and the
French Revolution. Lectures, Monday,
Wednesday, and Friday, at 9:30, on Switzer-
land. The Italian republics and the States
General of France.

17. Constitutional History of England.
Tuesday and Thursday, at 9:30. This course
may be taken as a continuation of number 5.
Text-book and lectures.

18. Elements of Sociology. Lectures,
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 11. Evo-
lution of social institutions. Laws and condi-
tions that tend to' organize society. Modern
social institutions and social problems.

19. Charities and Correction. Tuesday
and Thursday, at 11. Treatment of the poor
from a historical standpoint. Modern scientific
charity. The treatment of criminals. Prisons
and reformatories. Practical study of Kansas
institutions. This course is supplementary- to
number 18.

20. Land Tenures. Lectures, Tuesday
and Thursday, at 12. This course treats of
primitive property, the village community,
feudal tenures, and modern land-holding in
Great Britain and the United States. This
course is mainly historical, and is an excellent
preparation for the study of the law of real

21. American History. Continuation of
course 8. First half-term: Histor}' of the Rev-
olution and the Confederation, 17G3 to 1769.
Second half-term: Brief summary of the consti-
tutional period, with Johnston's "American
Politics" as a text-book. Three hours a week,
at 2.

22. Constitutional La-w. History of the
adoption of the constitution, and a studj' of its
provisions. Twice a week, at 2. Forms, with
course 21, a full study, but may be taken

23. American History. Continuation of
course 10. Presidential administrations from
Jackson to Lincoln. Daily, at 3.

24. Mediaeval History. Two-fifths of
the second term of the Freshman year. For all
students whose admission papers show that
they have had elementary physics, hygiene and
chemistry. Dailj', at 3. Text-book.

25. Principles of Public Finance. Lec-
tures on public 'industries, budget legislation,
taxation and public debts. Open to students
who have studied political economy one term.
Two hours a week, at 4.

26. The Status of "Woman. Confer-
ences. Tuesday and Thursday, at 4 Indus-
trial condition, including a study of labor,
wages, etc. Woman in the professions. Their
political and legal abilities and disabilities.
Property rights. Condition of woman in Europe
and the Orient. Social questions.

27. Advanced Political Economy.
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 4. (Con-
sisting of (a) lectures on applied economics; (&)
practical observation and investigation; and (c)
methods of research, with papers by students
on special topics. This course is a continuation
of number 12.

General Seminary, on Friday, at 4. Stu-
dents in History and Sociology are required to
attend the Seminary unless excused by special
arrangement. Full credit will be allowed for
time spent in Seminary work. At the beginning
of the term, students may elect other work in
place of the seminar}^, if fliey choose.


I. Economics. Courses 7, 12, 18, 19, 20,
and 27.

II. European History. Courses, 2, 3, 5,

13, 15, and 16.

III. American History. Courses 8, 9, 10,
21, 22, and 23.

IV. Social Institutions. Courses, 1, 12,

14, 18, 19, and 4 (or 26).

V. Political Institutions. Courses 3, 7,
9, 15, 13, 16, 17, 20, and 22.


Persons desiring to take the degree of A. M.

Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 37 of 62)