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may do so by the completion of any one or all
of the following courses. The work is carried
on by the investigation of special topics under
the personal direction of the instructor. An
hour for conference will be arranged for each
student. The courses extend throughout the
year.

I. American History. Open to graduates
and students who have studied American His-
tory two years.

II. Economics. Open to graduates and
students who have taken the undergraduate
work in political economj'. Courses 12, 27,
and 8.

Ill Political and Social Institutions.
Open to graduates and students who have taken
the undergraduate work in the history of insti-
tutions and sociology. Courses 12, 27, and 7.

The above courses are for students who de-
sire proficiency in a special line. These courses
will not in any way interfere with the general
rules of the Faculty respecting graduate work.



SEMINA RY NO TES.



23



Protestant Revolution, Cox's Greece, and others
(Catalogue, 1891 -'93, pp. 120, 121.) By these
rules, a graduate student may take any of the
27 courses mentioned above (except 1 5 and 24) as
a preparation for the degree of A. M.

Preparation for Entrance to the Uni-
versity. The time spent in the high schools
in the study of history is necessarily limited.
For this reason it is essential that the greatest
care be.exercised in preparing students for en-
trance into the University. At present very
little historj' is required in the Freshman and
Sophomore years, and the students enter upon
the study of the Junior and Senior years with-
out thorough preparation for the Avork. It
would seem that the aim should be for all those
who contemplate entering the University to
learn the story of nations pretty thoroughly. A
general outline of the world's historj' with a
special study of the United States History and
government represents the field. But this out-
line should be more than a mere skeleton of
facts and dates. It should be well rounded
with the political, social, and economic life
of the people. Students will find a general
text-book, such as Myer's, Sheldon's, or Fisher's,
indispensible; but the work of preparation
ought not to stop here. Such works as Fyffe's
Greece, Creighton's Rome, Seebohm.'s Era of



in the Primer, Epoch, and Stories of Nations
series ought to be read. The object of this
reading is to familiarize the student with the
political and social life of the principle nations
of the world. For this purpose everything
should be as interesting as possible. Such an
interest should be aroused that the student
would not be puzzled over dates and threadbare
facts, but would seize and hold those things
that are useful on account of the interest his
mind has in them. That history which is
gained by a bare memor}' of events is soon lost.
It grows too dim for use and consequently leads
to confusBon. With the story of the nations
well learned the student comes to the University
prepared for the higher scientific study of history
and its kindred topics. He is then ready for
investigation, comparison and analysis. He
then takes up the real investigation of the phil-
osophy of institutions and of national develop-
ment. He is then ready for the science of
Sociology, Institutional History, Political Econ-
omy, the Science of Government, Statistics or
Political Economy. Students who enter the
University without this preparation find it
necessarj' to make up for it as. best they can by
the perusal of books, such as those mentioned
above.



24



SEMINA RY NOTES.



STUDENTS' LIBRARIES.

Every student in the University should lay the foundation of a good working library. Such libraries are
not "made to order" at some given time, under specially favorable financial conditions— but are the result of
considerable sacrifice, and are of slow growth. The wise expenditure of even ten dollars in each term will
bring together books which if thoroughly mastered will be of great assistance in all later life. Room-mates,
or members of the same fraternity, by combining their libraries and avoiding the purchase of duplicates, can
soon be in possession of a most valuable collection of authors. Assistance in selecting and in purchasing will
be given upon application.

The prices named below are the list prices of the publishers.

Students are required to purchase books marked with an asterisk.
American Book Company, Cmcago.



Manual of the Constitution, Andrews % 1.00

Analysis of Civil Government, Townsend 1.00

Civil Government, Peterman .' 60

History of England, Thalheimer 1.00

MediBBval and Modern History, Thalheimer 1.60

Outlines of History, Fisher 2.40

General History of the World, Barnes 1-60

Political Economy, Gregory 1-20

Lessons in Political Economy, Champlin .90

Ginn & Co., Boston and Chicago.

Ancient History, Myers & Allen % 1.50

Mediseval and Modern History, Myers 1.50

Political Science and Comparative Law, Burgess, 5.00

Macy's Our Government. 75

♦General History, Myers 1.50

Leading facts in English History, Montgomery... \.Vi

Philosophy of Wealth, Clark 1.00

Political Science Quarterly, Yearly... 3.00

Washington and His Country, Fiske 1.00

Harpers, New York.

♦History of Germany, Lewis 1.50

♦International Law, Davis 2.00

♦Political History of Modern Times, Mueller 2.00

♦Short English History, Green l.SO

Civil Policy of America, Draper 2.00

History of English People, Green, 4 vols 10.00

History of United States, Hildreth, 6 vols 13.00

The Constitution, Story 90

Holt & Co., New York.

♦American Politics, Johnston $ 1.00

American Colonies, Doyle, 3 vols 9.00

American Currency, Sumner 3.50

History of Modern Europe, Fyffe, 3 vols 7.50

Political Economy, Walker 3.25

Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston.

Discovery of America. Fiske, 2 vols $ 4.00

American Commonwealths, 14 vols., each 1.35

American Statesmen, 34 vols.; each 1.25

American Revolution, Fiske, 2 vols 4.00

Critical Period of American History. Fiske 2.00

Epitome of History, Ploetz ,. 3.00

Christopher Columbus, Winsor 4.00

Appleton, New York.

Dynamic Sociology, V/ard, 2 vols $ 5.00

History of Civilization, Guizot 1.35

Political Economy, Mill, 2 vols 6.00



Cranston & Stowe, Chicago.
♦Political Economy, Ely



1.00



Macmillan, New York.
Constitutional History, England, Stubtos, 3 vols..$ 7.80
Principles of Economics, Marshall, vol. I 3.00



Armstrong, New York.
♦Democracy in Europe, May, 2 vols $ 8.50

G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York and London.

♦American Citizen's Manual, Ford. $ 1.25

Unwritten Constitution of the U. S., Tiedeman... 1.00

History of Political Economy, Blanqui 3.00

Introduction to Eng. Econon. Hist, and Theory,

Ashley 1.50

Indust. and Com. Supremacy of Eng., Rogers 3.00

Economic Interpretations of History, Rogers 3.00

Constitutional History of the U.S., Sterne 1.25

♦Tariff History of the United States, Taussig. 1.85

The Story of Nations, 34 vols., each 1.50

Heroes of the Nations, IS vols., each 1.50

American Orations, ed. by Johnston, 3vols., each 1.25

Callaghan & Co., Chicago.
Constitutional History of U. S., Von Hoist, 6 vol $30.00

Constitutional Law of U. S., Von Hoist 2.00

Political Economy, Roscher, 3 vols 6.00

Crowell, New York.

♦History of France, Duruy $ 2.00

Labor Movement in America, Ely 1.50

Life of Washington, pop. ed., Irving, 2 vols 8.50

Problems of To-day, Ely 1.50

Little, Brown & Co., Boston.

History of Greece, Grote, 10 vols $17.50

Parkman's Works, per vol 1.50

Rise of the Republic, Frothingham 3. .'50

Longmans, Green & Co., New York.

Epochs of Ancient History, each vol $ 1.00

Epochs of Modern History, each vol 1.00

Political Economy, pop. ed.. Mill.... L75

The Crusades, Cox 1.00

Scrihners, New^ York.

♦American Diplomacy, Schuyler $ 3.50

History of Rome. Mommsen, 4 vols 8.00

Lombard Street, Bagehot 1.85

Silent South, Cable 1.00

t-. liver Burdett & Co., Boston.

♦Historical Atlas, Labberton $1..50 or $ 2.00

♦Historical Geography of U. S., MacCoun 1.00

♦Institutes of Economics, Andrews 1..50

Institues of General History, Andrews 2.00

Dodd, Mead & Co., New York.

History of United States, Schouler, 5 vols $11.50

D. C. Heath & Co., Boston.

♦The State, Woodrow Wilson $ 3.00

Principles of Political Economy, Gide 2.00

Methods of Teaching History, Hall 1.50

General History, Sheldon 1.60

♦Old South Leaflets, 28 Nos., each 05

History Topics, Allen 85

State and Fed. Governments of the U. S., Wilson 50

The American Citizen, Dole 90

Comparative View of Governments, Wenzel.... 20

Studies in American History, Sheldon— Barnes... 1.12



Any book in the above list will be furnished by the Lawrence Book Co., Crew^'s old stand, 745 Mass.



SEMINARY NOTES.

State University — Lawrence, Kansas.



Vol. II.



NOVEMBER, 1892.



No. 2.



SEMINARY OF HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL SCIENCE.



All students connected with the department
of History and Sociology are. by virtue of such
connection, members of the Seminary. All
students are expected to attend the Seminary
unless excused by the instructors of the depart-
ment. Students are credited Avith the time
spent in Seminary work.

The meetings of the Seminary are lield every
Friday, in Room 15, University Building'.
Public meetings will be held from time to
time, after due announcement.

The work of the Seminary consists of special
papers and discussions, on topics connected
with the Department mentioned; prepared
as far as possible from consultation of
original sources and from practical investi-
gation of existing conditions, under the per-
sonal direction of the officers of the Seminary.

Special assistance in choice of themes,
authorities, etc., is given members of the
Seminary, who have written work due in the
department of History and Sociology, or in
the Department of English, or in any of the
literary societies or other similar organiza-
tions in the University; on condition that the
results of such work shall be presented to the
Seminary if so required.

In connection with the work of the Semi-
nary, a Newspaper bureau is maintained. In
this the leading cities of the United States
are represented by some twenty daily and
weekly newspapers. The principal object of
the Bureau is to enable students to form
habits of systematic reading, to keepinformed
on the current topics of the day, to study the
best types of modern Journalism, to learn to
discriminate between articles of temporary
value only and those of more permanent
worth, to make a comparative study of edi-
torial M'ork, to master for the time being the
current thought on any particular subject,
and to preserve by clippings properly filed and
indexed, important materials for the study of
current history and public life — to make his-
tory by the arrangement and classification of
present historical matter.

Special investigation and study will be
undertaken during each year, bearing on some
one or more phases of the administration of
public affairs in this State; the purpose being



to combine service to the State with the reg-
ular work of professional and student life.
In this special work the advice and co-oper-
ation of State and local officials and of
prominent men of affairs is constantly sought,
thus bringing to students the experience and
judgment of the world about them.

Graduates of our own University, or other
persons of known scholarly habits, who have
more than a passing interest in such work as
the Seminary undertakes, and who are willing
to contribute some time and thought to its
success, are invited' to become corresponding
members of the Seminary. The only condi-
tion attached to such membership is, that
each corresponding member shall prepare
during each University year one paper, of not
less than two thousand five hundred words,
on some subject within the scope of the Sem-
inary; and present the same in person at such
time as may be mutually agreed upon by the
writer and the officers of the Seminary, or in
writing if it be found impossible to attend
a meeting of the Seminary.

The library of the University and the time
of the officers of the Seminary are at the
service of corresponding members, in con-
nection with Seminary work — within reason-
able limits.

More than twenty gentlemen, prominent in
official and professional circles, have already
connected themselves with the Seminary, and
have rendered very acceptable service during
past years.

The officers and members of the Seminary
wiil gladly render all possible assistance to
any public officials who may desire to collect
special statistics or secure definite informa-
tion on such lines of public work as are
properly within the sphere of the Seminary.

Any citizen of Kansas interested in this
work is invited to correspond with the Semi-
nary, and to be present at its meetings when
possible.

FRANK AV. BLACKMAR,

Director.
FRANK H. HO ODER,

ViOE-DlRECTOR.

EPHRAJM D, ADAMS,

Secretary.



26



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



COLUMBUS AND THE NEW WEST.



"^'TnHE following address was delivered
^ at the State University of Nebraska
on Columbian Day:

The genius of this day points alike to
the life of the middle ages, that period of
great faith and half knowledge, and to the
present life of industrial and intellectual
activity. It claims both periods as its
own and unites in historical sequence the
past four hundred years of events. It
acknowledges in Columbus and his dis-
covery the possibility, and in the present
life the results, of unsurpassed progress.
If the bold deeds of Columbus may not be
passed by on Columbian day, neither may
the sentiment that creates the Columbian
exposition be neglected. In this eventful
year in American history, in which an in-
ventory is to be made of the world's
progress, when we are to consider the vast-
ness of the resources of our nation, which
the lavish hand of nature has granted us,
and the products of art and learning as
the index of intellectual activity, we can-
not be unmindful of the sturdy mariner
who first opened up the ocean highway
between the old world and the new. Nor
can we consider for a moment the great
discoverer without reflecting on the far-
reaching consequences of his daring
achievements. So a two-fold idea must
attend the Columbian day celebration; the
consideration of the greatness of the new
west, and due honor to the man who made
this greatness possible; the dreams and
struggles of the old worlfi, and the tri-
umphs of the new. It has been frequently
said that republics are ungrateful, and,
perhaps, this may be true in the earliest
stages of their life, when, struggling for
the liberty of the many, they forget the
individual. But I ask if you can iind a
more sublime picture in all history than
that of the people of this proud and
wealthy republic, turning away from a
view of their own greatness to honor the



bold mariner of Italy, sailing under the
Spanish flag, who opened up the ocean
. highway four hundred years ago. But
there are potent reasons for this, because
thinking people recognize that the deeds
of Columbus opened up a new world and
a new life, and that honor to his name
grows with the pace of fleeting years. The
results of this uncommon voyage have
magnified its importance with the sweep
westward of each succeeding wave of civ-
ilization.

Men have tried to rob Columbus of his
well-earned fame; they have assailed his
personal character; they have said that he
was a narrow theologian and a religious
fanatic, not a philosopher; that he acted
as a servile slave to the monarchs of
Spain. But it must be remembered that
he lived in an age of narrow theology and
that he owed much to the Christian faith
for success. Behold him after repeated
rebuffs at the courts of Europe! His
form is bent, for age is creeping on. His
long white hair streams over his shoulders
as he walks the streets of Cordova and
Seville, and as he passes by the boys of
the street point to the man possessed with
one controlling thought, and draw their
hands across their foreheads significantly.
Still persistent, though sad and dejected,
he starts for the court of France. On
his way he enters the monastery of La
Rabida and the venerable prior Juan Perez
opens the way to the heart of the queen of
Spain. It is a servant of the church that
gains the promise of aid from the Spanish
sovereigns. Ought Columbus not to have
faith in the church? Again, out of all the
sovereigns of Europe, the monarchs of
Spain alone had given him aid. Ought
he not to render them humble s'ervice?
His critics have asserted that he was vain
and presumptuous and demanded great
rewards for his services, which no true
discoverer would do. They have said



SEMINARY NOTES.



27



that he was as cruel as he was vain, and
that his conduct toward sailors and Indians
was incompatible with a noble character.
When threatened with mutiny by the cruel
semi -barbarous sailors who accompanied
him, could he be otherwise than severe
with a heartless crew, when so much was
at stake? Again his critics have accused
him of mercenary motives in demanding,
as his reward for multiplying the territory
of Spanish dominion, that he secure an
eighth of the income and be created ad-
miral and governor of the newly discovered
province. But, let us remember that Spain
had just entered upon a policy of reward-
ing those who served the crown by large
possessions and larger titles. Columibus
was conforming to the custom of the time.
And in those days of uncertainty and
treachery his wisdom is to be commended
for settling the compensation before he
entered upon the hardships and perils of a
voyage upon unknown waters. One might
as well condemn the Pilgrim fath'ers, who
"sought freedom to worship God," for,
at the same time, seeking better economic
conditions. Glorious as their life and
sentiments have ever been, a case was
never known in which they or their de-
scendants have failed, when opportunity
offered, to claim a just reward for faith-
ful service; nor have they ever declined
to turn an honest penny whenever they
could. As it was, Columbus risked life,
property and all in the interest of Spain,
and he had a right to make his own terms
with the Spanish monarchs.

His detractors have said that he did not
know that he had discovered a new world,
but supposed that he had reached the out-
lying islands of India. Neither did the
millions whom he left behind knoAv this
until some other explorers, following the
track which Columbus had made, at last
determined that a new continent had been
discovered. A large portion of the people
of Europe, to this day, do not quite know
what it was that Columbus discovered.
Nay, even descendants of some of the first
settlers of America, very good people



indeed, living on the Atlantic seaboard,
do not yet quite know what it all means.
The Columbian exposition will doubtless
enlighten them. They, as well as the
people of the west, will realize more fully
what were the results of this great discov-
ery. They will in the future make a
closer application of that verse,

"Westward the course of empire takes its way."

But granting commofi faults to the hero
wf this day four hundred years ago, he is
more worthy of our honest admiration as
time reveals his true character and his just
relations to history. There was an ele-
ment of greatness in his character. He
was a man of large ideas and of great
plans. Others had started westward before
his time, but they were not equal to the
occasion. They returned without discov-
ery. Call him dreamer if you will, but
his dreams were capable of interpretation
and demonstration. Better say, while
other men dreamed, Columbus acted. It
took a man of large capacity and practical
activity to discover America, even while
he was searching for India.

He was a man of faith. Consider, if
you please, the crude maps of the day,
the imperfect knowledge of the world;
c'onsider that the hints and helps that
Columbus had were only conjectures; and
observe how tenaciously he clings to the
idea that he will reach India and Cathay
by sailing due west. Notice with what
persistency he continues his course, while
his companions try to persuade him to
return, or cause him to deviate from his
chosen way. Behold again with what
bravery he commands men who threaten
mutiny as he sails into an unknown sea,
2,500 miles from his home. With anxious
soul he studies the stars and watches
eagerly for land;' meanwhile he bids his
companions hope and calms their fears.
IJis indomitable will, abiding faith and
ready courage ruled the day and brought
a triumph.

There was doubtless more faith than
philosophy in the life of Columbus. Con-
sider his departure from home to seek aid



28



SEMINARY NOTES.



from the sovereigns of Europe; consider
his failures at the courts of Venice and
Genoa; contemplate his repeated appeals
to the monarchs of Portugal and Spain.
He never lost faith in his own undertak-
ings; he was true to his honest convic-
tions. Note well, then, that the great
achievements of the world have been per-
formed by men of faith and firm convic-
tions.

As a student and philosopher, his
research was not the broadest nor the
most profound of his times, but he was a
specialist in geography and navigation.
Beyond this, he had the power of trans-
forming the knowledge of other men into
activity. He would act while men dreamed"
and conjectured. How often it is that he
who succeeds knows best how to turn his
learning to account.

Some have tried to rob the great discov-
erer of his well earned glory by saying
that the Norsemen discovered America,
centuries before the time of Columbus,
and that the credit did not belong to the
hero of the south. If the Norsemen dis-
covered America in the eleventh century,
it was so poorly done that it must be done
over again before anybody fully realized
it. The fact is, the Norsemen added no
valuable knowledge to Europe of the
newly discovered country. Columbus fol-
lowed Toscanelli, who in turn followed the
Greek-Italian idea of a short route to
India. The meager knowledge that a few
sea-rovers had landed at Vineland had
faded from history and had become for-
gotten. Indeed it had never become the
history of Europe. • Four hundred years
of inaction will rust out the best of knowl-
edge and obliterate unimportant events.
As far as Europe was concerned, it was as
if the voyages had never been made.

His critics have said that he borrowed
his knowledge of others. But what was
this knowledge that he borrowed but con-
jectures and dreams, which the boldest
navigators prior to Columbus could not
verify? Granting that he did gain knowl-
edge from other explorers and geographers,



he spent many years in patient self-denial
and study, with the rebuffs of kings and
the derision of courtiers and the unbelief
of sages, but he persisted until, sailing due
west, and not by the way of Iceland, he
discovered America to Europe. It mat-
ters not that the Norsemen had touched
upon the northern coasts centuries before
and had retained half forgotten ideas of
those ancient voyages. These traditions
would have remained buried until now
had not some Columbus re-discovered
America. It matters not how many philos-
ophers and geographers had traditions of
this country, nor how many had dreamed
of its discovery, it still remained for the
bold Genoese sailor to open up the high-
wa)f of the seas, and this act has brought
more profound consequences than any
other event of history.

There is a tendency to heroize the
action of gieat men in proportion to the
consequences of their deeds of valor or
wisdom. " "Columbus went from capital
to capital offering, though he knew it not,
the new world in exchange for three ships
and provisions for twelve months, " - /'czjv/^.
Even after the exchange had been made,
the new discovery for a long time was
known to but few individuals in the court
and among the friends of the discoverer.
It was not until the rise of new nations
had developed the possibilities of the new
world, that the fame of this discovery was
written in indelible lines.

If we leave that age of romance and
speculation, the age of awakened but un-
directed intellect, the days of nation build-
ing in the old world, and turn our atten-
tion to the followers of Columbus who
have been building new nations on the
western continent, the contrast is so vivid
as to be startling. If we but consider the
results of this single voyage during the



Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 38 of 62)