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world. I. H. Morse.





ATIONS are not made in a single


(g^.^ day. A political or commercial union
may result from peculiar necessities of
peoples whose ordinary interests are the
most diverse; but before such a union can
become a nation, military force must be
replaced by common interests. A nation
must be founded on the likeness, the affec-
tions of the people; and these depend upon
natural conditions.

The most important of these are: (jeo-
graphical position, unity of race, language,
social institutions and commercial inter-
ests. Wide diversity of climate produces
great differences in the character, pursuits
and interests of the people. Hence arise
obstacles to national unity.

In no way is this Republic an exception
to the laws of national growth. Declara-
tions and battles and constitutions do not
overcome natural conditions and antagonis-
tic social institutions growing from them;
nor do they create national feeling. The
national idea had to grow — had to grow
from the most intense sectional feeling.

In unity of race, language, religion, and
in isolation from England lay the most fa-
vorable tendencies to union. These were
strengthened by common dangers from the
Indians and the French. England had
always been the object of patriotism.
When the separation came Virginia be-
came that for Virginians, Pei'insylvania
that for Pennsylvanians. Commercial in-
terests compelled the states to give some
power to a central government. The
union was not the result of national feeling,
State rights sentiment was the naturally
prevalent and stronger one. Hamilton's
financial policy; the organization of the
Supreme Court on a federal basis; the
show of power in suppressing the whiskey
rebellion; all these did much toward creat-
ing national feeling. Yet for years the
union was universally regarded as only a
doubtful experiment and its downfall pre-

dicted. Disunion was a common threat
both North and South. Colonial spirit
showed itself in parties based on European
politics. To such division can be traced
the war of 1812. At its close the national
idea went a great way ahead as is shown
by the new tariff laws, the system of in-
ternal improvements, the more national
character of Supreme Court decisions, and
the disappearance of party rancor.

But on the admission of Missouri the
slavery question became prominent. The
existence of slavery in one section and not
in another was due primarily to climate.
The tariff troubles of 1832 rested on slav-
ery. From 1825 national feeling declined,
and more than ever political parties as-
sumed a sectional character. The nulli-
fication troubles showed it plainly; the
slaveholder's war for territory in 1848 was
a further indication; and the conflict over
the division of the territory showed the
division of the two sections complete.
During the fifties two nations existed
under one flag. In 1861 the Southern one
adopted new colors and started out alone.
(3ut of the conflict that ensued the national
idea gained much strength. Slavery dis-
appeared, and with it many minor distract-
ing questions, /^s nationalizing influences
since the war may be mentioned; (i) The
greater diffusion of population North and
South, tending to break down sectional
feeling and to overcome effects of climate;
(2) Growth of a national literature; (3)
The spread of popular education; (4) The
habit of living together; (5) Respect that
comes of a show of power.

But national unity is by no means per-
fect. Denationalizing influences still exist.
Our hope for the future lies in a fair and
honest policy toward all sections and all
interests — similar privileges to all, special
favors to none — thus making possible
that sympathy upon which national unity
must be based.

Geo, O. Virtue,




^rnn HE adjustment
,^§culation has 2.


of our monetary cir-
always been difficult.
The difficulty arises from, (i) a lack of
of knowledge on the part of voters and
legislators; (2) on account of the essential
disturbances of financial legislation; (3)
from the failure to make artifical rules
coincide with the laws of supply and
demand; ^^4) from the interference of
speculation and, (5) from the over-esti-
mation of the power of legislaiton to
remove evils.

Gold and silver have been determined
by the nations' of the world to be the best
materials for money. At present the world
needs both gold and silver to complete its
exchanges. It would be a great loss to
dispense with either. They give stead-
iness to value, and faciliate exchanges.
As they are both natural products of the
United States they should both be used as
far as is consistent with sound currency.

It is difficult to obtain a perfect standard
of value. Even gold varies in its pur-
chasing power. There is greater difficulty
in maintaining a parity of value between
gold and silver. Cheap money drives
dear money out of the market; provided
(i) that there is not 'a great need of both
in the exchanges of a country; (2) that
there is a demand for the dearer metal
abroad, and, (3) that the people do not
positively refuse to use the cheap money.
This is not a theory of political economists
but a fact; as the laws of 1792, 1834, 1853
and 1878 will, testify.

There are European countries that want
gold in the place of silver. Free coinage
in the United States means that we would
lose our gold, or else that we will have a
•cheap money; probably both results would
follow. The first effect would be to ad-
advance the price of silver on account of
the increased demand. The second effect
would be to cheapen silver on account of
increased supply. We need more money
but we wish to use silver and retain our
our gold. An international agreement if
carried out might give stability to both
gold and silver on account of universal
and simultaneous demand of both metals
by all nations.

The present per capita circulation in the
United States is $25. 17. From March ist,
1889 to March ist, 1891 the increase of
currency per capita was $2.54. In the
mean time about ^50,000,000 of bank


notes was withdrawn. This makes the
normal rate of increase about $1.50 per
annum. The present law allows an in-
crease of silver money to the extent of
$32,000,000 per annum. It enables the
government to issue $67,000,000 in silver
coin and silver certificates. The total
product of silver in the United States in
1889 was $64,000,000. The government
therefore uses more than the normal pro-
duct of silver for money.

Money is a comodity in the market as
well as a medium of exchange. Its pur-
chasing power depends upon the laws of
supply and demand. When the demand
ceases its purchasing power ceases. If
there is just money enough to easily com-
plete exchanges, any increase of the volume
of currency above this point will not in-
crease its purchasing power. To creaite
more money than is needed is like creating
more plows than may be be used; those
not in use are a waste of capital.

What would be the effects of cheap money?
If the money circulation were doubled, no
one would get any of it unless he had labor
or goods to exchange for it. If money
became cheapened one-half, then prices
would be doubled. The farmer who has
goods to sell gets twice as much for them
but pays in turn twice as much for supplies.
The farmer who has a mortgage may pay
it with half what it cost him, if he would;
but times seem so good that he borrows
more. The millionaire wants to start a
factory, and instead of calling in his secur-
ities he borrows money. After money
becomes cheap he has sense enough to
pay all he owes with half what it cost him.

Who are the borrowers of this world?
Usually the men who have wealth. The
millionaires are the greatest debtors of the
country. The ultimate result of this cheap
money is a reaction, after gold has become
dearer, and periodical hard times follow.
We want a money that tends toward cheap-
ness rather than money that tends toward
dearness. A very dear money and a very
cheap money should both be avoided. A
moderately cheap money stimulates indus-
tries and thus benefits the entire community.
It is the most productive capital there is.
We want a stable currency and yet a flex-
ible circlation. It ought to be better
distributed than it is at present. A good
system should be established and then it
should be let alone.

F. W. Blacrmak.



^ MONG financial questions, none is
;of more importance than that of pub-
lic debts. Enormous in extent, they have
come into existance almost entirely within
fifty years. This increase is accounted
for by two causes; Nationalism and Social-
ism. ' Nationalism refers to all the expenses
brought about by international relations.
Socialism means everything which the
government does aside from protection to
life and property.

The effects of public debts are of three
kinds; political, social, and industrial.
Under political tendencies, we have first
the effects of international borrowing. It
may lead to the loss of independence in
the case of weak powers. The United
States has to fear the clashing of this with
the Monroe Doctrine, and it may lead to
'serious diplomatic difficulties.

Public borrowing is also opposed to
constitutionol government. It serves to
veil the acts of public officials, and gives
the government a means to carry out a
policy without the knowledge of the people.
The great municipal corruption of the
country is due largely to the illegal use of
public credit.

A social tendency is a force that either
works some change in existing classes, or
renders classes already established more
permanent. The only social tendency of
public debts is of the latter kind. They
divide the citizens into two classes: those
who pay taxes to support the debt, and
those who receive interest from the pro-
ceeds of the taxes. Thus labor is paying
interest to capital every year. Viewed
sectionally, we find that the South and
West are paying to the East.

As to the industrial effects, so many
conditions enter that it is difficult to come
to conclucions. The first question which
arises, is whether capital is affected by the
placement of the loan, or only credit. It
affects capital only when it obtains control
of a part of the business fund of the
country. When it does not affect this, it
is a transaction in credit. This occurrs

when one debt is paid with the proceeds
of another, or when foreign bonds are sold
and the proceeds loaned to the government.
If other conditions did not enter, a foreign
loan would on this account be best.

When capital is affected, however, other
conditions enter. Here the effects fall
into three classes, according as the rate of
interest is normal, high, or excessive.
When a loan is placed at normal rates,
the only effect is to stop industrial expan-
sion. It is not probable that it raises the
current rate of interest. But as a rule,
the demands of the government require
the offering of greater inducements.
When a high rate is offered, the industries
which are on the verge of paying no profit
are given up. The money invested in
them is loaned to the government. Labor
is thrown out of employment. The same
thing happens when businesses are given
up until the return of better times. The
reasoning is similar for the effect of ab-
normally high rates. The government
soon comes into the position of a man
who uses his capital to pay his running
expenses and as for the laboring classes,
they feel the effect most, for they suffer
from the rising prices.

Yet these tendencies are not such as to
prevent the use of public credit. It may
properly be used to cover a temporary de-
ficit. The impossibility of making the
income equal exactly the expenditures, is
apparent. A deficit is attended by fewer
evils than is a surplus. The evils of the
latter have a notable example in the finan-
ces of the United States during the past
thirty years. The deficit should be as
small as possible, but on the whole it is
better than a surplus.

In spite of the classic arguments against
the payment of public debts we are forced
to the conclusion that they should be paid.
For this there are two reasons: First, the
maintenance of a debt cripples industrial
development; secondly, if rightly done,
the payment does not retard this growth.
It should be done by the appropriation
each year of a sum which should exceed
the demands of interest and of which the
surplus should go toward paying the prin-




James H. Canfield.

The following statement covers the work of
this department during the last two years of
the University course, and is made in answer
to many inquiries received hy the instructor
in charge of these topics. *

Instruction in American History and Civics
is given by means of lectures, recitations,
discussions, conferences, and personal di-
rection in study and research. Special pains
are taken to f aciliate the use of the University
' library by students carrying these topics;
, authorities closely connected with the work
in hand being withheld from general circu-
lation, and rendered more available by care-
fully prepared card indexes.

American //is-tor^/.— Instruction is given
daily for two years in American History.
The course has been prepared with especial
care, with the thought that a thorough
knowledge of the origin and development of
the Nation is one of the most essential con-
ditions of good citizenship. Marked attention
is given to social life and institutional and
industrial development; to the financial ex-
periments of the general government, and to
diplomatic relations; to the failure of the
confederation, the struggle for the constitu-
tion, and to the text of the constitution itself;
and to the constitutional and political history
of the Union from 1789 to the present.

Local Administratio7i and Law.— Thnee
conferences each week during the first term,!
covering the management of public affairs in
districts, townships, counties, cities, and
States. This course is intended to increase
the sense of the importance of home govern-
ment, as well as to give instruction in its
practical details.

FiihUc Finance and BanJilng.— Two con-
ferences each week during the first term, on
National, State, and municipal financiering;
and on theoretical and practical banking,
with the details of bank management.

(Joustitidional Law.— Three conferences
each week during the second term, on the
constitution of the United States; with brief
sketches of the institutions and events that
preceded its adoption, and with special atten-
tion to the sources and methods of its inter-

International Law and Diphmiacy. —Class
work twice each week during the second term ;
using Davis on the rise and growth of inter-
national law, and Sclmyler on the history of
American diplomacy.

The Status of Woman in the United States.
—Three conferences each week during the

second term, on the status of woman in all
countries and times; with special investiga-
tion of the present legal, political, industrial,
and professional position of women in the
different States of the American Union.

2Vie History and Methods of Legislative
Assemblies. -Two conferences each week
during the second term on the rise and
growth of legislative assemblies, their rules •
of order and methods of business.

Seminary. — Two hours each week through-
out each year.

In all this work constant effort is made to
determine the historic facts (as opposed
to mere theorizing,) to secure a fair presen-
tation of opposing views, to promote free
discussion and inquiry, and to encourage as
complete personal investigation of all
authorities as the University library permits.
This method is thought to furnish the nest
conditions for sound opinion and individual
judgment, while controlling neither.

All general correspondence should be ad-
dressed to the Chancellor of the University;
special correspondence, to the instructor
named above.


Feank W. Blackmar.

The following studies are announced for
1891 — '92, and are open to Juniors and
Seniors of all courses in the University. The
Political History of Modern Europte is re-
quired of all second-year students in English
and General Language courses.

in the following courses, the aim is to give
a comprehensive knowledge of the great
topics of European history, and to investi-
gate social, political, and economic theories
and phenomena. Facts are essential to all
historic study, yet the aim is to take the
student beyond the mere details of events,
and to inquire into the causes of the develop-
ment of society and the philosophy of insti-
tutions, that historic truth may form a basis
for an intelligent interest in modem social
and political life. To this end the study of
Sociology and Political Economy embraces
the modern economic and social problems of
to-day. .\. well regulated newspaper Bureau
makes it possible to carry investigation to

*Duriugthe llrst two years of the University course,
students have the subjects usually required iu college
courses— thouuh with choice between six lines of
work. (See University Catalogue.)

t The University year is divided into two terras, of
equal length.



the latest date. To accomplish this, instruc-
tion is given by means of lectures, text-
books, class drill, reports, discussions, and
personal direction in study and research. As
the library is the chief aid in this work,
students are expected to become acquainted
with the best methods of ci-llecting and
classifying materials, and of writing and pre-
senting papers on special topics. All lec-
tures are supplemented by required reading
and class-work,


English History —Daily. Descriptive his-
tory. A careful study of the English people,
including race elements, social and political
institutions, and national growth.

The History of Civilimtion.—Lectmes
daily, embracing ancient society, and the in-
tellectual development of Europe to the
twelfth century. Special attention is given
to the influence of Greek philosophy, the
Christian church, the relation of learning to
liberal government, and to the rise of modern

Political Economy.— 'Dailj. The funda-
mental principles are discussed and elabo-
rated by descriptive and historical methods.
All principles and theories are illustrated by
examples from present economic society. A
brief history of Tolitical Economy may be
given at the close of the course.

French and Qerman History. — Daily.
Descriptive history; including race elements,
social and political institutions, and national

Historical Ilethod and Criticism. One
hour each week. Examination and classifi-
cation of sources and authorities; analysis of
the works of the best historians; collection
and use of materials, and notes and biblio-

Statistics. — Two hours each week. Sup-
plementary to all studies in economics and
sociology. The method of using statistics is
taught by actual investigation of political
and social problems. The history and theory
of statistics receives due attention.

Journalism.— L,ectni:es three hours each
week. Laboratory and library work.

Legal and Historical. ^^-Prof. J. H. Canfleld.

English.— Pvots. Dunlap and Hopkins.

Ethics of Journalisni.^Frof.. Templin.

News2?a2)er Bureau, Magazines, and S]ie-
cial Phases of Journal in ni. — Prof.


Institutional History. — Lectures three
hours each week on comparative Politics and
Administration. Greek, Eoman and Ger-
manic institutions are compared. The his-
torical significance of Koman law is traced in
mediitval institutions.

TJie Rise of Democracy .-Lectnves two
hours each week on the rise of popular
power, and the growth of political liberty in
Europe. A comparison of ancient and
modern democracy, a study of Switzerland,
the Italian Republics, the Dutch Republic,
and the French Revolution, constitute the
principal part of the work. Students will
read May's Democracy in Europe.

Elements of Sociology.— Lectures three
hours each week on the evolution of social
institutions from the primitive unit, the
family; including a discussion of the laws
and conditions which tend to organize
society. The later part of the course is de-
voted to modern social problems and social-
istic Utopias.

Land and Land Temtres.—hectnres two
hours each week. This course treats of
primitive property, the Village Community,
feudal tenures of France and England, and
modern land-holding in Great Britain and
Ireland and the United States. Reports are
made on other countries, and on recent
agrarian theories and legislation.

Advanced Political Economy.— Three
hours each week, consisting of (o) lectures on
applied economics, (6) practical observation
and investigation, and (c) methods of re-
search, with papers by the students on
special topics.

The Political History of Modern Europe.—
Two hours each week, including the Napo-
leonic wars, German Federation, the Rise of
Prussia, the Unification of Italy, the Revolu-
tion of 1848, the Third Republic, the Russian
problem, etc.

English Constitational History.— Two
hours each week. A special study in the
principles and growth of the English consti-

Charities and Correction— Ty^o hours each
week. Various methods of treatment of the
poor. Scientific charity. Treatment of the
helpless. Prison reform. State reforma-

Seminary .—Two\\o\xv^ each week through-
out the year.




Every student in the University shonld lay tlie foundation of a good working library. Such libraries are
not "made to order" at some given time, under specially favorable financial conditions — but are the result of
considerable sacrifice, and are of slow growth. The wise expenditure of even ten dollars in each term will ^
bring together books which if thoroughly mastered will be of great assistance in all later life. Room-mates,
or members of the same fraternity, by combining their libraries and avoiding the purchase of duplicates, can
soon be in possession of a most valuable collection of authors. Assistance in selecting and in purchasing will
be given upon application.

Most of the prices nazned below are subject to discount.

Students are required to jmrchase hooks marked with an asterisk.

American Book Company, Chicago.

*Manual of the Constitution, Andrews $ 1.00

Analysis of Civil Government, To wnsend 1.00

Civil Government, Young 1.00

History of England, Thalheimer 1.00

Medieval and Modern History. Thalheimer '. 1.60

Outlines of Histoi-y, Fisher S.40

Political Economy, Cha-mplin 1.00

Political Economy. Gregorj% 1.20

Politics for Young Americans, Nordhofl .75

Ginn & Co., Boston.

General History, Myers $ 1.50

History of the Roman People, Allen 1.00

Leading facts in English History, Montgomery. .. 1 . 12

Modern Distributive Process, Clark 7.5

Philosophy of Wealth, Clark 1.00

Political Science Quarterly, Yearly '. 3.00

Railway Tariffs and Inter-State Law, Seligman.. .75

Readers' Guide to English History, Allen S5

Washington and His Country, Fiske l.OO

Harpers, New York.

*Constitution Law, Cooley, (students series) S 1.25

♦History of Germany, Lewis 1.50

*International Law, Davis 2.50

♦Political History of Modern Times,_ Muller 2.00

♦Short English History, Green 1.75

Civil Policy of America, Draper 2.50

History of English People, Green, 4 vols 10.00

History of United States. Hildreth, 6 vols.. 13.00

The Constitution, Story 1.00

Holt & Co., New York.

♦American Politics, Johnston $ 1.00

American Colonies, Doyle, 3 vols 9.00

American Currency, Sumner _ 2.50

Civil Service in United States, Comstock 2.00

Democracy and Monarchy in France, Adams 2.50

History of Modern Europe, Fylte, 3 vols 7.50

History of the United States, Johnston 1.25

Political Economy, Roscher, 2 vols 7.00

Political Economy, Walker 2.25

Houghton & Co., Boston.

♦Civil Government in United States, Fiske $

American Commonwealths, each volume

American Statesmen, each volume ^

Emancipation of Massachusetts, Adams

Epitome of History, Ploetz

Garrison and his Time, Johnson

Quaker invasion of Massachusetts, HoUowell

Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 4 of 62)