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Seminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science online

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and acute sagacity. These, curiously
enough, are the very qualities in which
recent critics have deemed Columbus con-
spicuously deficient. Of recent American
books, Professor Fiske's entertaining work
on "The Discovery of America" is largely
influenced by Irving, and presents much
the same view that the earlier writer does.
■ Mr. Winsor's volume is much the most
exhaustive work on Columbus that has
been printed in this country, but in his esti-
mate of the character and work of the man
he goes as much to the other extreme as did
Irving to the one. He finds him dishon-
est, selfish, cruel and weak. His voyage
was fool-hardy, and his discovery a blun-
der. Mr. Winsor finds so much to con-
demn that there seems nothing left to
admire. The truth, we imagine, lies half
way between these two extremes. The
moderate view has been admirably pre-
sented in a small book on Columbus, by
President Charles Kendall Adams, which
is certainly the best short account of his



life and work. We must be careful not to
judge Columbus too harshly for faults that
were common to his time. Yet it is certain
that, in point of character, he was not
abreast of the best men of his age. The
object of the Columbian Exposition is not
so much to commemorate the life of Co-
lumbus as it is to celebrate the momentous
consequences of his work. His discovery'
added a hemisphere to the then known
world, and in that hemisphere has grown
a nation, which marks, in the words of an
English critic "the highest level, not only
of material well-being, but of intelligence
and happiness, that the human race has yet

Now THAT the excitement of the national
election is past the Moot Senate will soon
be in session. The Moot Senate is regarded
with especial favor by the Notes, because
its meetings will naturally discuss such
topics as are of particular interest to the
department represented by the Notes.
In our May issue was published a short
editorial criticism of the Senate of last
year, urging that party lines should not be
drawn so firmly in the future, and that
more attention be given to the subject
matter under discussion and less to parlia-
mentary law and oratorical effort. It is
to be hoped that the Senate, this year,
will be more of a success in many ways
than was that of last year. The Senate
was started late last year, and as the
spring came on there was a marked falling
off in attendance and a loss of interest.
It was a question, perhaps, whether the
membership was really large enough lim-
ited, as it was, to Seniors and Juniors
of the literary department, and to all
special students and law students taking
any Senior or Junior work in the literary
department. This question was brought
up at a recent meeting of the law students,
held for the purpose of organizing some
sort of a society to discuss matters of
national importance. It was decided at
this meeting to form no society until an
eifort had been made to secure admission

for the law students to the Moot Senate.
A committee was appointed to see what
could be done in the matter. Last year
various objections were urged to the ad-
mission of all law students to the Senate,
the general feeling being that the meetings
would be monopolized by such students
and that the collegiate students would
stand no chance of showing their ability
or of doing real work on bills brought
forward. So far as is known no opinion
on this subject has been expressed this
year. It is a question that will have to be
decided, however, and should be thought
of carefully before any action is taken.
Those v/ho will have to decide this ques-
tion are presumably such students as are
now eligible to become members of the
Senate, who, at the first meeting, signify
their intention of becoming members.
The constitution is weak on this point,
inasmuch as it does not state clearly what
persons shall constitute the first meeting
of the Moot Senate for each ensuing year.
However article II., section 2, of the
constitution, provides that the officers of
the Senate "shall be chosen by a majority
vote of a quorum of the Senate at the first
meeting of each collegiate year." It
would certainly be unfair for the remnant
of last year's Senate to choose officers
who are to preside over the new members
since these new members would then have
no voice in the election. The inference
is a direct one, therefore, that the first
meeting of the Senate is open to "any
Senior or Junior in the collegiate depart-
ment; any special student who is taking
optional work in the collegiate department;
any law student who has taken or is taking
work in the collegiate department," sub-
ject, of course, to the regularly appointed
committee on eligibility according to the
rule just quoted. Thus it really depends
largely on the new members of the Senate
to decide whether or not the law students
shall be admitted, and the question should
be decided after careful thought and con-
sideration of the best interests of the
Senate. If the Senate really needs the



law element in order to make it a sure
and permanent success, then no ancient
prejudice between schools should stand in
the way of their admission. Or if there
is really no danger of disintegration be-
cause of admission of law students, then
in fairness they should be permitted to
enjoy the benefits of the Senate, yet the
Senate must not become unwieldy in mem-
bers. That which is insisted upon here
is, that if there are reasons why law stu-
dents should not be admitted, there are
also reasons why they should be admitted,
and that any student who expects to be a
member of the Senate should think of this
question honestly and decide it definitely
for himself before coming to the first
meeting of the Senate.

Mr. Wm. Hill, a graduate of the Kan-
sas State University in the class of 1890,
and at present a graduate student at
Harvard University, has an article on
"Colonial Tariffs " in the October number
of the Quarter/}' Journal of EcoJiomics.
It is a pleasure to note so scholarly a piece
of work as coming from the hands of a
recent graduate of our institution. As the
conclusion of his researches, Mr. Hill
says that, "On the whole, it seems prob-
able that the duties imposed in America
before the Revolution were no more than
imitations of the ordinary means which
European countries used to obtain reve-
nue, and there seems to be no evidence
that they have influenced our later tariff

Professor Carruth has made an in-
teresting contribution to local history in
his article on "Foreign Settlements in
Kansas" in the October number of the
Kajisas University Quarterly. The pro-
fessor sent circulars of inquiry to the
county superintendents throughout the
state, and the answers so far as received
report foreign settlements of thirty or more
persons in seventy-four counties in the
state: German settlements in 60, Skandi-
navian in 40, Irish in 17, Slavonic in 14,
and French in 13, l'>esides smaller numbers

of other nationalities. No reports were
received from eighteen counties. Those
who have had some experience in collecting
statistics in this way know something of
the amount of labor it involves and of the
difficulty of getting satisfactory answers.
From an historical point of view, the
results already obtained are interesting as
showing from what a mixture of races the
population of the state is made up. Prof.
Carruth is more especially interested in
the effect of this mingling of races upon
language, and appends to his article a
dialect word-list, for extending which he
invites assistance. This is woik which any
one may do with interest and profit, and
it is mentioned here in the hope that this
note may reach some who have not hap-
pened to see the original article.

"The Tariff Controversy in the United
States, 1789-1833," by Dr. O. L. Elliott,
has been issued as the first number of
Leland Stanford Junior University publi-
cations. We have not. time to review the
book at length in this issue. Suffice it to
say that it gives the best, as well as the
most complete account we have of the
early history of the tariff discussion. The
five chapters make up a volume of 275
pages. They give ist, a summary of tariff
discussion of the colonial period, 2nd, an
account of the tariff act of 1789 and Ham-
ilton's Report on Manufactures; 3d, an
account of tariff discussion from Hamil-
ton's Report to the war of 1812; 4th, the
establishment of the " American system "
by the tariff of 181 6; and 5th, the tariff
and nullification. This is the part of our
tariff history which most needed careful
treatment, but Dr. Elliott will perform a
useful service if he will in a second volume
bring the history of the subject down to a
later date. The present volume was in
large part written by the author for a doc-
tor's thesis at Cornell University, a fact
which might very well have been men-
tioned in a prefatory note. The work is
well equipped with bibliography and index
and in every respect is a credit to the author.



The last "Report of the Massachusetts
Bureau of Statistics of Labor" contains
the first division of a careful tenement
house census of Boston, which may well
serve as a model for similar work in other
cities. The results of the investigation
are to be presented in three sections: Sec-
tion one, tenements, rooms and rents;
section two, sanitary condition of tene-
ments, and section three, place of birth,
occupation, etc., of residents in tenement
houses. The present volume gives only
the first section, the remaining two being
reserved for the next report.

Section one covers four principal points:
I. Number of persons to a house. 2.
Number of tenements to a house. 3. Num-
ber of rooms to a tenement. 4. Rents.

The result of the investigation may be
briefly summarized. Estimated population
is 464,751. Total number of houses is
54,142, of which number 14,788 are
entirely occupied by their owners, 36,223
are rented either wholly or in part, 1,642
are boarding and lodging houses, and
1,489 are unoccupied. The number of
families occupying tenements (the word
being used to denote any rented place of
residence) is 71,665, the average number
of persons to the family 4.35, and the
total number of persons 311,396, which
is 67 per cent, of the total population.
To this number is to be added 27,512
living in boarding and lodging houses,
making a total for the two classes of 338,-
908. The average number of persons to
a rented house is 8.60.

In New York, according to the census
of 1890, the number of persons to a dwel-
ling is 18.52, Brooklyn 9.80, and Chicago
8.60. But overcrowding in cities is better
illustrated by presenting the figures differ-
ently. In New York 49 per cent., Brook-
lyn 29 per cent., Chicago and Boston 24

per cent, of the dwellings contain eleven
persons and over, arid these dwellings
house 83, 56, 49 and 47 per cent, of the
respective populations of those cities.
These are the four cities where there is
the greatest overcrowding.

The next statistics given for Boston
respect the number of tenements to a
house. Of the 67 per cent, of the popu-
lation living in tenements, 49 in the hun-
dred, or nearly one-half, live in independ-
ent houses or in houses containing but two
tenements, 7 in the hundred occupy houses
containing seven or more tenements, which
are for the most part high class apartment
houses, and 44 in the hundred are found
in houses of three, four, five and six tene-
ments each, and constitute what would be
popularly understood as the strictly tene-
ment house population. In New York 82
per cent., Brooklyn 53 per cent, and Chi-
cago ■T,'& per cent, of the population live in
tenements containing three families and

The remaining tables give in detail aver-
age number of rooms to a tenement, aver-
age number of persons to a room and
average rents. It appears that 1,053 fam-
ilies live in tenements of one room, but
the average number of persons per family
is a little less than two; i 7 per cent, of the
population live in tenements of three, and
25 per cent, in tenements of four rooms.
Average number of persons per room for
all tenements is less than one. Average
monthly rental for all sizes of tenements
is ^17.26. These are a few of the signifi-
cant averages, but as the report cautions,
they have the limitations which attach to
averages, and should not be used as the
basis of deductions, unless the variations
which appear in detail in the various
tables, are carefully noted.






FOR 1892-93.


Instruction in this department is given by
means of lectures, conferences, recitations, dis-
cussions, and personal direction in study and
research. As the library is an indispensable aid
in the pursuit of the following courses of study,
students are expected to become acquainted
with the best methods of collecting and classify-
ing materials, and of writing and presenting
papers on special topics. All lectures are sup-
plemented by required reading and class exer-

The work of the department now embraces
five principal lines of study, namely: European
Historj% American History and Civil Govern-
ment, Political Institutions, Sociology or Social
Institutions, and Political Economy.

The following studies are offered for 1892-'9B:


1. The History of Civilization. Lectures
daily, at 8:30. Ancient Society, and the intel-
lectual development of Europe to the twelfth
century. Special attention is given to the influ-
ence of Greek philosojjhy and the Christian
church on European civilization, the relation of
learning to liberal government, and to the rise
of modern nationality.

2. French and German History. Daily,
at 9:30. Descriptive history. Text-book.

3. Historical Method and Criticism.
Tuesday and Thursday, at 9:80. Examination
and classification of sources and authorities.
Analysis of the works of the best historians.
Library work, with collection and use of mater-
ial, notes, and bibliography. Special attention
to current historical and economic literature.

4. The History of Education and the
Development of Methods of Instruction.
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 9:30. This
course may be taken with No. 3. A course for

6. English History. Daily, at 11. Descrip-
tive historv. Text-book.

6. Journalism.

Friday, at 12. Lect

Monday, Wednesday, and
res, laboratory and library

work. English: Twenty-five lecturts by Prof-
essors Dunlap and Hopkins; 15 lectures on the
history' and ethics of journalisn, by Professor
Adams. Newspaper bureau. The principal
object of the bureau is to enable students to
form habits of systematic reading, to keep in-
formed on the topics of the day, and to preserve
clippings properl^y filed and indexed. This
course will be found highly beneficial to stu-
dents who desire a special study in magazines
and newspai^ers as a general culture.

7. Statistics. Tuesday and Thursday at
12. Supplementary^ to all studies in economics
and sociology. The method of using statistics
is taught by actual investigation of political and
social problems, lectures, and class-room prac-
tice. The history and theory of statistics
receive due attenti'on.

8. American History. From the earliest
discovery to 1763. Lectures, topical reading,
and recitations. Three hours a week at 2.

9. Local and Municipal Government.

Lectures and topical reading. Two hours a
a week at 2.

Courses 8 and 9 are intended to be taken to-
gether as a full study, but ma.y be taken sepa-

10. American History. Presidential ad-
ministrations from Washington to Jackson.
Daily, at 3. Open to Seniors in full standing,
and to other students upon approval of the

1 1. International Lav/ and Diplomacy.

Lectures and recitations. Two hours a week,
at 4.

12. Political Economy. Daily, at 4. The
fundamental principles are discussed, elaborated
and illustrated by examples from present eco-
nomic society. A brief history of Poiitical
Economy closes the course.


13. Institutional History. Lectures
Monday, Wednesday, and Fridaj', at 8:30, on
comparative politics and administration. Greek
Roman, and Germanic institutions compared.
Historical significance of Roman law in the
middle eges. Short study in Prussian adminis-

14. Renaissance and Reformation,

Tuesday and Thursday, at 8:30. Lectures.
The revival of learning with especial reference
to the Italian renaissance. A careful inquiry
into the cause, course and results of the Refor-
mation. This course may be taken as a
continuation of number 1 .



15. Political History of Modern Eu-
rope. Tuesday and Thursday at 9:30. Text-

16. Federal Government and the
French Revolution. Lectures, Monday,
Wednesday', and Friday, at 9:30, on Switzer-
land. Tlie Italian republics and the States
General of Fi-ance.

17- Constitutional History of Eng-land.
Tuesday and Thursday', at 9:30. This course
may be taken as a continuation of number 5.
Text-book and lectures.

18. Elements of Sociology. Lectures,
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 11. Evo-
lution of social institutions. Laws and condi-
tions that tend to organize society. Modern
social institutions and social problems.

19. Charities and Correction. Tuesday
and Tliursday, at 11. Treatment of the poor
from a historical standpoint. Modern scientific
charity. The treatment of criminals. Prisons
and reformatories. Practical study of Kansas
institutions. This course is supplementary to
number 18.

20. Land Tenures. Lectures, Tuesday
and Thursday, at 12. This course treats of
primitive property, the village community,
feudal tenures, and modern land-holding in
Great Britain and the United States. This
course is mainly historical, and is an excellent
preparation for the study of the law of real

21. American History. Continuation of
course 8. First half-term: History of the Rev-
olution and the Confederation, 1763 to 1769.
Second half-term: Brief summary of the consti-
tutional period, with Johnston's "American
Politics" as a text-book. Three hours a week,
at 2.

22. Constitutional La-w. History of the
adoption of the constitution, and a study of its
provisions. Twice a week, at 2. Forms, with
course 21, a full study, but may be taken

23. American History. Continuation of
course 10. Presidential administrations from
Jackson to Lincoln. Daily, at 3.

24. Mediseval History. Two-flftlis of
the second term of the Freshman year. For all
students whose admission papers show that
they have had elementary physics, hygiene and
chemistry. Daily, at 3. Text-book.

25. Principles of Public Finance. Lec-
tures on public industries, budget legislation,
taxation and public debts. Open to students
who have studied political economy one term.
Two hours a week, at 4.

26 The Status of Woman. Confer-
ences. Tuesday and Thursday, at 4 Indus-
trial condition, including a study of labor,
wages, etc. Woman in the professions. Their
political and legal abilities and disabilities.
Property rights. Condition of woman in Europe
and the Orient. Social questions.

27. Advanced Political Econoray.
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 4. (3on-.
sisting of (a) lectures on applied economics; (6)
practical observation and investigation; and (c)
methods of research, with papers by students
on special topics. This course is a continuation
of number 12.

General Seminary, on Friday, at 4. Stu-
dents in History and Sociology are required to
attend the Seminary unless excused by special
arrangement. Full credit will be allowed for
time spent in Seminary work. At the beginning
of the term, students may elect other work in
place of the seminar^^ if they choose.


L Economics. Courses 7, 13, 18, 19, 20,
and 27.

II. European History. Courses, 2, 3, 5,

13, 15, and 16,

III. American History. Courses 8, 9, 10,
21, 22, and 23.

IV. Social Institutions. Courses, 1, 12,

14, 18, 19, and 4 (or 26).

V. Political Institutions. Courses 3, 7,
9, 15, 13, 16, 17, 20, and 22.


Persons desiring to take the degree of A. M.
may do so by the completion of any one or all
of the following courses. The work is carried
on by the investigation of special topics under
the personal direction of the instructor. An
hour for conference will be arranged for each
student. The courses extend throughout the

I. American History. Open to graduates
and students who have studied American His-
torj' two years.

II. Economics. Open to graduates and
students who have taken the vindergraduate
work in political economy. Courses 12, 27,
and 8.

Ill Political and Social Institutions.
Open to graduates and students who have taken
the undergraduate work in the history of insti-
tutions and sociology. Courses 12, 27, and 7

The above courses are for students who de-
sire proficiency in a special line. These courses
will not in any way interfere with the general
rules of the Faculty respecting graduate work.



(Catalogue, 1891-'92, pp. 120, 121.) By these
rules, a graduate student may take anj' of the
27 courses mentioned above (excejjt 15 and 24) as
a preparation for the degree of A. M.

Preparation for Entrance to the Uni-
versity. The time spent in the high schools
in the studj^ of histor.y is necessarily limited.
For this reason it is essential that the greatest
care be exercised in preparing students for en-
trance to the University. At present very
little history is required in the Freshman and
Sophomore j^ears, and the students enter upon
the study of the Junior and Senior years with-
out thorough preparation for the work. It
would seem that the aim should be for all those
who contemplate entering the University to
learn the story of nations pretty thoroughly. A
general outline of the world's history with a
special study of the United States History and
government rejjresents the field. But this out-
line should be more than a mere skeleton of
facts and dates. It should be well rounded
with the political, social, and economic life
of the people. Students will find a general
text-book, such as Myer's, Sheldon's, or Fisher's,
indispensible; but the work of preparation
ought not to stop here. Such works as Fyffe's
Greece, Creighton's Rome, Seebohm's Era of

Protestant Revolution, Cox's Greece, and others
in the Primer, Epoch, and Stories of Nations
series ought to be read. The object of this
reading is to familiarize the student with the
political and social life of the principle nations
of the world. For this purpose everything
should be as interesting as possible. Such an
interest should be aroused that the student
would not be puzzled over dates and threadbare
facts, but would seize and hold those things
that are useful on account of the interest his
mind has in them. That historj^ which is
gained by a bare memorj'^ of events is soon lost.
It grows too dim for use and consequently leads
to confusion. With the storj' of the nations
well learned the student comes to the University
prepared for the higher scientific study of history
and its kindred topics. He is then ready for
investigation, comparison and analysis. He
then takes up the real investigation of the phil-
osophy of institutions and of national develop-
ment. He is then ready for the science of
Sociolog3% Institutional History, Political Econ-
omy, the Science of Government, Statistics or
Political Economy. Students who enter the
University without this preparation find it
necessary to make up for it as best they can by
the perusal of 'books, such as those mentioned




■ Every student in the University should lay the foundation of a good working library. Such libraries are
not "made to order" at some given time, under specially favorable financial conditions— but are the result of
considerable sacrifice, and are of slow growth. The wise expenditure of even ten dollars in each term will
bring together books which if thoroughly mastered will be of great assistance in all later life. Room-mates,
or members of the same fraternity, by combining their libraries and avoiding the purchase of duplicates, can
soon be in possession of a most valuable collection of authors. Assistance in selecting and in purchasing will

Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 41 of 62)