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would say, "If you citizens of the United
States, irrespective of party, will seek first



God's kingdom and God's righteousness,
you will have the other things, the pros-
perity, the money, the power, the freedom
from hard times and the absence of unrest
and discontent." Have we done that yet,
as a nation? Has not our struggle been
for the spoils? The New York Tribune,
the organ of the man nominated for the
second place of honor in government, on
the editorial page of an issue of last Octo-
ber had a long article which from begin-
ning to end was one long trumpet note of
rejoicing over the fact that, (jwing to the
McKinley bill, an entire town in England
had gone into bankruptcy and the inhab-
itants reduced to practical beggary. How
much Christianity is there in the boasting
of a nation that it feeds and clothes and
educates its people at the expense of other
countries? Yet that was the key note of
a moneyed campaign and has been for
years. Does not the same law apply to
nations as to individuals? Can I obey the
teachings of Christ in my business and
deliberately manage it in such a way as to
ruin other men financially? Yet is not
that just what the New York Tribune and
numerous other papers and speakers have
boasted that we as a nation have done to
other nations? There is no more Chris-
tianity in such statesmanship than in the
act of the savage of the equator when he
knocks out the brains of his neighbor with
his club in order to get possession of his
ivory deposit.

The fact is that in the political world
the law of Christ is practically ignored.
Plenty of good moral men, men who are
church members and call themselves
■ Christians, believe that there is no such
thing as "mixing" (as they say) religion
and politics. Yet it is the unmistakable
teaching of Christ that life is all of one
piece and that the first duty of a man is
always and everywhere to seek first God's
kingdom and righteousness. Civilization
which does not try to do that in its gov-
ernment is not Christian. It may be
moral, it may be astute, it may be power-
ful in certain ways, it may demand and

get the respect of other nations as a pow-
er, it may build great works of art and
produce wonderful writers, singers, philos-
ophers, soldiers, artists and scientists, it
may astonish the globe with its wealth and
rival all the past with its material glory,
and still be no more Christian than the
most ignorant and depraved savage tribe
that lives in a jungle and never saw a
steam engine. Viewed from the light of
Christ's direct personal teaching, can any
man claim that our government is really
and truly Christian in its purposes and in
the management of the machinery of
administration? Is the great majority of
oftice holders, of the men who stand at
the head of our three great departments of
government, the Executive, the Legisla-
tive, the Judicial, — is it striving with heart,
mind, soul and strength to love the Lord
God and the neighbor as itself? If it is
not, it is not Christian, for Christ said
that was the first great law of human life.

III. Let us turn now to the Religious
Test. In the matchless prayer recorded
in John's Gospel, the i8th chapter, Christ
said: "Neither pray I for these alone but
for them also which shall believe on me
through their word; that they may all be
one. "

That is, it was the plain teaching of
Christ that His disciples should be united
in the common work of redeeming man-
kind. Yet at no time in the ecclesiastical
history of the world were there so many
sects as now, and at no time, in spite of
many real efforts at cooperation on the
part of different denom'nations, has the
church in civilized society been more jeal-
ous of rivalry or more reluctant to wage a
common warfare against a common foe.
I could cite, to prove this statement,
enough instances to stagger the University
Foot Ball Team. But here is one: There
is a town in Kansas of 1500 people and
thirteen different churches. Some time
ago a person died who thought there was
need of another denomination (I do not
know what his complaint was unless he
was superstitious about the figure 13) and



he left some money to help build a church
of this particular sect. The people who
had once belonged to this sect were mem-
bers of other churches, working content-
edly and happily in their church homes.
But this money must be used. And I am
in receipt of a letter written by the pastor
of one of the thirteen churches, in which
he says that members of his church are
about to withdraw to form this new denom-
ination and build up church No. 14 in a
community where, if every living soul
belonged to the existing churches, they
wohld have an average membership of
only 115 members. Nor is this an isolated
fact without a parallel. There is hardly
a town in the West where, if Christ were
to go to preach, he would not stand aghast
and sorrowful at the sight of five, six,
seven or eight churches competing for the
patronage of a population that for years
to come, with all the advantages of emi-
gration, cannot possibly support in any
kind of vigorous work, more than two or
three churches, and in very many cases
not more than one. I believe Christ
would denounce the sectarianism and
denominationalism of our generation in
the most scathing terms as non-christian
and unchristian in spirit and in practice.
And I most sincerely and emphatically
believe that no one thing has done so much
to injure the cause of God's Kingdom on
earth as a divided Christendom. All the
saloons and gambling hells and the allure-
ments of big cities, all the infidelity-, and
atheism, and opposition to Christianity
from without have not done so much to
cause the world to sneer and scoff at
Christianity as a divided discipleship of
Christ. There is no Christian reason why
the Episcopal, Presbyterian, Methodist,
Baptist, Lutheran and Congregational
churches should not be one church in
reality as well as in name. There is
nothing in the inherent nature of man,
intellectually and theologically, that neces-
sitates these separate organizations. There
is nothing except the selfishness and obsti-
nacy of men which is responsible for the

one hundred and fifty sects of Christen-
dom. It was the unchristian, not the
Christian element in human nature that
made so many denominations a historical
fact. We do not deny that much good
may have been done in the separate
churches. What we assert is, that the
entire church organization is to-day based
on an unchristian instead of a Christian
principle. It is doing its work on a basis
of division instead of a basis of unity. It
is useless to deny the existing facts. The
church is divided. In England the strife
between state - church and nonconformists
is bitter. In America there is as yet no
practical unity looking to the oneness of
work and purpose desired by the Great
Master. It is easy to prove this. Go into
any of the hundreds of towns in Kansas
where the Methodist, Presbyterian, Bap-
tist and Congregational churches are strug-
gling for existence, and ask one or per-
haps two of them to give up or unite with
one of the other churches and support the
work with the necessary means and enthu-
siasm. Ask the Congregational church
people to sell or dispose of their church
property and together with the Presbyteri-
ans unite the membership and double up
•the salary of the minister and then pitch
in and fight the saloon, the joint, the
gambling house, the anything that needs
pitching into the most. Prove to these
churches that four churches in a popula-
tion of 800 people is a damage to the
cause of Christ and that two could do the
work much more effectively, and ask them
to double up. Yes — ask them. That is
as far as you would get. Why, it would
be the miracle of church history if they
did double up — ^anything but their fists, at
the mere suggestion of such a union. And
yet I believe that is just what Christ would
tell them to do. And it is what Christen-
dom must do before our churches are
really and at heart Christian. The civil-
ized world has not fulfilled that prayer of
Christ yet — "that they all may be one."
The melancholy fact remains, that spite
of signs of clearer dawn, Chiistendom is



divided instead of being united, and dif-
ferent sects are the scorn, perplexity and
derision of the heathen world which we,
in our superior civilization, are seeking to
convert to a Christianity which as yet we
do not possess ourselves.

There are at present some curious
aspects of civilized life in connection with
our Christian organizations of learning
and our Christian press, that call for com-
ment. It certainly is a fact large enough
to cause comment, thattwo Christian col-
leges, among the largest and most influen-
tial in the country, select a day which by
custom and practice has always been con-
nected with religious services, for an ath-
letic contest, so arranged that the religious
services are ignored and put into a sec-
ondary place, or in some instances entirely
omitted. For it is certainly a fair ques-
tion to ask whether, in the process of
education, Christianity would put into
such prominence the animal • over against
the spiritual. I simply raise the question.
I cannot take time to discuss it. Only, I
believe if Christ was a citizen of New
V'ork on Thanksgiving Day He would go
to the religious service instead of the foot-
ball game, and if He were President of
Yale or Princeton He would throw the
weight of His influence with the students
to have the game come off on Wednesday
or Friday, and not on the day when every
one is urged by the proclamations of the
President of the United States and the
Governors of the states to return thanks
in places of public worship to Almighty
God. One other aspect of civilization
which of late has struck me as curiously
non-christian, is the high price put upon
everything good and the low price chargeci
for everything bad. Take any of our
publishing houses, religious and all, and
they will put out a lovely book or maga-
zine for $\, $2, $3; while all the printers
of trash will sell anything you want in
their line for a nickle. The Sunday School
houses send out nice books for boys at 75
cents and $1.50, while the "■Life of the
Daltoii Gam:" can be bought (Ui the cor-

ner for a dime ! The same fact is true of
the best things in our civilization when it
comes to the best entertainments for the
masses. The best preaching, the best
singing, the best art, the best that can be
obtained by travel costs so much that the
great masses cannot touch it. There are
not enough unselfish men of genius in
Christendom to redeem our civilization
from paganism. As soon as a man dis-
covers that he can play the fiddle divinely,
he straightway puts a price upon his genius
and exacts his two hundred dollars or five
hundred dollars a night before he will
play for the delight of the world. It is
the same with the sweet singer, the gifted
orator, the matchless composer. O Hu-
manity! When shall the world behold a
genius who, satisfied with enough for his
■living, shall be willing to give much and
often "■for nothing,''^ as the world would
say, regarding himself in so far as simply
an expression of Deity to be given to the
world as much as possible for the world's
great profit? Even as Christ came "not
to be ministered unto but to give his life a
ransom for many."

In this brief attempt to answer the ques-
tion: "Is our civilization Christian?" the
plain ground has been taken that civiliza-
tion in its threefold aspect of society, poli-
tics, and religious life is not, as yet, Chris- .
tian, according to the standards set up by
the Founder of Christianity. The writer
disclaims any tendency to pessimism. He
is an optimist by birth, training and incli-
nation. He believes the sun is just com-
ing up, not just going down. He thinks
there never was so grand a time to live as
the present, on account of its great prob-
lems and the splendid opportunities just
opening for the Church, the Home, and
the University. He wishes he were
eighteen years younger, so as to reach his
majority when the Muse of History flings
0[jen the portal of the 20th century and
dii)s her pen into the heart of a new life
as she looks on the unstained tablet with a
smile of prophetic enthusiasm. But spite
of all the optimism and the longing, con-



viction will not down at empty bidding of Nazareth, that One who demanded of
it, and looking gravely, though hopefully, Humanity nothing short of perfection, the
out on the lives of men and trying to gaze writer is compelled to say, albeit with
through the eyes of the Son of Man, that reluctant sadness, " No— Our Civilization
Peasant of Galilee, that Carpenter of is not Christian, — no, not yet !"

Chas. M. Sheldon.


■gn^HESE reports on manufactures in
^^ the United States are issued from
time to time in pamphlet form for separate
cities ; but the series includes all the prin-
cipal cities of the United States. The
bulletins are issued by the Department of
the Interior and are preliminary to the
final reports which will be issued only in
large volumes and in a much more com-
plete shape.

Each report contains two tables. The
first is a comparative table of totals of the
years 1880 and 1890, giving the number
of industries and establishments, capital
and labor employed, wages paid, cost of
ma'terials, value of products, and some
municipal data. The other table is one
of detail, and usually includes from four
to ten classes of industries, presumably
selected as representing the greatest
amount of capital employed. It is for
1890 and treats of capital employed, wages
paid, labor employed, cost of materials,
miscellaneous expenses, and the value of
the product at the works. All these points
are treated under subdivisions and in
totals. Two new items incorporated
into the Eleventh census are spoken of in
the bulletins — labor employed and miscel-
laneous expenses. The troublesome ques-
tion of "average wages" will be made
more valuable in the final reports by
separating labor and wage statistics into
several classes. The other improvement
over the Tenth census is the item of mis-
cellaneous expense, which includes much
of value that was heretofore excluded.

The purpose of the issue of such bul-
letins is left to the conjecture of the read-
er. Presumably, the advance issue is
made so as to acquaint inquirers after me-

chanical data with the information as soon
as possible. If that be the case, its use-
fulness is in a great measure destroyed by
not being adequate to the wants of a thor-
ough review of the subject. Only partial
statements are made, thus causing deduc-
tions to be but half-truths. In one place
a very slight intimation is given that, as
the reports are preliminary to the final
issue, an opportunity is afforded for criti-
cism. But this, too, is of little use; since
the bulletins represent only a very few
industries of each city, no just criticism
can be made. Not even the totals of a
city's manufacturing interests can be veri-
fied, because very few are able to get at
data which will give them an opportunity
to make proper comparisons between the
reports and the actual facts.

Following are some deductions of gen-
eral interest made from the bulletins. By
taking the twenty-five most important
rei)orts thus far issued, which in their
tables of totals give figures for 1880 and
1890, it is seen that in only eleven cities
is the percentage of increase of total
capital larger than the percentage of
increase of the total wages. In all other
cases the percentage of increase of wages
in 1890 over 1880 is much larger than the
percentage of increase of capital during
the same period. These increases vary
greatly in different sections of the country
and are due to varying causes. In the
older manufacturing towns the lack of a
proper comparative increase on the part
of wages may in part be accounted for by
the fact that old buildings must be replaced
by better equipped and more costly ones,
new machinery must be supplied, and a
cheaper class of labor may be employed



in many instances. Still, in some other of
the older towns the proportionate increase
of wages is the highest, as compared with
younger manufacturing districts. Thus in
New York city the total wages increased
127.89 per cent., while the total capital
reached an increase of but 97.37 per cent.
In Denver, where wages were high, the
opposite is true. There the total wages
increased but 380.23 per cent., while the
total capital far outran this by an increase
*^^ 533-°i P^"^ cent. Even after making
these exceptions to proportionate increase
of capital over wages and making due
allowance for the difference of meaning*
attributed to the word "capital" in the
1880 and 1890 censuses, which partially
unfits them for comparison, we must admit
that there has been a healthy increase to
the credit of the wages class as a whole.
In these same twenty-five cities, by a
comparison of the total wages paid and
the number employed there is only one
city in which the "average wages" are
less in 1890 than in 1880. In all the other
cities there is an increase, ranging from
7.69 per cent, to 77.62 per cent., but in
most cases between 30 and 50 per cent.
No reason is given for the decrease of 1.08
per cent, in the average wages of Mobile,
Alabama, but in the case of the smallest
increase of average wages (Utica, N. Y.,
7.69 per cent.) a plausible explanation is
given. There the small comparative in-
crease of average wages is due to the
greater increase, over 1880, of the number
of women and children employed as com-
pared with the increase of the number of
men employed. This reduced the increase
of the average wages, as women and chil-
dren do not receive such high wages as do
the men.f In the western cities, where

* The question i-especting ciipital in 18-fO census was
neither bufflciently comprehensive nor properly nn-
derstoocl, and therefore the full amount of capital
employed was 7iot reported. The presniir. ce isus
inquiry included all iiroperty or assets strictly per-
taining to a niannfficturiug' business, whether owned,
borrowed or hired.— | p. 4 of Bulletin,

tin the manufacture of men's clnthing, cotton
gO' ids. fur g ods, a.nd hosiery and knit goods, ri 008
women were employed m lSf-0 and 4,845 in 18',)0 giving
an increase of 1.57. 7i) per cent. The same industries
employed 1,138 men in i880 and I,>.i63 men in lJ-99. givin.g
an increase of only 72.40 per cent.— [Bulletin for Utica,
N.Y.,p,!i, ^

the increase of wages is small as compared
with the older eastern cities, it would seem
reasonable enough to say that there was a
gradual gravitation toward the iiormal
wages, from the abnormal average of
wages incident to a new country. It is
quite natural that a larger supply should
be in the labor market. Much of this
increase of average wages is due to the
fact that relatively more men and less
women and children were employed in
1890 than in 1880 and also that by an
increase of machinery and by the output
of a better product, more skilled labor
must be used.

In seven cities east of the Missi^ssippi
river and south of the Ohio river the high-
est average wages paid in any one city
was ^520, while the average for the seven
cities was ^431. In twelve cities east of
the Mississippi river and north of the Ohio
river the highest average wages for any
one city was $569, while an average of
$497 was paid in the twelve cities. In five
cities west of the Mississippi the highest
average wages for any one city was ^793
and the average wages for the five cities
was ^648. These figures are for 1890.
Without going behind the figures this
would seera to indicate that much higher
wages were paid in the west than in the
east, and higher in the north than in the
south ; but does it follow that the northern
and western laborers are in better circum-

However much these figures may seem
to show, it should always be remembered
how difficult it is to gain any positive
knowledge from totals of this kind,. for in
one instance the numbers of workmen
may be swelled by the addition of much
cheap labor, thus reducing the average;
and in another instance the average may
be greatly increased by exactly opposite
conditions. In order to lessen this diffi-
culty in comparison and to make the data
much more reliable, the superintendent of
the census has greatly changed the char-
acter of data for the Eleventh census.
This change will make comparisons with



previous reports somewhat unsatisfactory,
but the value of the statistics themselves
and their vahie for future comparison will
be greatly enhanced. In the inquiry after
data the classified occupation and wage
system was adopted. Officers or firm
members engaged in productive labor con-
stituted one class; clerical labor and
piece-workers constituted separate classes.
Wage workers were divided into two
classes — (i) operatives, overseers, fore-
men (not general superintendents or
managers) and other skilled workmen ;
(2) watchmen, laborers, teamsters and
other unskilled workmen. Statements
were required of the average number each
of men, women, and children employed in
each class during the year and the actual
total wages paid to each class. Other
statements showed " the various rates of
wages per week, the average number of
men, women, and children, respectively,
employed at each rate, exclusive of those,
employed on piece work.!' '

■ Takj.ng the specific tables for ' 1890 one.
fi:nd5;. . that in many- i respects, they ; arei
unworthy .of trust.. .The San Francisco,;
(i)a,lifornia., taTDle, embracing but teri . Indus-.-
trjesy 'represents :,35..iS^per : cesnt; lof. the'
wihole raa.nufacturing.,capital "in-vested .dn.?
San . F.rancisco, /(W.h4le the same,:, tab!©'
inckides •34; 88..) p^T/icej^t. 'of the; number 1
esiiplo.ypd and 39,..7.4 pen dentj.:iof -the wagesi'i
paid.:; By it.ak^vng..su;<sdi;r3anfp;irdp;©ltionalrdata i
aijEi d;' milking de■^;^qtiions-^one'CannMfail■t6^'
obtain verj;oneQus;jesuiLts. ; <F0D;i.instance[n
according-to;,the.,6.pe.c.;ified; table ithe-averi.';
age ahniial wages ;ija,,San Fran!ciiSCo;;w.erei:;•
^56I;2gi■; wjhifle : the,„;tal:ah t.ab.le;-;giv,es ' an 1
ayei;ag:e;?tf4 4^;37;.,3i3.,^ ^XlTe-samfe- is true of -
other citks,, ,-= Irii/N.ew! York,- according: to:.-
the' specific ; t^ble,, ;.a;Y.^f age wages were.!!

^567. 70, while the total table gave $649.73.

The data for 1890 given in the diffeient
bulletins are not at all uniform, thus mak-
ing them worthless for comparison in
detail and uncertain for accurate compari-
son even in totals. To make just com-
parisons we must compare things as nearly
alike as possible. In the reports of thirty^
four cities, were represented a total of
sixty-six industries, and no one city had
more than ten. Of these only one indus-
try was common to thirty-two cities ; one
to twenty-four; one to nineteen; and one
to sixteen. The other sixty-three indus-
tries were scattered so that a few were
found in but one or two cities. In only
eight cities could as many as four common
industries be found.

Although the bulletins have so many
faults as to make it questionable if their
usefulness would balance the expense of
publication, it still remains true that, being
enabled to have these reports something
like a year before the full and final tables
will be ready, is certainly a privilege which ,
many students will thankfully receive.
Tolerably correct general ideas can cer- _
tainly be formed and inferences drawn
which could- no't have any weisrht other-
Wise. As far as it'goes, it is the latest
accurate"stat;istical data to be had on the
subject "of 'mariufactijfes. By presenting ,
eac'h city sbparately i't is mucli more con- ^
venient for reference and will solicit study '
miich more'readtly'th'ah if Idsf in a large
bulky.' volume. < Individual interest will be ■
apoK^ed to make cbmpa'risans.' Trobably '
fpo-ni these last two facts the greatest ulti-' '
msbte benefit win accrue' tothe disseraina- '
tioji'Of knowledge and interest in .social '
a^d political prt)blems.- ' " ' "

r ■ WM: |. KreHBIEL.





Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 44 of 62)