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Seminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science online

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the seminary of

Historical and Political Science.

State University, Lawrence, Kansas.

Era 77k W. Blackmar. \

Erank H. Hodder, C ' ' ' Editors.

Ephraim D. Adams, j

TiTins. IVii Cents ;i Niimlier, - Filly i'ciils ;i Vcar

^^T* HE purpose of this publication is to increase the
(W) intere-t in the study of historical science in the
^ University and throughout the State, to afford
means of regular communication with corre>iJonding
members of the Seminary and with the general pub-
lic—especially with the Alujnni of the University, and
to pres.i ve at least the outlines ol carefully prepared
papers and addresses. The number of pages in each
issue will be increast-d as rapidly as the subscription
list will warrant. The entire revenue of the publi-
cation will be applied to its maintenance.
Address all subscriptions and communications to


Lawrence, Kansas.

Many of the readers of the Notes will
remember Rev. Chas. M. Sheldon's article
"Sociology from the standpoint of a
minister." In this number we publish
another article by Mr. Sheldon which
should be of interest to all. It was read
before the Historical Seminary of Dec.

something good, and much that is to be
condemned, purely from the statisticians
point of view i. e., upon the question of
information given by or to be deduced
fr> m the bulletin.

The criticism of the Census Bulletins on
Manufactures, contributed to this number
of the Notes by Mr. Krehbiel, is a very
fair one indeed. The Census Bureau has
received the most adverse criticism because
of the publication of these Manufactures
Bulletins, the general feeling of papers of
both political parties being that the aver-
age wages shown for 1890 was altogether
too large an increase over the average
wages for 1880. It is because of this
bulletin more than anything else that the
census is called a "partisan census." Mr.
Krehbiel is a member of the class in
Statistics, and examines the bulletin from
a statisticians point of view. He finds

Recent affairs in Europe have been
very interesting. In the midst of the ex-
citement over the fall of a French
Ministry, a Paris paper, \.\\t Journal c\'&\vi\'=,
to have received a copy of the Triple
Alliance, which has been kept so secret.
The Journal, refuses to state how the
document was secured, and the general
impression seems to be that it is a fraud.
Such things are alwa)S interesting, how-
ever, because of the doubt attached to
them. Students of history will be inter-
ested in making a clipping of it for future
reference. It can be found in most of
the daily papers for Dec. ist, 1892.

The manner in which the new universi-
ties have taken up the work of university
extension shows the democratic tendency
of higher education. The older universi-
ties are unbending to catch the spirit of
the general diffusion of knowledge.
University education is no longer to be
considered in the light of the culture of a
small circle of favored ones. The
development of the state universities of
the west as great schools of the people,
the endowment of the magnificent private
institutions and the establishment of many
church schools have greatly widened the
opportunities of the American youth.
More than this the great improvement of
the material condition of the people of our
country makes it possible for them to
enjoy the benefits of the opportunities
offered. If higher education is good for a
few, why is it not good for all? Granting
that it is good for all, to whom is it possi-
ble? University extension deals with these
two ideas. While a few are journeying
along the highway of knowledge, univer-
sity extension has pointedly asked: "Where
are the rest of our fellow citizens? Why
are they denied this extreme favor of
learning? Do they not need it; are they



not deserving? Does not the universal
education which is the boast of this coun-
try include universal hii^her education?"
The other question is not of a more prac-
tical nature but highly essential. How far
is it possible to extend the higher
education to the masses and how may it be
done? These are the questions of impor-
tance in university extension. University
extension is thus the sociology of
education. In its processes it may appeal
to individual development but in its
fundamental idea it has at heart the
elevation of the masses of humanity. It
proposes to carry out as far as possible
the theory of universal education. It
proposes to build up' organic society. A
university may have other purposes. It
may seek to build up within its walls
scientific knowledge to establish a fountain
of learning, a criterion of truth. And this
is well for the few who dig and delve in the
university cloisters. It is also well for
general humanity, who in a general way,
reap the reward of scientific investigation.
But university extension tries to obtain a
special leverage on humanity and elevate
it by direct application of teaching force.
Colleges and universities have always held
in a greater or lesser degree, that the few
should be well educated, not only for the
sake of individual culture but that they
might be leaders of the people. Univer-
sity extension goes a step further and asks
that the people be educated so that they
may lead themselves. But with all of this
acknowledgment to what extent may this
be done? Is it possible for every one to
become a college graduate? By no means,
nor even probable were it possible. But
the advantages of a modern universi'y are
various-. A young man may choose to take
a set course of instruction through which
he may plod with all courage and vigor
having in view a diploma as the chief re-
ward of labor. Another may remain- in
school but two years, instead of four, and
select studies in the mean time that best
suit his purpose. The latter may be
credited with a university education as well

as the former, although he has no set iron
clad course nor even a degree. Indeed
the latter may have received more univer-
sity training in the two J^ears than the
former within the four. So too, thousands
of people who may not be residents of
colleges or universities may receive genuine
university education. Possibly not a full
course, not a degree, but all they receive
is sound university instruction, which they
are able to appreciate. These persons are
benefitted to this extent an-d the service of
university instruction is widened. To be
really efficient this instruction must be
given in the spirit of helpfulness. It must
reach beyond the advertising process to
become really helpful. It must be given
with extreme patience for the difficulties
are many. It must be given with hope,
for if long and faithfully continued it will
bring its own reward to successful effort.

The historical seminary of the Univer-
sity of Wisconsin, under the direction of
Professors Turner and Haskins, has been
investigating the history of the various
foreign groups in the state, a work which
might be done to good advantage here in
Kansas. In a recent paper on "Wiscon-
sin's German Element" Miss Kate Everest
directs atten-tion to an early effort to Ger-
manize one of the states of the Union. In
consequence of reaction following the
revolutions of 1S30, there was a large
German emigration to America immediate-
ly after that year. Societies were formed
in Germany for the purpose of making
organized settlements in this country, but
none succeeded in this object. In 1835 a
society, called Germania was organized in
New York for the purpose of founding a
German settlement, where the language
and customs of the Fatherland could be
preserved. Congress had recently granted
land in Michigan and Illinois to Polish
fugitives and the Germania society applied
for a similar grant for Germans but was
refused. The next plan was to direct
German settlers to some one state of the
Union and thus get control of it and make
it a German state. There was disagree-



ment as to the state to be chosen; the
society disbanded and its members were
scattered over the United States. A similar
movement started in Pennsylvania in 1836.
One plan was to Germanize that state by
establishing the German language in the
courts and schools upon an equality with
English, but this was defeated in the
legislature. The only practical result of
the movement was the purchase of 12,000
acres of land in Missouri and the founding
of the town of Plermann. After the plan
of Germanizing an American state was
given up in America, it was occasionally
agitated by German writers abroad, as in
the Bluntschli-Bratu Staats-Woerterbuch
and in Roschers "Political Economy. '^
But such plans have long since been given
up, and Germans in America agree with
Garl Schurz in thinking "that they are not
called upon to form a separate nationality,
that as Germans they have no peculiar in-
terests in the political life of the republic,
but that the universal well-being is theirs

It is not at all probable that the Inter-
national Monetary Conference now in
session will accomplish anything of per-
manent value in the form of a plan which
will be adopted by the majority of the
nations represented in the conference.
But the extreme selfishness of European
powers and their insatiable greed for finan-
cial power regardless of the common wants
of humanity will re-assert themselves in
stronger type than formally." Whatever
concessions may be made we may rest
assurcjd that the ruling financial powers of
Europe will do nothing to lessen their
control of the money market. They hold
more tenaciously to their ancient prestigein
this respect than they do to their system of
standing armies. We have been told from
time to time that England has been steadi-
ly growing toward bi-metalism. Perhaps
the sentiments of the people are changing
somewhat in this respect, but the govern-
ment has never yet shown any sincere
intentions of making any radical change
in favor of silver. England is still strong-
ly monometallic. In considering the gen-
eral ultimate benefit of nations and of
England especially, they would be greatly
benefitted if some international plan could
be established for the proper use of silver
along with gold. But just now when the
control of English government is under
the power of money loaners, while it is
for the apparent immediate benefit to use

India as a silver country and keep Eng-
land on a gold basis that the latter may
always obtain the margin of trade, while
the steady work of financial conquest of
the South American republics goes on,
and while London still remains the money
market of the world, it is more profitable
in a financial way for England to hold
specifically to a gold basis and allow other
nations to grant more favorable terms to
silver. The proposition of Rothschild for
the governments of Europe to make a
combined annual purchase of silver
amounting to less than $25,000,000. while
the United States shonld continue the
purchase of 45,000,000 ounces per annum
is absurd on the face of it and represents
the spirit of Europeari powers in regard
to the money market. The conference
acted wisely in rejecting such a proposi-
tion even though they are likely to get no
better from that source. Such a plan
would rather increase the burdens of the
United States than lighten them, in case a
panic in silver should come, for the pur-
chase of only ^25,000,000 by the com-
bined powers could have but little influ-
ence in the establishment of a steady
value to silver. As each nation would be
responsible for its own conduct in coinage,
any depreciation of silver would affect the
nation most that handled the largest
amount. The United States has about
as large a burden as it can well carry by
the. law of July 14, 1890. This is already
beginning to be felt in some circles and
will doubtless be felt more as time passes.
It may be necessary to modify the present
law before we reach a final adjustment, so
that the purchase will be less than at
present. The chief European nations are
greedy for gold, and so long as they con-
tinue in this spirit they will not look kindly
toward a fair treatment of silver, espe-
cially so long as there is a tendency of
American nations to give silver promi-
nence and to allow the European nations
to reap the benefit. Doubtless England
wo'dd be benefitted in the long run by a
liberal policy in this matter but we need
not expect that. She has always taken
more interest in colonization than mission-
ary work. Just now political colonization
in America seems out of the question but
there is no reason why she should not con-
tinue commercial and financial colonization
in America as well as elsewhere. To this
end the United States should be very,
careful in the future in regard to the dis-
position of silver.






FOR 1892-93. ■

F. W. Br.ACKMAR. Ph. D.

Instruction in this department is given by
means of lectures, conferences, recitations, dis-
cussions, and personal direction in study and
research. As the library is an indispensable aid
in the pursuit of the following courses of study,
students are expected to become acquainted
with the best methods of collecting and classify-
ing materials, and of writing and presenting
papers on special topics. All lectures are sup-
plemented by required reading and class exer-

The work of the department now embraces
five principal lines of study, namely-: European
History, American History and Civil Govern-
ment, Political Institutions, Sociology or Social
Institutions, and Political Economy.

The following studies are offered for 1892-'9n:


1. The History of Civilization. Lectures
daily, at 8:30. Ancient Society, and the intel-
lectual, development of Europe to the twelfth
century. Special attention is given to the influ-
ence of Greek philosophy and the Cliristlan
church on European civilization, the relation of
learning to liberal government, and to the rise
of modern nationality.

2. French and German History. Daily,
at 9:30. Descriptive history. Text-book.

3. Historical Method and Criticism.
Tuesday and Thursday, at 9:30. Examination
and classification of sources and authorities.
Analysis of the works of the best historians.
Library work, with collecti(jn and use of mater-
ial, notes, and bibliography. Special attention
to current historical and economic literature.

4. The History of Education and the
Development of Methods of I.istruction.
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 9:30. This
course may be taken wilh No. 3. A course for

5. English History. Daily, at 11. Descrip-
tive history. Text-book.

6. Journalism. Monday, Wednesday, and
Friday, at 12. Lectures, laboratory an'~i librarj'

work. English: Twenty-five lecturts by Prof-
essors Dunlap and Hopkins; 15 lectures on the
history and ethics of journalisn, by Professor
Adams. Newspajjer bureau. The principal
object of the bureau is to enable students to
form habits of systematic reading, to keep in-'
formed on the topics of the day, and to preserve
clippings proiDerly filed and indexed. This
course will be found highly beneficial to stu-
dents who desire a special study in magazines
and newspapers as a general culture.

7. Statistics. Tuesday and Thursday at
12. Supplementary to all studies in economics
and sociology. The method of using statistics
is taught by actual investigation of political and
social problems, lectures, and class-room prac-
tice. The history and theory of statistics
receive due attention.

8. American History. From the earliest
discovery to 17G3. Lectures, topical reading,
and recitations. Three hours a week at 3.

9. L and Municipal Government.
Lectures and topical reading. Two hours a
a week at 2.

Courses 8 and 9 are intended to be taken to-
gether as a full study, but may be taken sepa-

10. American History. Presidential ad-
ministrations from Washington to Jackson.
Daily, at 3. Open to Seniors in full standing,
and to other students upon approval of the

1 1. International Law and Diplomacy,

Lect-ires and recitations. Two hours a week,,
at 4.

12. Political Economy. Daily, at 4. The
fundameiital principles are discussed, elaborated
and illustrated by examples Irom present eco-
nomic society. A brief history of Poiitical
Economy closes the course.


13. Institutional History. Lectures
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 8:30, on
comparative politics and administration. Greek
Roman, and Germanic institutions compared..
Historical significance of Roman law iii the
middle egcs. Short study in Prussian adminis-

14. Renaissance and Reformation.
Tuesday and Thursday, at 8:30. Lectures.
Tlie revival of learning with especial reference
to the Italian renaissance. A careful inquiry
into the cause, course and results of the Refor-
mation. This course may be taken as a
continuation of number 1.


1 5. Political History of Modern Eu-
rope. Tuesday and Thursday at 9:30. Text-
book .

16 Federal Goverrment and the
French Revolution. Lectures, Monday,
Wednesday, and Friday, at 9:30, on Switzer-
land. Tiie Italian republics and the States
General of France.

1 7 Oonstitutior.al History of England.
Tuesday and Thursday, at 9:30. This course
may be tnken as a continuation of number 5.
Te.\'t-b()ok and lectures.

18 Elements of Pociology. Leclures,
Monday. Wednesday, and Friday, at 11. Evo-
lution of social institutions. Laws and condi-
tions that tend to oro:anize society. Modern
social institutions and social problems.

19. rharitie« a- d Correction. Tuesday
and Thursday, at 11. Treatment of the poor
irom a historical standpoint. Modern scientific
charity. The treatment of criminals. Prisons
and reformatories. Practical study of Kansas
institutions. This course is supplementary to
number 18

20. Land Tenures Lectures, Tuesday
and Thursday, at 12. This course treats of
primitive prop(^rty, the village .community,
feudal tenures, and modern land-holding in
Great Britiin and the United States. This
course is mainly historical, and is an e.xcellent
pre] aration for the study of the law of real
pro* erty.

21. American History. Continuation of
course 8. First half-term: History of the Rev-
olution and the Confederation, 1763 to 1769.
Second half-terra: Brief summary of the consti-
tnticnal period, with Johnston's "American
Politics" as a text-book. Three hours a week,
at 2.

22. Oorstituti'^nal La-w History of the
a,doption of the constitution, and a study of its
provisions. Twice a week, at 3 Forms, with
course 21, a full study, but may be taken

23 American History. Continuation of
ourse 10- Presidential administrations from
Jackson to Lincoln. Daily, at 3.

24. Meriisevfll History. Two-fifths of
the second term of the Freshman year. For all
students whose admission pa|:)i'rs show, that
they have had elementary physics, hygiene and
chemistry. Daily, at 3 Text-book.

25. Princinl- s of Public Finance. Lec-
tures on public industries, budget l(\gislation,
taxation and public d('l)ts. OpiMi to students
who have studied political economy one term.
Two hours a week, at 4.

26 The Status of Woman. Confer-
ences. Tuesday and Thursday, at 4 Indus-
trial condition, including a study of labor,
wages, etc. Woman in the professions. Their
political and legal abilities and disabilities.
Property rights. Conditiou of woman in Europe
and the Orient. Social questions.

27. Advanced Political Economy.
Monday, AVednesday, and Friday, at 4. (Con-
sisting of (fl) leclures on applied economics; (5)
practical observation and investigation; and (c)
methods of research, with papers by students
on special topics. This course is a continuation
of number 12.

General Seminary, on Fridaj', at 4. Stu-
dents in History and Sociology are required to
attend the Seminary unless excused by special
arrangement Full credit will be allowed for
time spent in Seminar}' work. At the beginning
of the term, students may elect other worl< in
place of the seminar}', if they choose.


L Economics. Courses 7, 13, 18, 19, 20,
and 27.
II. European History. Courses, 2, 3, 5,

13, 1.5, and 10.

in. American History. Courses 8. 9, 10,
21, 22, and 23.
IV. Social Institutions. Courses, 1, 12,

14, 18, 19, and 4 (or 26)

v. Political Institutions. Courses 3, 7,
9, 15, 13, 10, 17, 20, and 22. .


Persons desiring to take the degree of A. M.
may do so by the completion of any one or all
of the followjig courses. The work is carried
on by the investigation of special topics under
the personal direction of the instructor. .An
hour for conference will be arranged for each
student. The Gourses extend throughout the

I. American History. Open to graduates
and students wlio have studied American His-
tory two years.

II. Economics. Open to graduates and
students who have taken the undergraduate
work in political economy. Courses 12. 27,
and 8,

III Political and Social Institutions-
Open to graduates and students who have tak(ni
the inidergraduate work in the history of insti-
tutions and sociology. C)urses 12, 27, and 7

The above courses are for students who de-
sire iirofiriency in a special line. These courses
will not in any way interfere with the gener.d
rides of the Faculty respecting graduate work



(Catalogue, 1891 -'02, pp 120, 121) By these
rules, a graduate student may take any of the
27 courses mentioned above (exceijt 15 und 24) as
a preparation for the degree of A M.

Preparation for Fntrance to the Uni-
versity. The time spent in the liigli scliools
in the study of Ijistory is necessarily limited.
For this reason it is essential that the greatest
care be exercised in pre))aring students for en-
trance to the Uiiiversit}'. At present very
little history is required in the Freshman and
Sophomore years, and the students enter upon
the study of the Junior and Senior 3'ears with-
out thorough prt.'paration for the work. It
would seem that the aim should be for all those
who contemplate entering the Univeisity to
learn the story of nations pretty thoroughly, ii
general outline of the world'"S histciry with a
.special study of the United States History and
government represents the field. But this out-
line should be more than a mere skelt-ton of
facts and dates. It should be well rounded
with the political, social, and economic life
of the people. Students will find a general
text-book, such as Myer's, Sheldon's, or Fisher's,
indispensible; but the work of preparation
ought not to stop here Such works as Fyffe's
Greece, Creighton's Rome, Seebohm's Era of

Protestant Revolution, Cox's Greece, and others
in the Primer, Epoch, and Stories of Nations
series ought to be read. The object of this
reading is to familiarize the student with the
pulit Oil and social life of ihe principle nations
of the world. For this purpose everything
should be as interesting as possible. Such an
inti-rest should be aroused that the student
Avould not be puzzled over dates and threadbare
facts, but would seize and hold those things
tliat are useful on account of the interest his
mind has in them. That history wiiich is
gained by a bare memory of events is soon lost
It grows tao dim for use and consequentl^y leads
to confusion. With the story of the nations
well learned the student comes to the Univprsily
prepared for the hiuiier scientific sUidy of history
and its kindred topics He is then ready for
invest. gallon, comparison and analysis. He
then takes up the real investigation of the phil-
osophy o institutu)ns and of national develop-
ment He is then ready for the science of
Sociology, Institutional History, Political Econ-
omy, the Science of Government, Statistics or
Political Economy. Students who enter the
University without this preparation find it
necessary to make up for it as best they can by
the perusal of books, such as those mentioned




Every student in the University should lay the foundation of a good working library. Such libraries are
not "made to order" at some given time, under speciallj' favorable financial conditions— but are the result of
considerable sacrifice, and are of slow growth. The wise expenditure of even ten dollars in each term will

Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 45 of 62)