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Seminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science online

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bring together books which if thoroughly mastered will be of great assistance in all later life. Room-mates,
or members of the same fraternity, by combining their libraries and avoiding the purchase of duplicates, can
soon be in possession of a most valuable collection of authors. Assistance in selecting and in purchasing will
be given upon application.

The prices named below are the list prices of the publishers.

Students are required to imrchase books marked with an asterisk.
American Book Company, Ciiicago.

Manual of the Constitution. Andrews S l.OU

Analysis of Civil GoverniiieijJ, Townsend l.OU

Civil Govermaent. Peterman 60

Fistory of England, Thalheimer 1.00

Medi»2val and Modei-n History, Thalheimer J.60

Outlines of History. Fisher a.4U

General History of the World, Barnes 1.60

Political Economy, Gregory : 1-20

Lessons in Political Economy, Champlin. .90

Ginn & Co., Boston and Chicago.

Ancient History, Myers & Allen % 1.50

Mediffival and Modern History, Mj-ers 1.50

Political Science and Comparative Law, Burgess, 5.00

Macy's Our Government... 75

* General History, Myei's 1-50

Leading facts in English History, Montgomery... 1.12

I'hilosophy of Wealth, Clark. 1.00

Political Science Quarterly. Yearly 3.00

Washington and His Country, Fiske.. ..- 1.00

Harpers, New York.

*History of Germany, Lewis 1.50

*International Law, Davis ^.00

*Political History of Modern Times, Mueller 2.00

*Short English History, Green:.:.:: 1.20

Civil Policy of America. Draper '^.00

History of English People, Green, 4 vols 10.00

History of United States, Hildreth, 6 vols... 12.00

The Constitution. Story 90

Holt & Co., New York.

*American Politics, Johnston $ 1.00

American Colonies, Doyle. ^ vols 9.00

American Currenc3\ Sumner 3.50

History of Modern Europe, Fyfte. 3 vols 7..50

Political Economy, Walker S.25

Houg'bton, Mifflin & Co., Boston.

Discovery of America. Fiske, 3 vols .. ? 4.00

Ameruran Commonwealths, 14 vols., each 1.35

American Statesmen, 24 vols., each.: 1.35

American Revolution, Fiske, 3 vols 4.00

Critical Period of American Histoi'y. Fiske 3.0'^

Epitome of History, Ploetz 3.00

■Christopher Columbus, Wiusor 4.00

Appleton, New York.

Dynamic Sociology, V/ard, 2 vols.'. ■? 5.00

History of Civilization, Guizot 1.35

Political Economy, Mill, 3 vols 6.00

Cranston & Stowe, Chicago.
♦Political Economy, Ely

..% 1.00

M'^cmillan, New^ York.
Constitiitional History, England, Stubbs, 3 vols..$ 7.80
Principles of Economics, Mar.shall, vol. I 3.00

Armstrone, New York.

*Deinocracy in Europe. May, 3 vols $ 2.50

G. P Putnam's Sons, New York and London.

*American Citizen's Manual, Ford $ 1.25

Unwritten Constitution of the U. S., Tiedeman... 1.00

History of Political Economy, Blanqui 3.00

Introduction to Eng. Econon. Hist, and Theory,

Ashley 1.50

Indust. and Com. Supremacy of Eng., Rogers 3.00

Economic Interpretations of History, Rogers 3.00

Constitutional History of the U.S., Sterne 1.35_

*Tarifl History of the United States, Taussig 1.35 '

The Story of Nations, ■"i4 vols., each , 1.50

Heroes of the Nations. 13 vols., each 1.50

American Orations, ed.bs^ Johnston, 3 vols., each 1.25

Callaghan & Co., Chicago.
Constitutional History of U. S., Von Hoist, 6 vol 820.00

Constitutional Law ofU S.. Von Hoist 2.00

Political Economy, Roscher, 3 VQls 6.00

Crowell, New York.

*JBistory of France, ,:Duruy .,.,....., : ..,.,$ 2.00

Labor Movement in America, Ely 1.50

Life of Washington, pop. ed., Irving, 2 vols..' 2..50

Problems of To day, Ely 1..50

Little, Brown-& Co., Bo'^'ton.

History of Greece, Grote. 10 vols... $17..50

Parl.man's Works, per vol 1.50

Rise of the Republic, Frothingham .'150

Longmans, Green dz Co., New York,

Epochs of Ancient History, each vol $ 1.08

Epochs of Modern History, each vol 1.00

Political Economy, pop. ed.. Mill 1.75

The Crusades, Cox .. J. 00

Scribners, New^ York.

*Anierican Diplomacy, Schuyler ..$ 2.50

History of Rome. Mommsen, 4 vols 8.03

Lombard Street. Bagehot 1.25

Silent South, Cable 1.00

J ilver Burdstt & Co., Boston.

*Historical Atlas. Labberton $1.50or$ 2.00

*Historical Geography of iJ. S., MacCoun 1.03

*Institutes of Economics, Andrews 1.50

Institues of General History, Andrews 2.00

Dodd, Mead & Co., New York.

History of United States, Schouler, 5 vols $11.50

D. C. Heath & Co.. Boston.

*The State, Woodrow Wilson ? 3.00

Principles of Political Economy, Gide a. 00

Methods of Teaching History, Hall 1.50

General History. Sheldon j.60

*01d South Leaflets, 22 Nos., each 05

History Topics, Allen '4f>

State and Fed. Governments of the U. S., Wilson ' .50

The American Citizen. Dole 90

Comparative View of Governments, Wenzel 20

Studies in American History, Sheldon— Barnes... l.lg

Any book in the above list will be lurnished by the Lawrence Book Cc.Crew^'s old stand, 745 Mass.


State University — Lawrence, Kansas.

Vol. II.




All students connected with the department
of History and Sociology ai'e, by virtue of such
connection, members of the Seminary. All
students are expected to attend the Seminary
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The work of the Seminary consists of special
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on condition that the results of such work shall
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In connection with the work of the Seminary,
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being the current thought on any particular
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mahe history by the arrangement and classifica-
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Special investigation and stud.y will be under-
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More than twenty gentlemen, prominent in
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The officers and members of the Seminary
will gladly render all possible assistance to any
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such lines of public work as are properly with-
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Any citizen of Kansas interested in this work
is invited to correspond wi'th the Seminary, and
to be present at its meetings when possible.






Secjietary .




■5'7r7HREE years ago the first day of last

% October I became superintendent of
Haskell Institute, and, at that time, en-
tered upon the work of Indian education.
Last year, in the Indian office at Wash-
ington, I met a well known official who
has been engaged in the Indian service
for the last eighteen years. To my in-
quiry, "What is your solution of the
Indian problem?" I received the follow-
ing brief but suggestive reply: "I haven't
any." As my period of service has been
so comparatively brief, it may seem pre-
sumptous that I have consented to come
before you and discuss for a few minutes
the Indian problem. The Indian question
is something like the poor, for we have it
always with us, or rather have had since
the beginning of our government, and
doubtless will have for many years to
come. It is perplexing and interesting,
easily solved on paper, but these paper
theories seldom bear fruit in practical

Every section of our land has at one
time or another come directly in contact
with the Indians. Their names are found
everywhere, and many of the 'places that
once knew them now know them no more.
From Passamaquoddy and Winnipiseogee
to Chemawa and Yuma, from Manitoba
to Tallahassee they have left their musical
names on lake and stream, on mountain
and valley, but in most instances it is
merely a name. The Indian is closely
interwoven in the history of our country
from the earliest times. We cannot read
of the landing of the Pilgrims, or the
coming of Penn and Raleigh, without find-
ing the Indian playing an important part,
and it is the claim of some historians that
if the early treatments accorded him had
been continued, Indian wars, massacres,
and the sad ravages of the torch would
have been unknown. Certain it is that

where in the early days kind treatment
was accorded him, mutual peace and good
feeling ensued. Bancroft says: "The
treaty made between Massasoit and the
Pilgrims is the oldest act of diplomacy
recorded in New England," and adds, "it
was concluded in a day and was sacredly
kept for more than half a century." How
different was the treatment accorded the
Indians by Ralph Lane, the governor of
Sir Walter Raleigh's colony. It is Ban-
croft also who says: "Immediately and
without any signs of hostile intentions by
the Indians,- the watchword was given and
the Christians (in view of so many subse-
quent similar experiences, may we not
rightly consider the term used ironically)
falling upon the king and his principal
followers, put them to death." Ridpath,
referring to Penn's treatment of the In-
dians, says: "Standing before them with
grave demeanor and speaking by an in-
terpreter, he said: 'My friends, v/e have
met on the broad pathway of good faith.
We are of one flesh and blood. Being
brethren, no advantage shall be taken on
either side. When disputes arise, we will
settle them in council. Between us there
shall be nothing but love.'" The chief
replied: "While the rivers run and the
sun shines, we will live in peace with the
children of William Penn." No record
was made of . the treaty for none was
needed. Its terms were written not on
decaying parchment, but on the living
hearts of men. No deeds of violence or
injustice ever marred the sacred covenant.
The Indians vied with the Quakers in
keeping unbroken the pledge of perpetual
peace. For more than seventy years, dur-
ing which the Province remained under
the control of the Friends, not a single
war whoop was heard in the Province of
Pennsylvania. The Quaker hat and coat
proved to be a better defense for the



wearer than coat of mail and musket.
My purpose in treating this subject is to
do justice to both sides. There is abun-
dant evidence to show that in the early
days, before the Indian had come in con-
tact with the baneful influences that un-
fortunately are met with in civilized life,
he manifested a much greater spirit of
friendliness and other desirable traits than
have been found in later experiences.

The Indian has many and varied traits,
but those that have had the greatest influ-
ence upon the whites in their treatment of
him have been his roving nature and
scalp-taking tendency. Not in the be-
ginning were they Avar-like with the whites,
but with each other, and later on, with each
other and the whites. His wandering nat-
ure, unwillingness to bear restraint, a desire
to come and go at his own sweet will,
and to consider everything that he met
as his own, proclaims him the original
socialist or anarchist of the continent.
These characteristics have been the real
cause of his estrangement from the whites
and of his being forced by the whites far-
ther and farther westward from the Atlan-
tic. In the early history of the United
States it was laid down by distinguished
statesmen that the country east of the
Mississippi should be held entirely by the
whites, that the Indians should all be
moved farther west, and the country west
of the Mississippi should be given up to
them. It was believed by this arrange-
ment there would be an absence of the
hostilities and costly wars that had been
caused by the whites and Indians coming
in contact with each other. Indian tribes
have been moved time after time until
they have come to feel that they are
wanderers on the earth, liable to be moved
again at any moment. Sad and tearful
have been many of these journeys, for the
Indian is always deeply attached to the
place of his birth. If I could dwell at
length upon these sad and forced migra-
tions, we would find there have been
experiences well-nigh as sad as the trans-
porting to distant places of the Acadians

from their beautiful and fertile valley.
The Mississippi, however, did not remain
the boundary line, for selfish, aggressive
and adventurous whites crossed over and
invaded the so-called Indian country, and
the wars and massacres of the East were
repeated in the country beyond the Fath-
er of Waters, and even beyond the Smoky
Water. These experiences resulted in the
establishing of reservations. The plan
was to set apart for one or more . tribes a
definite amount of territory and require
the Indians to remain thereon. An Indian
agent was placed over them with rules and
regulations of the Interior Department
framed and in harmony with congression-
al enactments, to govern and direct him
in the performance of his duties. The
system gradually deprived the Indian of
the ordinary means of subsistence ob-
tained in the chase, and hence there arose
the system of issuing rations, a system
carried out in accordance with treaties
made by the general government and the
various tribes whereby a certain amount
of food and clothing is issued yearly to
each member of the tribe. This at once
encouraged a state of idleness, for it is
not in the line of either Indian or white
human nature to put forth exertion when
food and clothing can be obtained without
effort. With such a system the agent is
Avell-nigh, and must be as long as the sys-
tem exists, a lord high chancellor; a czar,
he has sometimes been termed, with su-
preme power. As time went on there
came to be some modification or limit
placed upon the agent's jurisdiction
whereby a court of Indian offences was
established and also a system of Indian
police. These courts are usually presid-
ed over by judges, selected by the agent
with the approval of the Indian office.
His aim Avas to select men of the greatest
integrity and influence for good in the
tribe, and to their credit it must be said
that, as a rule, these judges have, in their
work and their decisions, been character-
ized by eminent good sense and the courts
have come to be greatly respected by the



Indians themselves. I will give an in-
stance to illustrate this respect, and also
the willingness with which they obey
the decisions of their judges. It once
came to the ears of the agent of the
Poncas that White Eagle, one of the
chiefs of the tribe and judges of the
court of Indian offences, together with
another Indian, had become intoxicated.
The court was convened and the occasion
for convening it was stated by the agent
to the assembled judges. White Eagle
admitted the truth of the charge and said
in substance to the agent: "From the
earliest times white people have been try-
ing to keep whisky from their own people
and have not yet succeeded. Do you
think they can succeed in keeping it from
the Indians?" White Eagle is evidently
a re-submissionist. The decision pro-
nounced by the judges upon their associ-
ate and his friend was that they two
should put up, during the approaching
summer, all the hay needed by the entire
tribe. At the proper time White Eagle
and his friend, with some others who had
been sentenced at various times, began
the work of putting up the hay.

I am frequently asked if Indian children
are different from white children. It is my
usual reply that after we become acquaint-
ed with them and they with us, they seem,
although possessed of a lower mental
endowment, very much like other child-
ren. I might go farther and say that
after we become well acquainted with
older Indians and they with us, that they
are more like white people than would
naturally be supposed. Just before the
close of the work on the first day White
Eagle was taken sick and went home.
As a proof that the Indian is very much
like the white man, I might add that he
did not get well until the hay was entirely
put up.

Lest I convey to you the idea
that the only duty of the agent is in issu-
ing rations and administering law to idle
Indians, I ought to add that he also has a
general direction of the educational work

that is carried on by the government on
the reservations, and also exercises more
or less supervision over educational work
carried on by the various religious denom-

I have spoken of the Indian as possess-
ing a wandering and war-like nature. He
also has many other characteristics, all of
which must have their weight in consider-
ing the problem. It is a common idea
that he has remarkable powers of physical
endurance. So far as his ability to en-
dure torture is concerned, this is without
doubt true, but when we come to the
execution of those feats that require great
physical strength, and to the performance
of those duties that day after day demand
persistent and well-directed effort, it will
be found that the notion is a mistaken
one. He has, almost invariably, small
hands, small feet, and the various muscles
that the civilized white man must bring
into active play in his daily labors are not
well developed. He is capable of great
endurance on horseback. Some months
ago at the Cheyenne River agency in
South Dakota, I saw an Indian start out
on a pony about seven o'clock in the
morning, and I asked the agent where he
was going. He said he was going out
there a little way, pointing to the west.
Said I, '-Where? and how far is it?" He
replied that he did not know the name of
the place but that it was about no miles.
"Will he get there to-day?" Yes, he will
get there before the sun falls, and will be
ready to-morrow morning for another such
journey. I find, however, that when we
put them at work on the farm or in the
garden, in the carpenter shop pushing the
plane, in the harness shop drawing the
thread, or in the blacksmith shop swinging
the sledge, that, invariably, they can do
very little at first. It is only after months
of exercise that their muscles become suf-
ficiently developed to enable them to do
what would be called by a white man a
moderately fair day's work. Like all un-
civilized people, his mental calibre is low,
yet in those branches of study that require



the exercise of the imitative faculties, such
as drawing, penmanship, and some others,
he is found to be much more proficient
than in other branches, and in some in-
stances fairly excels. In those subjects
that demand the play of the reasoning
powers, such as algebra, geometry and the
higher mathematics, we find as would be
expected, only mediocre ability, except in
very rare instances. There is, as a rule,
unusual keenness of sight and hearing
which the children have inherited from
their parents. They have, as a rule, great
respect for form and power, but I notice
that is less among the children than it is
among the older people on the reservation.
There is also a great deal of tribal caste and
a great deal of admiration for those who
have made themselves famous by deeds of
valor in war or in personal contests, and
there is a corresponding tendency to de-
spise those that are cowardly or have been
conquered. In years gone by there were
many contests between the Pawnees, who
used to be located in northern Nebraska,
and the Sioux who were then scattered
over a much larger area than now. The
Sioux were among the more powerful, and
braver, and nothing would make an old
Sioux more angry than to call him a Paw-
nee. This feeling of caste is weakening
and is found less among the young. The
Indian is a pretty shrewd observer of
character and it has come to be a well
known saying among those intimately con-
nected with the Indian work that the white
man never knows what the Indian wants,
but the Indian always knows what the
white man is after.

He is a creature of feeling rather than
reason, and is influenced almost wholly by
whatever appeals to his senses. It is for
this reason that in so many instances he
has yielded to the influence of the low
whites with whom he has come in contact.
Missionaries have striven to elevate, to
civilize and to save him, but the contest
here is of very much the same nature as
in Africa. It seems to be an unfortunate
truth that every attempt of the missionary

to Christianize the heathen, whether on
our own continent or elsewhere, is trian-
gular in its nature. In the heart of the
black continent he finds these to be the
three leading factors: (i) a wild African,
(2) New England rum, and (3) Virginian
tobacco. It was so with the Indian in the
earlier days, and later he was made worse
by contact with immoral whites until, with
some Indian tribes, it is almost impossible
to find one of its members that is not af-
flicted in some form or other with tuber-
culosis or scrofula or some venereal
disease. In justice to the Indian, in view
of his present moral standing, it ought to
be said that there is abundant reason to
show that when he was by himself, before
he came in contact with the whites, there
was comparative freedom from disease. I
presume that the Indian population of
this country when the first European set-
tlers came, was not far from what it is
now. The reason that there has been no
perceptible increase is because of the
large number of lives lost in war; in fact,
at the present day, tribes could be named
in which there are scarcely any males
above fifty years of age, the last contest
of the tribe having occurred some twenty
years ago. Not long ago an old Indian,
whose face indicated that he had led a
pure life and possessed a noble character,
said to me: "You whites have come
among us; you debauched and ruined our
sons and our daughters, and we have been
obliged to stand helplessly by." It was a
sad but just commentary upon much of

Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 46 of 62)