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The Pilgrim Republic, Goodwin

War of Secession, Johnson

Appleton, New York.

Dynamic Scfciology, Ward, 2 vols

History of Civilization, Guizot

History of Germany, Taylor

Political Economy, Mill, 3 vols. '

Putman's Sons, New York.

. 1.25



♦American Citizen's Manual, Ford $ 1,00-

♦Distribution of Products, Atkinson 1.00

♦Theory and History of Banking, Dunbar l.-^b

American Farms, Elliott 1.25

Great Cities of the Republic, each volume 1.75

Industrial Pi"ogress, Atkinson 2. .50

Monopolies and the People, Baker I.a5

Railway Secrecy and Trusts, Bonham ,.... 1.00

Stories of the Nations, each volume 1..50

Callaghan & Co., Chicago.

Constitutional History of U-. S., Von Hoist, 6 vol $20.00

Con.stitutional Law of U. S., Von Hoist 3.00

Law of Taxation, Cooley 6.00

Struggle for Law, Von Ihering 1.50

Crowell, New York.

♦History of France, Duruy $ 2.00

Labor Movement in America, Ely 1.50

Life of Washington, pop. ed., Irving, j vols S..tO

Problems of To-day, Ely 1..50-

Little, Brown & Co., Boston.

History of Greece, Grote, 10 vols 3)17.50

History of the United States, Bancroft, 6 vols 13..50

Parkman's Works, each vol 3..50

Rise of the Republic, Frothingham 1.75

Longmans, Green & Co., New^ York.

Epochs of Ancient History, each vol $ 1.00

Epochs of Modern History, each vol 1.00

Political Economy, pop. ed.. Mill. 1.75

The Crusades, Cox 1.00

Scribners, New^ York.

♦American Diplomacy, Schuyler $ 3.00

History of Rome. Mommsen, 4 vols 8.00

Lombard Street, Bagehot 1.35

Silent South, Cable 1.00

Silver Burdett & Co., Boston.

♦Historical Atlas, Labberton $1.50 or

♦Historical Geography of U. S., MacCouu

Institutes of Economics, Andrews

Institues of General History, Andrews

ArrDStrong, New York.

♦Democracy in Europe, May. 3 vols

Cranston & Stowe, Chicago.
♦Political Economy. Ely

MacMillan, New York.
Constitutional History, England, Stubbs, 3 vols.
Principles of Economics, Mar.shall, vol. I



-if !?..50


Morrison, Wa.shington.
History of Uiaited States. Schouler, 4 vols $ y.OO

State University — Lawrence, Kansas.

Vol. I.

OCTOBER, 1891.

No. 2.


All students connected with the department
ot History and Sociology are. by virtue ot
such connection, members of the Seminary.
All students having two or more studies
under the instructors of the department are
required to take the work of the Seminary as
pait of their work in course.

The meetings of the Seminary are held every
Friday, in Room 15, University Building.
Public meetings will be held from time to
time, after due announcement.

The work of the Seminary consists of special
papers and discussions, on topics connected
with the Department mentioned; prepared
as far as possible from consultation of
original sources and from practical investi-
gation of existing conditions, under the per-
sonal direction of the officers of the Seminary.
Special assistance in choice of themes,
authorities, etc., is given members of the
Seminary who have written work due in the
department of History and Sociology, or in
the Department of English, or in any of the
literary societies or other similar organiza-
tions in the University; on condition that the
results of such work shall be presented to the
Seminary if so required.

In connection with the work of the Semi-
nary, a Newspaper bureau is maintained. In
this the leading cities of the United States
are represented by some twenty daily and
weekly newspapers. Thp principal object of
the Bureau is to enable students to form
habits of systematic reading, to keepinformed
on the current topics of the day, to study the
best types of modern Journalism, to learn to
discriminate between articles of temporary
value only and those of more permanent
worth, to make a comparative study ot edi-
torial work, to master for the time being the
current thought on any particular subject,
and to preserve, by clippings properly filed and
indexed, important materials for the study of
current history and public life— to make his-
tory by the arrangement and classification of
present historical matter.

Special investigation and study will be
undertaken during each year, bearing on some
one or more phases of the administration of
public affairs in this State; the purpose being

to combine service to the State with the reg-
ular work of professional and student life.
In this special work the advice and cooper-
ation of State and local officials and of
prominent men of affairs is constantly sought,
thus bringing to students the experience and
judgment of the world about them.

Graduates of our own University, or other
persons of known scholarly habits, who have
more than a passing interest in such work as
the Seminary undertakes, and who are willing
to contribute some time and thought to its
success, are invited to become corresponding
members of the Seminary. The only condi-
tion attached to such membership is, that
each corresponding member shall prepare
during each University year one paper, of not
less than two thousand five hundred words,
on some subject within the scope of the Sem-
inary; and present the same in person at such
time as may be mutually agreed upon by the
writer and the officers of the Seminary, or in
writing if it be found impossible to attend
a meeting of the Seminary.

The library of the University and the time
of the officers of the Seminary are at the
service of corresponding members, in con-
nection with Seminary work— within reason-
able limits.

More than twenty gentlemen, prominent in
official and professional circles, have already
connected themselves with the Seminary, and
have rendered very acceptable service during
past years.

The ofiicers and members of the Seminary
will gladly render all possible assistance to
any public officials who may desire to collect
special statistics or secure definite informa-
tion on such lines of public work as are
properly within the sphere of the Seminary.
Any citizen of Kansas interested in this
work is invited to correspond with the Semi-
nary, and to be present at its meetings when









^jrorlSTORICAL study in the universities
^^jL of the United States tends each
year to associate with it either directly or
indirectly the study of humanity in its
especial phases. The history of institu-
tions, both social and political, is an
important branch of historical investiga-
tion^ and necessarily considers the prob-
lems of present society or present politics.
Political economy deals not less with the
philosophical principles, but more with the
practical affairs of human society. In
dealing with the problems of modern
society it takes a decidedly sociological
tendency. American history deals not
alone with the political life, nor alone with
the constitution; it seeks to portray the
entire life of the people. In history, the
civilization of the people is sought
and with a faith in present civilization as
the most important for us. History is
being made every day, through us and
about us. It is not an antiquarian study
even though it deals much with the past,
for the best life of the past is represented
in our present. The past, of which we
speak, is only the childhood of our own
life of whose progress we boast. To know
life more fully is the object of historical
research. It is, therefore, the province of
the student of history to observe the best
and latest products of social development
as well as the early and immature. It is
his duty to inquire into present social and
political life, study present problems,
and to note how history is being made in
the laboratory of the active world. It is
the truth, the living truth that he seeks
and not the "dead past." An inquiry
into present society awakens a study in
living humanity. All forms of modern
institutions are before the student of his-
tory. In this investigation he can not
escape observing all phases of human
society. The study of history tends to-
wards the study of humanity. Its best
branch is the social life. To pour over
musty volumes in the search of knowledge]

to compare information from different
sources, and to attempt to settle disputed
points relative to the life or institutions of
the past; all of these must be attended to
by the student. But for what is all of this
done if not for a better knowledge of
humanity ?

The problems that lie in and about
narrative and descriptive history yield the
best fruits to the investigator. The prob-
lems of national finance, of labor and
wages, of education, of prohibition and
sumptuory laws, of prison reform and re-
form schools, of charities, of marriage and
divorce, and all of those problems that
tend to the elevation and reorganization of
human society are the ones that concern
us most. And instructors and educators
are everywhere looking to the elevation of
general humanity as the best and final out-
come of university education. The "de-
mocracy of education" is a phrase to suit
the times. The universities are in touch
with the people, and become more and
more living institutions as they render
especial services to humanity.

As the study of history points more and
more toward man in society the university
man, following its course, becomes less a
recluse and more a living part of polit-
ical and industrial society, with a heart
warmed toward his fellow men. In the
study of the great social problems of the
day he is optimistic for he sees in the slow
evolutions of time their final solution.
The optimist is a builder. His structures
may not always last, but he builds. The
pessimist is destructive. He tears down
structures already reared. The former
works in the light, the latter in shadows.
Both may be essential to well-ordered
society, but the former full of hope and
full of promise will raise humanity up.
Historical study leads to a better under-
standing of humanity and develops confi-
• dence. It leads to an interest in human
society; it helps to practice the gospel of





■g'TPHE above heading indicates the sub-

ject of a very interesting paper read
before the Seminary by Judge James Hum-
phrey, ex-Railroad Commissioner, the
particular class of legislation being that
which deals with the operation rather than
the creation of railroads.

The following is a brief abstract of the

Railroad corporations are in a sense
public bodies inasmuch as they have inva-
riably received aid at the hands of the
government, by the assertion in their favor
of the right of eminent domain, and also
because they perform a distinct public
function as common carriers. They are,
therefore, very properly subject, in a pecu-
liar sense, to legislative control, and the
law may impose upon them new and addi-
tional burdens, or it may restrict and limit
the powers originally granted, unless the
charter granted contains specific conditions
to the contrary.

The essential point in which railroads
are limited is usually said to be the lack
of what is known as freedom of con-
tract. A railroad has not this privilege
belonging to the individual, but is bound
to perform services asked, at rates which
are reasonable and uniform for all. It is
but just that this should be so, for the
necessary magnitude of the business and
its intimate relation to the growth and
prosperity of trade, make it possible for
railroads, unless wisely restricted and con-
trolled, to practically determine either the
particular section of country which shall
develope rapidly, or the particular trade,
or even member of a trade, that shall
prosper. In order that this unjust influ-
ence shall not be exercised, it is provided
that rates are to be reasonable. But who
is to decide what a reasonable rate is?
Certainly the railroad is not the proper
party to render such a decision, nor, on

the other hand, ought the individual ship-
per so have the privilege of doing so, and
if the case be submitted to a court, it only
becomes all the more perplexing.

It is no easy matter to decide as to the
reasonableness of rates, although the best
theoretical definition is that the rate charged
should be sufficient to pay the cost of the
service and a fair return upon the invest-
ment made. In the very outset the diffi-
culty is encountered of arranging con-
sistent schedules for classes of freight
which vary widely in bulk or in weight.
If all freights were to pay a rate in accord-
ance with a schedule, based upon either
bulk or weight, the country would soon be
deprived of many commodities now almost
regarded as necessities of life.

Again it is found that the rates charged
by a railroad in one section of the country,
can not furnish a criterion by which to
judge of rates for another railroad in
another section. It may be true that the
cost of construction of railroads will not
vary greatly no matter where they are
built, but it certainly is also true, that the
stage of development of the section through
which a railroad is built, will determine
the income per mile operated, and conse-
quently the rate which must be charged in
order that the road shall be a paying in-
vestment. Thus what a reasonable rate is
must depend in some degree upon location,
and it is possible for this principle to apply
even within a state.

Still another cause of doubt, in applying
the principle of just returns, to the deter-
mining of a reasonable rate, arises from
the utter impossibility in many cases of
ascertaining how much of the apparent
value represented in the form of stock and
bonds represents expenditure, and how
much is fictitious. It would be wrong to
arrange rates with a view to earning re-
turns upon apparent values, which repre-



sent no labor and no expenditure, for the
issue of stock for no other purpose tlian
the absorption of surplus earning, is a vio-
lation of charter privileges and an invasion
of public right.

Briefly then the peculiar character of
railroads, the functions which they per-
form, and the difficulties met in determin-
ing the restrictions which should govern
them, led to the Kansas law of 1883, pro-
viding for the appointment of a board of
railroad commissioners of three members.

It is impossible to enumerate here the
duties and privileges of that board, but it
will be sufficient to state that its main
objects are to constitute a board of inquiry
into the honest management of railroads,
to have referred to it, primarily, all ques-
tions of reasonable and uniform rates and
of sufficient appointment and equipment,
and to have direction of the publication,
from year to year, of reports, showing the
condition of each road within the state.


4'T^HE Department of History and Soci-
,^§ ology has begun in an humble way
one of the most important of modern
studies, that of Statistics. The instructors
are prepared to greatly enlarge this study
as the demand for the subject increases.
The course of study this term consists in
lectures on the theory, history and use of
statistics, with practical work in collecting,
compiling and using them. The course
is instituted for the present purpose of
strengthening the studies of sociology and
political economy. It is hoped that the
course will develop until well-trained sta-
tisticians shall be a product of the Univer-
sity. That we are deficient in the United
States in the proper collection and compila-
'tion of statistics, and especially deficient in
drawing the proper conclusions of statistics
will be evident to any one who attempts to
use the statistical tables compiled in the
majority of the states of the nation. And
yet each passing year reveals a more care-
ful collection and compilation of statistics.
The field of research is greatly extended
each yfear, and the statistical method is of
wider application. But in saying this it
must be maintained that the statistics
gathered in many of the states of the
nation are nearly worthless on account of
inaccuracy or inefficiency. Of all states

Massachusetts is most complete in statis-
tical information and most accurate in

This fact is due largely to the efforts of
Hon. Carroll D. Wright, who was for
seventeen years chief of the Massachusetts
Bureau of Labor. But other states are
growing more particular about the collec-
tion of statistics, especially those relating
to labor. At present there are twenty-
' eight states that have bureaus of labor or
mdustrial statistics. These bureaus are
created for the purpose of collecting facts
relating to the "sanitary, social and edu-
cational condition of laborers." Their
duties should be enlarged and extended
from time to time. The statistics furnished
are incomplete and insufficient for the gen-
eral welfare of the state.

The National Labor Bureau, at Wash-
ington, in charge of Commissioner Wright,
is in excellent condition and doing efficient
work in certain lines. Although the bureau
has published five reports on important
topics, the greatest work is now in hand,
that of the investigation of the condition
of labor in Europe. The five reports
already published consist .of Industrial
Depression, Convict Labor, Strikes and
Lock-outs, Working Women in Large
Cities, and Railroad Labor. In addition



to these a special report Avas made on
Marriage and Divorce. These statistics
are reliable and complete. The statistics
of the condition of labor in Europe will
be of great assistance in tariff legislation,
as they will show the real wages, cost of
living of laborers, the condition of laborers
and the relation of Avages to the cost of
production. These and many other kinds
of information will shoAV the relative ad-
vantages of the manufacture of goods in
America and Europe.

With the growing interest in statistics in
the United States there has sprung up a
class of special statisticians. Among these
are Hon. Carroll D. Wright, Edward
Atkinson, E. R. Gould, Davis R. Dewey,
and others. Yet with the increase of effi-
ciency in this line, there is still great lack
of trained statisticians in the United States
as compared to the states of the old Avorld.
The European universities have done much
to produce an efficient school of statis-
ticians in the old world, and the American
universities may do more for the same
purpose in the new Avorld.

The statistical method is much needed
at present in determining the social and
economical condition of the country. It
is through statistics that we measure ten-
dencies. Before rightly compiled statistics
glaring generalities vanish. Progress can
be measured, and so can tendencies to-
ward depression or prosperity.

It is frequently said that "figures do
not lie," but reflection shows them to be
the greatest of prevarications if they are
not well used. Frequently neAvspapers and
magazines handle statistics Avith such care-
lessness as to entirely mislead readers, and
statistics are the chief instrument of the
public speaker who wishes to mislead the
people. Anthony Froude once compared
statistics to the letter blocks of the child,
by which any word in the language could
be spelled by the right combination. So
statistics could be made to spell out almost

This is true of inefficient or inaccurate
statistics, or even of complete statistics in

the hands of the inexperienced. An im-
proper use of statistics is well illustrated
by the attempt of Zach. Montgomery to
prove that the public schools were especial
breeders of crime. He compared the
states of Virginia and Massachusetts and
convinced thousands of people that crime
was more prolific in Massachusetts than in
Virginia, and all because of public educa-
tion. But Mr. Montgomery failed to
observe that Massachusetts had large cities,
while Virginia had none; that the former
was the receptacle of a large foreign immi-
gration, Avhile the latter had none; that
the former Avas a manufacturing center
and the latter an agricultural district;
through rigid laAvs crime Avas more readily
apprehended in Massachusetts than in
Virginia, and that the colored population
in the latter changed the entire aspect of
affairs. Failing to note these items the
statistics of Mr. Montgomery were Avorth-
less and his conclusions false.

The need of the study of the methods of
collecting, compiling and manipulating
statistics is observed on every hand. The
present complicated social condition of the
country demands accurate knowledge of the
affairs of the nation and of the several
classes of society. It is one of the modern
ways of investigating history. The statis-
tical method may be compared to steam
and electricity. On a single page, in a
condition to be compared and used, are
the results of Avide research, the vital con-
clusion of volumes of history and perhaps
centuries of progress.

Statistics is not a dry study, as some
seem to suppose; it is exceedingly inter-
esting to those Avho delight in measuring
exact conclusions. In the form of statis-
tics history is written in the most
concise and durable manner. " The statis-
tician chooses a quiet and may be an
unlovely setting, but he knows it will en-
dure through all time." "The art of the
statistician is the art of the tactician, and
is the undeveloped art of the day as it is
the important art of the day."






■gnnHE fundamental principle of t
^1, is that all laborers in factories,

the law

etc., are compelled, through the payment
of certain contributions, to provide for
themselves sufficient support in case of
sickness. Accordingly all workingmen
must belong to an association organized
for this purpose in one of the following

1. Local Associatio7i. Must have at
least one hundred members. May be or-
ganized by the local authorities, and must
be in some cases. The assistance due
from a local association is, first, medical
attendance and medicine from the begin-
ning of the sickness, and second, in case
of inability to work, as payment, from the
third day of illness, equal to half the ave-
rage wages of those insured in the associa-
tion. This assistance comes to an end
after thirteen weeks of sickness, but may
be continued by action of the association.
In the same manner the account paid may
be increased. In case of death of a mem-
ber a payment is made to the relatives of
the deceased equal to twenty times the
usual daily wages in that place. Two-
thirds of the expenses of this insurance are
borne by the laborer and one-third by
their employers. Their respective shares
are paid to the official in charge of the

2. The Trade Association. An em-
ployer who has in his employ as many as
fifty persons coming under the act, may
organize a trade or factory association.
He is required to do so in case request is
made by the local authorities or by the
local association of which his laborers have

♦This article gives the substance of a digest of recent
German insurance legislation prepared by Professor
George Adler, of the University of Freiburg. As the
acts themselves are not easily accessible, it has been
deemed desirable to pi-esent this outline of them in

before been members. The assistance
given is the same as in case of the local
association, except that payments made
may be in proportion to the actual earn-
ings of the -individual instead of to the
average wages of all the members.

3. The Minei-'s Associatio?i. This is
essentially one form of trade association.
The law requires that in mining, employers
shall establish special associations.

4. The Guild Association. This may
be organized by any guild for the benefit
of its members. The conditions are essen-
tially the same as in the local association.

5. Special form of miner's association,
which must provide at least as much sup-
port as the regular association.

6. The Free Association. Differs from
the other forms, in that the employer is
not required to contribute. He has, in

Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 5 of 62)