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Seminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science online

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have been devoted to the special develop-
ment of science in the University, . but
Chancellor Snow has wisely seen fit to
devote it to supply the most pressing need
of the University. Had Chancellor Snow
chosen to devote it to the building of a
new science hall, everybody would have
said it was right that it should be so used,
as the fund should be disposed according
to his desire. As it is. Chancellor Snow
has placed the fund in a way in which it
will benefit all departments of the Univer-
sity alike and doubtless add much to the
fame and honor of the generous benefac-
tor of the college. Spooner Library,
built of stone and iron, by the judicious
use. of $90,000, containing the library
which is to serve all departments of the
University through the coming genera-
tions, will be a fitting monument to him
who thought of the advancement of
education in the far West.

The department of Economics and So-
ciology in Leland Stanford Junior Univer-
sity, is to be represented by some very
strong men. For the present, Dr. Clark,
Dr. D. A. Ross of Cornell, and Dr. A. G.
Warner, present suJDerintendent of chari-
ties in the District of Columbia, and Dr.
Elliott will compose the teaching force.



This lays a good foundation for the work
in the Stanford University. Doubtless it
will be enlarged and improved as time
makes new demands, for President Jordan,
though a special scientist, realizes the
growing importance of the study of econ-
omic and social sciences.

''Columbus and His Discovery of
America," is the title to numbers ten and
eleven of the tenth series of the Johns
Hopkins University Studies. This volume
contains first, an oration on "Columbus
and His Discovery of America," by Prof.
Herbert B. Adams, followed by an ora-
tion on "The Discovery of America," by
Prof. Henry Wood, both of Johns Hop-
kins University. These able and interest-
ing orations are followed by a curious
article on "The First Jew in America,"
and another of equal interest on "Chris-
topher Columbus in Oriental Literature."
There is apended to this an excellent list
of "Bibliographies on the discovery of
America." To the student of Columbus
and the Discovery, this book is exceed-
ingly valuable and interesting as present-
ing new phases of the great subject. Also
should be mentioned the list of memorials
which are contributed to the life and ser-
vice of Columbus, in different parts of the
world. Some sixty-five of these are men-
tioned. It is interesting to note that the
first erected in America was one at Balti-
more in 1792 by Chevalier d'Anmour on
his private estate. It is an obelisk forty-
four feet and four inches high, made of
stuccoed brick. The volume is closed by
a note on "Columbus Portraits." Of al
Columbus literature it w.ould be quite im-
possible to crowd more of interest andl
value within the short space of eighty-
eight pages comprising this volume. It
is deserving of a more lengthy notice than

President Schurman, of the Cornell
University, in his inaugural address made
a strong plea in favor of State aid to the
institution. He shows that though the
State never gave to the University a single

dollar from her own treasury, she requires
the University to make an annual expen-
diture of ^150,000 for instruction to stu-
dents receiving free scholarships, and in
the name of justice, he asks that this ex-
pense be borne by the State.

In the course of his argument President
Schurman reviews the provisions made for
the State Universities in several of the
States. In Michigan the University re-
ceives, in addition to special grants, the
income of a tax of one-twentieth of a mill
on the total taxable valuation of the State.
In Wisconsin the University receives the
income of a one-tenth mill tax. This tax
is supplemented by special appropriations
which in the three years from 1885 to 1888
amounted to ;^35o,ooo. California estab-
lished for the support of her University a
perpetual tax of one-tenth of a mill, which
now yields about ^100,000 annually. Ne-
braska gives to her University the income
of a three-eighths mill tax, which is the
" Highest University tax in America." In
Ohio the University tax is one-twentieth
of a mill. These taxes varying from one-
twentieth ■ to three-eights of a mill are in-
tended to defray running expenses, while
extraordinary expenses are usually pro-
vided for by generous special appropria-

In Kansas the act for the government
of the University provides a tax sufficient
to yield $75,000 annually. This form of
provision has the advantage of yielding a
definite sum which can be counted upon
with certainty. It has the disadvantage
of strictly limiting the income of the Uni-
versity so that, as the State grows in
wealth and population, there is no corres-
ponding growth in the revenue of its chief
educational institution which may enable
it to meet the increasing demands upon it.
This fact makes it the more necessary that
the Legislature provide liberal special ap-
propriations in order that the University
may keep abreast of sister institutions in
other States and may offer the youth of
Kansas as broad and liberal an education
as the youth of other States find at home.



The School of Economics, Political
Science and History at Wisconsin Univer-
sity is in a very flourishing condition.
Under the management of Dr. Richajrd T.
Ely the work is being carried on with force
and skill. The first important requisite
to a school of this character in a great
University like Wisconsin is a competent
corps of teachers and ample support.
These we understand that Dr. Ely has at
his command. It is just such a school as
is now needed in Kansas University to
supply the present demands of the terri-
tory which the University represents.
The faculty of the School comprise the
following instructors: Richard T. Ely,
Ph. D., Director and Professor of Polit-
ical Economy ; John B. Parkinson, A. M.
Professor of Civil Polity and Political
Economy; Frederick J. Turner, Ph. D.,
Professor of American History ; Charles
H. Haskins, Ph. D., Professor of Institu-
tional History; William A. Scott, A. M.,
Assistant Professor of Political Economy,
and John M. Parkinson, A. M., Professor
of Civil Polity. Of special lecturers there
are Albert Shaw, Ph. D., on Municipal
Problems; Amos G. Warner, Ph. D., on
Pauperism, and F. H. Wines, A. M., on
Criminology. In addition to this David
Kinley, A. B., is Fellow and Assistant in
Economics, F. W. Speirs, B. S., Exten-
sion Lecturer on Economics, and L. A.
Powell, A. B., Extension Lecturer on
History. With these twelve men in active
service there is little wonder that Wiscon-
sin forges ahead in the above lines. But
this is not all, they have three Seminaries,
one in History, one in Economics, and
one in Public Law. They also have an
Historical and Political Science associa-
tion for citizens and advanced students.
More than this the students have access
to libraries containing over 200,000 vol-

In this year of Columbian festivals, and
Columbian addresses, and Columbian
books, it is curious to note the different
views taken of the character of the great

discoverer. He is either lauded to the
skies, as a man noble in all his ways, or
regarded as a self-seeking and often wicked
adventurer who was fortunate enough to
make a great discovery. Recent publica-
tions on Columbus have generally tended
to remove much of the halo which has
surrounded his name. His deeds in the
New World have been harshly criticised,
and the greatness of his fame has been
diminished. Judged by the light of our
times Columbus was at fault in much that
he tried to do. Judged in the light of his
own times, he was not much better or
worse than the majority of his fellow men.
Yet after all there is something in Colum-
bus' character which seems to show us
the inner nobility of the man. At least
there is one period in his life which is in
nearly every way admirable ; the period
when for twelve long years Columbus de-
voted himself with varying fortunes to the
propagation of his great idea.

It is this period of trial and disappoint-
ment in the life of Columbus which casts
the most favorable light upon his charac-
ter. As yet untouched by that desire to
send back to the old world the wealth and
produce of the new, — a desire often lead-
ing him to harsh and unchristian like con-
duct, — Columbus has thus far shown us
only such qualities as are admirable, —
which deserve all honor. Think of it.
How many men would have given the
twelve best years of life in a seemingly vain
attempt to persuade a disbelieving world
that it was ignorant and one man only
was wise ? Twelve years, spent not in idle
assertion of a doctrine, but in unremitting,
persistant, . toilsome effort. Again and
again was Columbus reduced to the last
extremity in his enthusiasm for what his
contemporaries called the "idle thought
of an empty head." But he never faltered
in his course. Determination was written
in every line of his conduct. "Indefat-
igable persistence," says Irving, "was the
essence of his character." In simpler
language it was pure grit, a characteristic
always admirable, but yet more so, when



employed in a great cause and by an hon-
orable and upright man.

It is sometimes said that the main thing
for which Columbus sought, was aid to
discover a new world, in order to plunder
it. It is true that he ever talked of the
wealth, the gold, the jewels, the produce
of these as yet undiscovered countries.
Yet, in reading Columbus' character, it
does not seem this was the main thing for
which Columbus sought. He wished to
present to the known world an unknown
world, and to have the honor of making
the presentation. That was his ambition.
He desired for himself and his family a
great renown, a distinction above all other
men. In his will he cautioned his sons
never to be known by any other title than
the hereditary one of "'The Admiral,"
conferred upon him by Ferdinand and
Isabella. But in order to interest others
in his schemes it was a necessity of the
times, and indeed of all times, that he
should appeal to the love of gold. Colum-
bus should be freed from that petty criti-
cism which pictures him as an avaricious
adventurer, merely because wherever he
landed in the new world he asked first of
all for gold from the natives.

Moreover Columbus himself placed as
one of the first results of a successful
voyage of discovery, the renewal of the
crusades for the recapture of the Holy
Sepulchre at Jerusalem. This was no
doubt a fanciful idea, yet it shows us the
deep religious side of the man. The idea
of a crusade did not seem acceptable as
wise to either the Crown or the Church,
but to Columbus it was a fond thought
even to the day of his death.

Columbus was by nature an enthusiast.
His twelve years of effort did not change
him in this respect, but only tended to
make him mose earnest. For that con-
stant enthusiasm and self sacrificing effort
during the years of unrewarded toil, there
can be but sympathy and esteem.

lian & Co., is the last addition to the
wages discussion. It is taken up chiefly
with a review of theories already pro-
pounded and something on the line of our
American authors, Clark, Ross, Ely and
others. The vital point, and indeed the
most original of the book, is the applica-
tion of this theory to the eight-hour ques-
tion. In this, Mr. Thompson shows the
great variation and complication of the
laws of distribution, and demonstrates the
difficulty of the application of the dynamic
law of distribution, and the law referring to
equal returns to the last increment.
Especially in respect to the eight-hour law
he demonstrates quite conclusively that
the result of the reduction of the hours
of labor must necessarily involve the
consideration of the increase or decrease
of the total product of industries,
or the increase or decrease of land,
or the effect on rent of land, and
the effect on the amount of capital
or the rate of interest and the in-
crease or decrease in the supply of
organizing power as well as in the profits
of the managers of the business. All this
makes the effects of the eight-hour law
very complex in their nature. The wide
range laid down by Mr. Thompson will
furnish food for thought. There are
many who reason theoretically about an
eight-hour law ^s if its sole effect would
be seen directly in the increase or decrease
in wages, and perhaps have something to
do with production. The most difficult
problem of a general eight-hour law be-
longs to applied economics, that of regu-
lating and enforcing such law after it has
been made.

Theory of Wages, by Herbert M!
Thompson, M. A., published by MacMil-

A VERY valuable paper was read before
the Seminary on Friday, Jan. 13, by Hon.
James Humphrey, of Junction City, on
Political Economy in its relation to Legis-
lation and Government. The students
and instructors were greatly interested in
the paper. It is the intention of the edi-
tors to publish all or a part of the paper
in a future edition of the Notes.


The two principal articles in this issue
of Seminary Notes were read before the
Seminary by their respective writers, Mr.
Meserve and Mr. Woodward.

The "Formation of the Union," by
Professor A. B. Hart, of Harvard, is the
second volume in Longman's series of
"Epochs of American History." The
period covered is from 1750 to 1829.
The work is in every respect an excellent
one. Though much condensed, it is inter-
esting reading. The careful division into
topics adapts it for use as a text book in
the class room or as a basis for wider
study in the hands of the general reader.
The most notable single feature of the
book is the careful bibliographical notes
and references which give the student an
introduction to the literature of the period
and continually invite him to further read-
ing.. Our only regret is that two volumes
instead of one were not given to the

" The Social Condition of Labor," ap-
pearing in several of the leading maga-
zines, written by Dr. E. R. L. Gould, will
be received with great satisfaction by all
economists and other persons interested
in rational statistics. The real condition
of labor in Europe has been practically
unknown except in a general way. No
question has been of more trouble to the
student of labor and wages than this, and
it is to be hoped that Mr. Gould will con-
tinue his scientific researches until we
shall have a complete understanding of
the actual condition of labor in Europe.
It has been the custom of orators and
writers to make invidious comparisons
between the laboring classes of Europe
and America. These have been based
upon half-knowledge of the actual condi-

tion of affairs in Europe. Nearly all of
the information on wages and labor which
we have used from time to time, has been
of a fragmentary nature. The evil influ-
ence of this partial knowledge has been
greatly intensified by the attempts of econ-
omists and statesmen to prove precon-
ceived notions. As it is, the question of
real and nominal wages in reference to
Europe and America has never been set-
tled. The work of Dr. Gould will throw
much light on the subject and if continued
in the discriminating and thoughtful man-
ner in which it has been commenced, will
make a final solution of the problem pos-
sible. As an example of Dr. Gould's
method, the case of investigating the con-
dition of laboring classes by comparing
the wages received by each laborer, is
exploded by ascertaining the different con-
ditions of family life in Europe and Amer-
ica. In Europe the children remain
longer under the same roof than they do
in the United States and more contribute
to the general support of the home. Con-
sequently the only way to obtain the real
wages of labor i's to estimate the actual
necessaries, comforts, or luxuries enjoyed
by families of the same number, under
similar conditions of frugality and in-

It is much to be deplored that we have
so few good statisticians in the United
States who, like Dr. Gould, are willing to
collect sufficient data, and are at the same
time able to draw from them proper con-
clusions. An improvrment in the methods
of gathering and handling statistics would
have a great influence in the improvement
of our administration in the United
States — an improvement greatly needed at





FOR 1892-93.

E. D. ADAMS, Ph. D.

• Instruction in this department is given by
means of lectures, conferences, recitations, dis-
cussions, and personal direction in study and
research. As the library is an indispensable aid
in the pursuit of the following courses of study,
students are expected to become acquainted
with the best methods of collecting and classifj'-
ing materials, and of writing and presenting
papers on special topics. All lectures are sup-
plemented \>y required reading and class exer-

The work of the department now embraces
five principal lines of study, namely: European
History, American History and Civil Govern-
ment, Political Institutions, Sociology or Social
Institutions, and Political Economy.

The following studies are offered for 1892-'9r!:


1. The History of Civilization. Leciures
dailj', at 8:30. Ancient Society, and the intel-
lectual development of Europe to the twelfth
century. Special attention is given to the influ-
ence of Greek philosophy and the Christian
church on European civilization, the relation of
learning to liberal government, and to the rise
of modern nationality.

2. French and German History. Daily,
at 9:30. Descriptive history. Text-book.

3. Historical Method and Criticism
Tuesday and Thursday, at 9:30. Examination
and classification of sources and authorities.
Analysis of the works of the best historians.
Library worli, with collection and use of mater-
ial, notes, and bibliography. Special attention
to current historical and economic literature.

4. The History of Education and the
Development of Methods of Instruction.
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 9:30. This
course may be taken with No. 3. A course for

5. English History. Daily, at 11. Descrip-
tive history. Text-book.

6. Journalism. Monday, Wednesday, and
Friday, at 12. Lectures, laborator.y and library-

work. English: Twenty-five lectures by Prof-
essors Dunlap and Hopkins; 15 lectures on the
history and ethics of journalisn, by Professor
Adams. Newspaper bureau. The principal
object of the bureau is to enable students to
form habits of systematic reading, to keep in-
formed on the topics of the day, and to preserve
clippings properly filed and indexed. This
course will be found highly beneficial to stu-
dents who desire a special study in magazines
and newspapers as a general culture. '

I. Statistics. Tuesday and Thursday at
12. Supplementary to all studies in economics
and sociology. The method of using statistics
is taught by actual investigation of political and
social problems, lectures, and class-room- prac-
tice. The histoi'y and theory of statistics
receive due attention.

8. American History. From the earliest
discover^' to 1763. Lectures, topical reading,
and recitations. Three hours a week at 2.

9. Local and Municipal Government.

Lectures and topical reading. Two hours a
a week at 2.

Courses 8 and 9 are intended to be taken to-
gether as a full study, but may be taken sepa-

10. American History. Presidential ad-
ministrations from Washington to Jackson.
Daily, at 3. Open to Seniors in full standing,
and to other students upon approval of the

I I. International La"w and Diplomacy.

LectLU'es and recitations. Two hours a week,
at 4.

12. Political Economy. Daily, at 4. The
fundamental principles are discussed, elaborated
and illustrated by examples from present eco-
nomic societ}'. A brief history of Political
Economy closes the course.


13. Institutional History. Lectures
Monday', Wednesday, and Fridaj-, at 8:30, on
comparative politics and administration. Greek
Roman, and Germanic institutions compared.
Historical significance of Roman law in the
middle eges. Short study in Prussian adminis-

14. Renaissance and Reformation.

Tuesday' and Thursday, at 8:30. Lectures.
The revival of learning with especial reference
to the Italian renaissance. A careful inquiry
into the cause, course and results of the Refor-
mation. This course may be taken as a
continuation of number 1 .


15. Political 'History of Modern Eu-
rope. Tuesday and Thursday at 9:30. Text-

16. Federal Government and the
PrenchT Revolution. Lectures, Monday,
Wednesday, and Friday, at 9:30, on Switzer-
land. The , Italian republics and the States
General of France.

17. Constitutional History of England.
Tuesday and Thursday, at 9:30. This course
may be taken as a continuation of number .5.
Text-book and lectures.

18. Elements of Sociology. Lectures,
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 11. Evo-
lution of social institutions. Laws and condi-
tions that tend to organize society. Modern
social institutions and social problems.

19. Charities and Correction.. Tuesday
and Thursday, at 11. Treatment of the poor
from a historical standpoint. Modern scientific
charity. The treatment of criminals. Prisons
and reformatories. Practical study of Kansas
institutions. This course is supplementary to
number 18.

20. Land Tenures. Lectures, Tuesday
and Thursday, at 12. This course treats of
primitive property, the village community,
feudal tenures, and modern land-holding in
Great Britain and the United States. This
course is mainly historical, and is an excellent
preparation for the study of the law of real

21. American History. Continuation of
course 8. First half-term: History of the Rev-
olution and the Confederation, 1763 to 1769.
Second half-term: Brief summary of the consti-
tutional period, with Johnston's "American
Politics" as a text-book. Three hours a week,
at 2.

22. Constitutional LavT". History of the
adoption of the constitution, and a study of its
provisions. Twice a week, at 2. Forms, with
course 21, a full study, but may be taken

23. American History. Continuation of
course 10. Presidential administrations from
Jackson to Lincoln. Daily, at 3.

24. Mediaeval History. Two-fifths of
the second term of the Freshman year. For all
students whose admission papers sliow that
they have had elementary physics, hygiene and
chemistry. Daily, at 3. Text-book.

25. Principles of Public Finance. Lec-
tures on public industries, budget legislation,
taxation and public debts. Open to students
who liave studied political economy one term.
Two hours a week, at 4.

26 The Status of "Woman. Confer-
ences. Tuesday and Thursday, at 4. Indus-
trial condition, including a study of labor,
wages, etc. Woman in the professions. Their
political and legal abilities and disabilities.
Property rights. Condition of woman in Europe
and the Orient. Social questions.

27. Advanced Political Economy.
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 4. (Jon-
si^ting of (a) lectures on applied economics; (i)
practical observation and investigation; and (c)
methods of research, with papers by students
on special topics. This course is a continuation
of number 12.

General Seminary, on Friday, at 4. Stu-
dents in History and Sociology are required to
attend the Seminary unless excused by special
arrangement. Full credit will be allowed for
time spent in Seminary work. At the beginning
of the term, students \a&y elect other work in
place of the seminar^', if they choose.


I. Economics. Courses 7, 13, 18, 19, 20,
and 27. •
n. European History. Courses, 2, 3, 5,

13, 15, and 16.

in. American History. Courses 8, 9, 10,
21, 22, and 23.

IV. Social Institutions. Courses, 1, 12,

14, 18, 19, and 4 (or 26).

V. Political Institutions, Courses 3, 7,
9, 15, 13, 16, 17, 20, and 22.


Persons desiring to take the degree of A. M.
may do so by the completion of any one or all
of the following courses. The work is carried
on by the investigation of special topics under
the personal direction of the instructor. An
hour for conference will be arranged for each
student. The courses extend throughout the

Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 50 of 62)