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Seminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science online

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year.

I. American History. Open to graduates
and students who have studied American His-
tory two years.

II. Economics. Open to graduates and
students who have taken the undergraduate
work in political economy. Courses 12, 27,
and 8.

Ill Political and Social Institutions.
Open to graduates and students who have taken
the undergraduate work in the history of insti-
tutions and sociology. Courses 12, 27, and 7.

The above courses are for students who de-
sire proficiency in a special line. These courses
will not in anj^ way interfere with tlie general
rules of the Faculty respecting graduate work.



SEMINRY NOTES.



103



(Catalogue, 1891-'92, pp. 130, 121.) By these
rules, a graduate student may take anj' of the
27 courses mentioned above (except 15 and 24) as
a preparation for the degree of A. M.

Preparation for Entrance to the Uni-
versity. The time spent in the high schools
in the study of history is necessarily limited.
For this reason it is essential that the greatest
care be exercised in preparing students for en-
trance to the University. At present very
little history is required in the Freshman and
Sophomore years, and the students enter upon
the study of the Junior and Senior years with-
out thorough preparation for the work. It
would seem that the aim should be for all those
who contemplate entering the University to
learn the story of nations pretty thoroughly. A
general outline of the world's historj' with a
special study of the United States History and
government represents the field. But this out-
line should be more than a mere skeleton of
facts and dates. It should be well rounded
with the political, social, and economic life
of the people. Students will find a general
text-book, such as Myer's, Sheldon's, or Fisher's,
indispensible; but the work of preparation
ought not to stop here. Such works as Fyflfe's
Greece, Creighton's Rome, Seebohm's Era of



Protestant Revolution, Cox's Greece, and others
in the Primer, Epoch, and Stories of Nations
series ought to be read. The object of this
reading is to familiarize the student with the
political and social life of the principle nations
of the world. For this purpose everything
should be as interestisg as possible. Such an
interest should be aroused that the student
would not be puzzled over dates and threadbare
facts, but would seize and hold those things
that are useful on account of the interest his
mind has in them. That history which is
gained by a bare memor\' of events is soon lost.
It grows too dim for use and consequently leads
to confusion. With the story of the nations
well learned the student comes to the University
prepared for the higher scientific study of history
and its kindred topics. He is then ready for
investigation, comparison and analysis. He
then takes up the real investigation of the phil-
osophy of institutions and of national develop-
ment. He is then ready for the science of
Sociology, Institutional Histor}-, Political Econ-
omy, the Science of Government, Statistics or
Political Economy. Students who enter the
University without this preparation find it
necessarj' to make up for it as best they can bj'^
the perusal of books, such as those mentioned
above.



I04



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



STUDENTS' LIBRARIES.



Every student in the University should lay the foundation of a good working library. Such libraries are
not "made to order" at some given time, under specially favorable financial conditions— but are the result of
considerable sacrifice, and are of slow growth. The wise expenditure of even ten dollars in each term will
bring together books which'if thoroughly mastered will be of great assistance in all later life. Room-mates,
or members of the same fraternity, by combining their libraries and avoiding the purchase of duplicates, can
soon be in possession of a most valuable collection of authors. Assistance in selecting and in purchasing will
be given upon application.

The prices named below are the list prices of the publishers.

Students are required to purchase books marked with an asterisk.
American Book Company, C'nicago.

Manual of the Constitution, Andi-ews $ 1.00

Analysis of Civil Government, Townsend 1.00

Civil Government, Peterman 60



History of England, Thalheimer ,. 1.00

MedisDval and Modern History, Thalheimer 1.60

Outlines of History, Fisher 3.40

General History of the World, Barnes 1.60

Political Economy, Gregory 1.20

Lessons in Political Economy, Champlin 90

Ginn & Co., Boston and Chicago.

Ancient History, Myers & Allen $ 1.50

Mediteval and Modern History, Myers 1.50

Political Science and Comparative Law, Burgess, 5.00

Macy's Our Government .75

*General History, Myers 1.50

Leading facts in English History, Montgomery... 1.13

Philosophy of Wealth, Clark 1.00

Political Science Quarterly, Yearly... 3.00

Washington and His Country, Fiske 1.00

Harpers, New York.

*Histoi'y of Germany, Lewis 1.50

♦International Law, Davis 3.00

♦Political History of Modern Times, Mueller 2.00

*Short English History, Green 1.20

Civil Policy of America, Draper 3.00

History of English People, Green, 4 vols .. 10.00

History of United States, Hildreth, 6 vols 13.00

The Constitution, Story 90

Holt & Co., New York.

♦American Politics, Johnston $ 1.00

American Colonies, Doyle, 3 vols 9.00

American Currency, Sumner 2.50

History of Modern Europe, Fyffe, 3 vols 7.50

Political Economy, Walker.^ 3.S5

Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston.

Discovery of America. Fiske, 3 vols $ 4.00

American Commonwealths, 14 vols., each 1.35

American Statesmen, 34 vols., each 1.35

American Revolution, Fiske, 2 vols 4.00

Critical Period of American History. Fiske 2.00

Epitome of History, Ploetz 3.00

Christopher Columbus, Winsor 4.00

Appleton, New York.

Dynamic Sociology, V/ard, 3 vols 6 5.00

History of Civilization, Guizot 1.35

Political Economy, Mill, 3 vols 6.00



Cranston & Stowe, Chicago.

*Political Economy, Ely



.? 1.00



Macmillan, New^ York.
Constitutional History, England, Stubbs, 3 vols..$ 7.80
Principles of Economics, Marshall, vol. I 3.00



Armstrong, New York.

♦Democracy in Europe, May, 3 vols $ 2.50

G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York and London.

♦American Citizen's Manual, Ford $ 1.25

Unwritten Constitution of the U. S., Tiedeman... 1.00

History of Political Economy, Blanqui 3.00

Introduction to Eng. Econom. Hist, and Theory,

Ashley l.W

Indust. and Com. Supremacy of Eng., Rogers 3.00

Economic Interpretations of History, Rogers. 3.00

Constitutional History of the U.S., Sterne 1.25

♦Tariff History of the United States, Taussig 1.25

The Story of Nations, .34 vols., each 1..50

Heroes of the Nations, 13 vols., each 1.50

American Orations, ed. bj^ Johnston, 3vols., each 1.25

Callaghan & Co., Chicago.
Constitutional History of U. S., Von Hoist, 8 vol 125.00

Constitutional Law of U S., Von Hoist : 2.00

Political Economy, Roscher, 2 vols 6.00

Crowell, New York.

♦History of France, Duruy S 2.00

Labor Movement in America, Ely 1.50

Life of Washington, pop. ed., Irving, 3 vols 3.50

Problems of To-day, Ely 1.50

Little, Brown & Co., Boston.

History of Greece, Grote, 10 vols $17.50

Parkman's Works, per vol 1.50

Rise of the Republic, Frothingham 3.50

Longmans, Green & Co . , New^ York.

Epochs of Ancient History, each vol $ l.Ofl

Epochs of Modern History, each vol 1.00

Political Economy, pop. ed.. Mill 1.75

The Crusades, Cos._ 1.00

Scritaners, New York.

♦American Diplomacy, Schuyler $ 2.50

History of Rome, Mommsen, 4 vols 8.00

Lombard Street, Bagehot 1.25

Silent South, Cable 1.00

Silver Burdett & Co., Boston.

♦Historical Atlas, Labberton $1..50 or $ 2.00

*Historical Geography of U. S., MacCoun 1.00

♦Institutes of Economics, Andrews 1.50

Institues of General History, Andrews 2.00

Dodd, Mead & Co., New York.

History of United States, Schouler, 5 vols $11.50

D. C. Heath & Co., Boston.

♦The State, Woodrow Wilson $ 2.00

Principles of Political Economy, Gide 2.00

Methods of Teaching History, Hall 1.50

General History. Sheldon 1.60

♦Old South Leaflets, 33 Nos., each .05

History Topics, Allen 35

State and Fed. Governments of the U. S., Wilson M

The American Citizen, Dole , 90

Comparative View of GovernuTents, Wenzel .20

Studies in American History, Sheldon— Barnes... 1.12



SEMINARY NOTES.

State University — Lawrence, Kansas.



Vol. II.



MARCH, 1893.



No. 5.



SEMINARY OF HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL SCIENCE.



All students connected with the department
of History and Sociolog}' are, by virtue of such
connection, members of the Seminary. All
students are expected to attend the Seminary
unless excused by the instructors of the depart-
ment. Students are credited with the time
spent in Seminary work.

The meetings of the Seminary are held every
Fridaj', in Room 15, University Building. Pub-
lic meetings will be held from time to time, after
due announcement.

The work of the Seminary consists of special
papers and discussions, on topics connected
with the Department mentioned ; prepared as
far as possible from consultation of original
sources and from practical investigation of
existing conditions, under the personal direction
of the officers of the Seminary

Special assistance in choice of themes, author-
ities, etc., is given members of the Seminary
who have written work due in the department
of History and Sociology, or in the department
of English, or in any of the literary societies or
other similar organizations in the Universit.y ;
on condition that the results of such work shall
be presented to the Seminary if so required.

In connection with the work of the Seminary,
a Newspaper bureau is maintained. In this the
leading cities of the United States are repre-
sented by some twenty daily and weekly news-
papers. The principal object of the Bureau is
to enable students to form habits of systematic
reading, to keep informed on the current topics
of the day, to stud,y the best types of modern
journalism, to learn to discriminate between
articles of temporary value only and those of
more permanent worth, to make a comparative
study of editorial work, to master for the time
being the current thought on any particular
subject, and to preserve by clippings properly
filed and indexed, important materials for the
study of current history and public life — to
make history by the arrangement and classifica-
tion of present historical matter.

Special investigation and study will be under-
taken during each year, bearing on some one or
more phases of the administration of public
affairs in this state ; the purpose being to com-
bine service to the state with the regular work



of professional and student life. In this special
work the advice and co-operation of state and
local officials and of prominent men of affairs is
constantly sought, thus bringing to students the
experience and judgment of the world about
them.

Graduates of our own Universitj-, or other
persons of known scholarly habits, who have
more than a passing interest in such work as
the Seminary undertakes, and who are willing
to conti'ibute some time and thought to its suc-
cess, are invited to become corresponding mem-
bers of the Seminary. The only condition
attached to such membership is, that each cor-
responding member shall prepare during each
University year one paper, of not less than two
thousand five hundred words, on some subject
within the scope of the Seminary ; and present
the same in person at such time as may be
mutually agreed upon by the writer and the
officers of the Seminary, or in writing if it be
found impossible to attend a meeting of the
Seminary.

The library of the University and the time of
the officers of the Seminary are at the service
of corresponding members, in connection with
Seminary work — within reasonable limits.

More than twenty gentlemen, prominent in
official and professional circles, have already
connected themselves with the Seminary, and
have rendered very acceptable service during
past years.

The officers and members of the Seminary
will gladly render all possible assistance to anj'
public officials who may desire to collect spe-
cial statistics or secure definite information on
such lines of public work as are properly with-
in the sphere of the Seminary.

Any citizen of Kansas interested in this work
is invited to correspond with the Seminary, and
to be present at its meetings when possible.

FRANK W. BLACKMAR,

DiKECTOK.

FRANK H. HODDER,

ViCE-DlEECTOTl.

EPHRAIM I). ADAMS,

Secret AHY.



io6



SEMINARY NOTES.



THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE EIGHT HOUR LAW.



ET is not the purpose of this paper to
advocate the merits or to present the
objections to what is popularly known as
the "Eight-hour Law, " or to champion
any one of the many "plans" for lessen-
ing the daily hours of toil so earnestly
urged by enthusiastic labor reformers.
The substitution of machinery for manual
labor, constantly progressing during the
last fifty years, has revolutionized our
methods of production, obviated the
necessity for exhaustive physical toil and
rendered the old "sun-up to sun-down"
system of labor obsolete. Our facilities
for production have enormously increased.
This sudden and radical change has
thrown our industrial system "out of
joint," and modern thought is largely
directed to the solution of the problem
how best to set it right ; but customs and
usages closely interwoven with pur social
fabric are not readily loosened. The
world is naturally conservative, and
changes and innovations rarely keep pace
with the desires of impatient and enthusi-
astic reformers. Nevertheless, the world
does move, old customs give way to new,
and ultimately the benefits resulting from
the utilization of the powers of steam and
electricity will be equitably distributed.

The legislature of 1891 provided that
eight hours should constitute a day's work
for all laborers, mechanics or other persons
employed by or on behalf of the state of
Kansas, or by any county, city, township
or other municipality, and that not less
than the current rate of per-diem wages
should be paid. This law took effect
about July i, 1891. In response to numer-
ous letters of request, I undertook to learn
to what extent the law was observed, and
addressed a circular letter to all of the
county clerks, to the clerks and police
commissioners of cities of the first class,



and to the heads of the state charitable
and reformatory institutions. In order to
learn how the champions of organized
labor regarded the law, I also addressed
circulars to some forty or fifty prominent
Knights of Labor and members of trades
unions located in different parts of the
state. In my letter of inquiry I asked as
to the number of persons (excluding those
working on salaries fixed by the legisla-
ture) employed directly or by contractors
since the law took effect, and how many
of these had been required to work only
eight hours as provided by law. In reply,
I received answers from ninety-three
county clerks and from all of the clerks
of the six cities of the first class. I also
received answers from the chairmen of
five of the six boards of police commis-
sioners, from the heads of the state insti-
tutions, from the chief firm of contractors
employed on state work, and from the
members of labor organizations living in
nine different cities. The result of this
investigation is submitted in Part I, of the
Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics
for the year 18,91. The law had not been
long enough in force to enable the Bureau
to draw any very definite conclusions as
to its merits or demerits, but as a rule the
replies received were anything but encour-
aging.

Of the ninety-three county clerks
responding, but twenty-two reported that
any attention whatever was paid to the
law, and of this number only four com-
mended its workings. Fourteen assailed
it bitterly. One clerk wrote: "We entirely
ignore it, and only regret that our statute
books should be disgraced by such an
infamous law." In the working of road
tax, the rejiorts show that the law was
rigidly observed — one clerk being under
the impression that there was a standing



SEMINARY NOTES.



107



reward for the discovery of any person
who "ever worked over eight hours on a
road." In the case of the twenty-two
counties reporting a partial observance of
the law, the deputies and clerks employed
in the county offices are reported as highly
pleased, and, as a rule, in their case it is
scrupulously observed. In the cities of
the first class the law seems to have been
paitially observed, in Leavenworth, Atchi-
son, Kansas City and Topeka so far, at
least, as street work is concerned; it is
ignored in Fort Scott, except in the m.at-
ter of poll tax; while in Wichita w.ork is
done by the hour, as had heretofore been
the custom. The only city which has
honestly tried to comply with the law
seems to have been Topeka. In this city
an ordinance making eight hours a day's
work for all laborers and employees(except
firemen and policemen) has been enacted,
and it is observed in all city work. The
Wichita city clerk writes that fifteen cents
per hour is paid laborers and thirty cents
per hour for teams engaged in city work ;
but that officers and emyloyees who are
paid by the month obey the eight-hour law
and are highly pleased with it. Referring
again to the replies received from (bounty
clerks, one, who is evidently something of
a pessimist, thinks the law lacking in
"practical sense." He says: "The less
hours any one labors, the less wages he
gets, and the more time he has to sit
around, spend what he earns, and com-
plain of hard times and everything else in
general." Another thinks the law imprac-
ticable, and gives as a reason that he has
always been a farmer and obliged to work
all day. He claims that as a county clerk,
both himself and his assistants work from
ten to sixteen hours daily. Here are some
other opinions, hastily selected : "Labor-
ers should be paid according to the work
done. You cannot by legislative action
regulate the natural law of supply and
demand, nor fix the price of a day's labor,
whether it be of eight or twenty hours'
duration." "The law is a farce. If ten
hours' labor is worth %\, no contractor



will pay over eighty cents for eight hours."
"The law is a fraud. A man has no right
to be let off with eight hours per day sim-
ply because he works for the public." "I
think the eight-hour law is a farce and
should be declared unconstitutional."

But the returns were not all condemna-
tory. Here are some, taking a more
favorable view of the law : "The law has
been observed and general satisfaction
prevails." "The deputies in the county
offices work eight hours per day." "The
law has been obeyed in county and town-
ship work." "Observed in township
work." "We have what is called 'sand-
hill roads,' which are kept in repair by
contractors, and I learn that the law is
obeyed by them." "The eight-hour law
has been observed in all county and town-
ship work, so far as I know, since it took
effect, and seems satisfactory to all con-
cerned." Here is what some of the labor
representatives say : "No notice taken of
the law, not from a spirit of antagonism
on the part of the authorities, but because
the city has not been asked to recognize
it." "Laborers and foremen have worked
only eight hours for this city since the law
took effect. In emergencies, when longer
hours have been required, they have been
paid //'(•-' rata." "Work is done for the
city by the hour ; no attention paid to the
law." "The law here is a dead letter."
"The law should be so amended as to
apply to other industries than those com-
ing under state jurisdiction." "I am
pained to say that this law is regarded
with indifference, as is the case with many
other laws upon our statute books in which
officials are not personally interested. The
only means to secure the enforcement of
the law is to elect men to office pledged to
its enforcement, and hang them higher
than Haman if they fail to do it." All
but one of the superintendents of our state
charitable institutions regarded the law as
impracticable. This one thought it prac-
ticable, but doubted if the changes in the
institution over which he had charge,
which a compliance with the law would



io8



SEMINARY NOTES.



require, were for its best interests. None
of these institutions comply with the law.
It may be remembered that the Warden of
the Penitentiary, by agreement with the
Attorney General, submitted the matter to
the Supreme Court. The constitutionality
of the law was not directly passed upon,
but the Court ruled that it did not apply
to the officers or employees of the peniten-
tiary, because they were paid a stipulated
annual salary; but intimated that it might
apply to laborers and mechanics employed
by or on behalf of the state in other
capacities. The police commissioners,
without exception, regarded the law as
impracticable so far as the police force
was concerned.

In order to obtain official information
touching the status of the movement
towards shorter hours of labor in other
states, I communicated with the labor
departments throughout the country, and
found that while some states had legislated
upon the subject, the law was, as a rule,
a dead letter so far as practical results
were concerned. In 1879, California, by
constitutional enactment, provided that
"eight hours should constitute a legal
day's work on all public work," but the
commissioner says that it is almost entirely
ignored. The law of 1887, prohibiting
the employment of women and also of
minors under sixteen years of age, is par-
tially observed in Connecticut. In the
absence of contract, eight hours was made
a legal day's work in Illinois as long ago
as 1867, but the commissioner says that
"no attention has ever been paid to it."
The contract provision makes it abortive.
The Indiana commissioner makes practi-
cally the same report regarding a similar
law passed by the legislature of that state
in 1887. Maine passed a law in 1887,
restricting the labor of women to sixty
hours per week, but providing that they
might contract to work in excess of this
limit to the extent of sixty hours a year,
not exceeding, however, six hours in any
one week. The commissioner says that
in 1890 complaints were made to him



that certain mills were working their
female help sixty-six hours per week, and
that when he remonstrated with the man-
agers they answered him that they were
simply working out the six extra hours
allowed under the law. The commissioner
thinks this proviso enables unscrupulous
employers to evade the law, and that it
should be repealed. In 1885 Michigan
fixed the limit of a day's work at ten
hours, but the commissioner says that
very little attention is paid to it. Minne-
sota fixed the limit of a day's work for
women and children employed in factories
at ten hours, as long ago as 1868, but
retained the vicious contract clause. The
operation of the law is described by the
commissioner as follows : "The law sim-
ply provides that no woman shall be com-
pelled to work more than ten hours daily ;
and one employer whom I ordered to
desist from working his female help twelve
and one-half hours per day, simply dis-
charged them, and in hiring again required
them to sign a voluntary agreement to
work twelve and one-half hours. Liter-
ally, this would not be compulsory, for by
the terms of their engagement they volun-
tarily agreed to work the extra hours."
Missouri passed an " eight-hour law" in
1867, but the commissioner says it is a
dead letter, and if employees insist on its
observance, employers evade it by paying
by the hour. Nebraska passed an eight-
hour law in 1891, and the commissioner
is now investigating its working. Ohio
passed an eight-hour law in 1886, but the
contract proviso renders it inoperative.
Pennsylvania did the same in 1868, but
the "exceptions" were so numerous that
the commissioner says that it is a failure.
Wisconsin passed the law in 1867. The
law is enforced generally in the building
trades, "through the persistence of the
workmen," to quote the words of the com-
missioner. The Colorado, Iowa, New
Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota,
Texas and Utah commissioners report
that no laws exist regulating the hours of
labor. The New York commissioner writes



SEMINARY NOTES.



109



as fellows: "The principle of an eight-



Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 51 of 62)