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Seminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science online

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try, is a momentous element of the rail-
road problem. The charge has been made
that the avenue to success in business lies
through the grace of the manager of a
public highway. As evidence of the gigan-
tic wrongs which railways can inflict
through the power of discrimination, wit-
ness the growth of the Standard Oil Com-
pany, whose agreement with the Central,
Lake Shore, Erie, and Pennsylvania rail-
ways, enabled it to crush out competition,
iKVid thousands of honest producers, and

to become the most powerful corporation
of its kind in existence. The object of
economic life is to secure the happiness
and welfare of the masses of the people.
The thing to be looked at in this case is
the ruin of men engaged in honorable and
legitimate business. These men, forming
part of the commonwealth, exercise an
influence upon the thrift of the nation.
This favoritism, shown in the concessions
to the Standard Oil Company, is extended
to thousands of other enterprises.

Discrimination is but one method of
crushing competition. Another is the
formation of pools among competing rail-
ways. Being subject to no laws, the action
of these pools is sometimes arbitrary. If
pooling could be legalized, and placed
under strict government supervision, local
as well as competitive points would be
benefited, and the system might be made
the most effective aid to public railway

Cost of operation and efficiejicy of
management, have varied in different
countries. There is no reason why fed-
eral ownership should not possess just as
cheap a service, as enterprising a manage-
ment, and as effective a working force, as
are exhibited by our private companies.
Private enterprise has not always taken
the initiati\e in improvements. There is
little complaint in Prussia of the political
dangers of state ownership. This is attrib-
uted to the superb organization of the
Prussian q.\\\\ service. We should have
as effective a civil service as any power in
Europe. Our civil service is growing bet-
ter. At any rate, industrial reform must
precede reform in our administration.
When we have public' ownership and man-
agement of natural monopolies, public in-
terests and pri\-ate interests are identified,
and the best citizens are on the side of
'good government.

When railway corporations control leg-
islatures, the time for considering the
question of a change is at hand. It would
seem that even were the charges made
against government ownership to prove
true, the evils would at least be no worse
than the abuses under which we now suf-
fer. Moreover, there is every reason to
believe that as our civil service becomes
more effective, and as our people -become
more enlightened on public affairs and
public duties of citizens and officers, that
a system of government ownership could
be honestly, economically and beneficially







THE se:\iinary of

Historical and Political Science.

State University, Lawrence, Kansas.

Frank W. Blackiiiar. \

Frank H. Hoddcr, - _ _ - Editors.

Ephraini D. Adams, j

Terras, Tcu Cents a Number, - Fifty Cents a Year

"y^ HE purpose of this publication is to increase the
(Q) interest in the .study of historical science in the
' University and throughout the State, to afford
means of regular communication with corresijondiug
members of the Seminary and with the general puli-
lic— especially with the Alumni of the University, and
to preserve at least the outlines ol carefully prepared
papers and addresses. The number of pages in each
issue will be increased as rapidly as the subsci'iption
list will wari'ant. The entire revenue of the publi-
cation will be applied to its maintenance.
Address all subscriptions and communications to


Lawrence, Kansas.

The papers by Hon. F. H. Betton and
Judge Humphrey, printed in this number
of the NoTi:s, are the last addresses de-
livered by corresponding members before
the Historical Seminary.

A¥iTH the February number the Maga-
zine of American History becomes the
property of the National History C"om-
panv. 'i'he change was made necessary
by the recent death of Mrs. Martha j.
Lamb, who had edited the magazine since
1883. Gen. James Grant ^Vilson. one of
the editors of the "Cyclopedia of Ameri-
can Biography" and author of a " History
of the Citv of New \'ork," brought out
the February number but has since given
up the editorship for want of time. The
Magazine is to be united with the Nation-
al Magazine, formerly the Magazine of
Western History, but continued under tlie
old title. For the purpose of popularizing
the study of American history the pub-
lishers offer a number of prizes for histor-
ical articles, novels and stories.

A detekmim:i) effort is being made to
secure the reduction of letter postage from
two cents to one. Several letters received
from business houses lately ha\e enclosed
circulars urging us to write to our con-
gressmen pledging their sujjport of the
measure. The reduction of postage rates
is a measure which should come as soon
as the finances of the postoffice depart-
ment warrant it but not before. Since
the change from three to two cents ten
years ago there has been an annual deficit
in the accounts of the department. This
may be due to unreasonably low rates on
second class matter. If so, these rates
should be changed. At least the post-
oihce department should become self
supporting before further reduction is
made. It is unreasonable that the whole
people should be taxed to pay for a ser-
vice rendered so cheaply to a part. The
movement jtroceeds from what Mr. Fiske
has well called the "magic fund delusion,"
the idea that "Uncle'Sam is rich enough
to give us all a farm," or do anything else
we ma}' happen to want, and that ever)-
thing we get out of the government is
clear gain.

GcR daily newspapers have of late been
prophesying that the incoming adminis-
tration in this country will '-make his-
tory." By this is meant that there are
manv great questions awaiting solution
which it will be necessary for President
Cleveland and a democratic congress to
deal with. Every administration and
every congress makes histor)-, \et it does
seem as if the next few years were to be
unusualh' important ones in the history of
this countr\-, and the most important
question of all is the tariff. The demo-
cratic party is jiledged to some change in
existing tariff regulations, and if that
change is at all radical it will mean a
wide spread alteration of existing econo-
mic conditions. Such an alteration in
economic conditions is of as much im-
portance to citizens of the United States
as a chanue in the form of gosernment.


Its results for good or f\il will affect every
stage of society. Ought we not, therefore
as citizens to attempt to understand the
real situation, so that our appro\'al or dis-
ap])ro\'al may be honestly given to our
representatives in congress? What is
meant is that a question of such far
reaching effect as the advisabilit}' of
tariff reduction should be studied hon-
estly and not accepted blindly as a matter of
party allegiance. Particularly should the
young men of the University, and the young
women too for that matter, keep them-
selves informed upon this subject. For
the majority of students there will never
be a time so available for the study of
great political questions as the years spent
at the University. Be on the alert to know
what is going on. In future times the
days now passing may be of the greatest
historical interest.

The prospect of the coming of '"history
making " days is not confined to this
country. In England the introduction in
the house of commons of a home rule bill
for Ireland was an important event in
histor\\ Whether the bill becomes a law
or not it marks an important step in Eng-
lish politics. The Xoti:s knows of two
students who collected from newspapers
every scrap of information which could be
obtained bearing upon the bill itself, the
speech of Mr. (dadstone in introducing
it, and the reply of Mr. Balfour. The bill
nia}' fail to become a law, but at any rate
Mr. Gladstone's speech will be historic,
both because of the man himself and
because the speech was a most clear ex-
position of Liberal views upon home rule
for Ireland. Students of history should
be on the lookout for such things, for by
so doing they not only become familiar
with passing political conditions, but
obtain a sense of the reality of similar
conditions in the past.

Students of histor}- sometimes grow
weary of their study, because they fail to
see the connection between past and pres-
ent. The events of the past are looked
upon as so many dry facts, ha\ing no

apparent relation to the jiresent or the
future. Tliese facts are to be learned, of
course, as a part of the work recpiired in
some particular line of study, or because
they are facts which it is generally sup-
posed the well educated man should
know. The student who is in this condi-
tion of mind might just as well stop work
in historv. The whole duty and the whole
pleasure in studying history comes through
the insight given into the story of the
development of a race or nation, or the
growth of a great guiding principle. It is
necessary here to be familiar with the
facts or details, but these details become
of interest as we see their relation to one
another and to future development. The
limited view of history is likely to be held
by one who is a mere "' text-book student,"
i. e., a student whose work is confined to
learning the lesson as assigned in the text
book. Of course one duty of the teacher
is to point out the relations of facts and
to emphasize their significance ; yet the
student must do much for himself.

This editorial is directed particularly to
the members of the class in Political His-
tory of Modern Europe. There is no
method by which the reality and impor-
tance of e\'ents can be so well obtained as
\)\ reading contemporary accounts of
those events. In this case the class is
about to enter upon the period of the
remodeling of Europe through the agency
of revolutionary ideas and the growing
power of Prussia. There is in the librar\-
a contemporary monthly comment upon
I'Airopean movements, covering this peri-
od, to be found in Harper's Magazine.
'•Editor's Historical Record" in that
magazine would in itself furnish a fairly
good history of the times, while -'Editor's
Easy Chair" is of the greatest value to
the student, because of the bright, short
essays it contains upon leading events of
the day. There are many other maga-
zines and publications which cover practi-
cally the same ground, but if the students
of "Modern Europe " will read and under-
stand these essays in Harper's upon the
leading events of the day, they cannot fail
to see some of the great ideas invohed in
the mere facts of modern history.



Edward Everett Hale, in a recent
address upon the present condition of
American politics, finds ground for hope
for the future in the fact that so many
young men are now studying social, eco-
nomic and political problems in our col-
leges. His words relate so directly to the
kind of work done in the department of
history and sociology that we take the lib-
erty of quoting at length :

"The thought, which I wish to bring to
you and leave with you. and the thought
which is to me full of ]jr(Miiise for the
future of the republic, is this: That in tlie
years which have preceded this the uni-
\'ersities and colleges of this country have
not concerned themselves with questions
of citizenship, with questions of political
science. Thirty years ago the }Outh of
this country were reading the British poets
or the British no\elists. They were de-
^■oting their leisure and their time to Eng-
lish literature. Fifteen years ago they
were studying science. They were read-
ing Tyndall and Huxley and Herbert
Spencer. Why ? Because, as I have said,
the universities had not commenced to
train men in political science. There
was little done in the way of studying
economics or social conditions.

It is only since 1880 that the colleges
of this country have done anything wortli
mentioning to educate and train the schol-
ars of tlie country in political science.

The great questions which to-day confront
the American people, questions of the
control of corporations, the regulation of
the great railway systems of this country,
ques'tions of methods of taxation, ques-
tions relating to the municipal govern-
ment, (juestions relating to the currency,
to the financial system and the manage-
ment of public debts — all these great and
]jrofound questions are- to-day being care-
fully investigated by the students of Amer-
ican universities. And in this, as I
said, it seems to me we can find much
that promises well for the future of the

One of the established institutions of
the University of A\'isconsin is an annual
joint debate between representatives of
the two literary societies. The debate is
one of the "events" of the- year. The
(juestion for discussion is agreed iqjon
and nearly a year given to careful prepar-
ation. The' (]uestion for the present year
is whether municipal ownership and op-
eration of lighting Avorks and street rail-
ways would be desirable in cities of
25,000. The debate fills thirty-five quarto
pages, as recently reported in the college
magazine, and presented an excellent dis-
cussion of the problem. The decision
upon the arguments presented was unani-
mous in the, affirmative.






FOR 18ifJ-!)3.

F. H. HODDER. Ph. M.

Instruction in this depai'tincnt is yi\en by
means of Iccturi's, conference's, recitations, dis-
cussions, and personal direction in study and
Tesearch. As the library is an indispensable aid
in the pursuit of the following courses of study,
students are expected to become acquainted
with the best methods of collecting and classify-
ing materials, and of writing and presenting
papers on special topics. All lectures are sup-
plemented by reciuired reading and class iwer-

The work of the department now embraces
five principal lines of study, namely: European
History. American History and Ci\il Govern-
ment, Political Institutions. Sociology or Social
Institutions, and Political Economy.

The following studies are ofl'ered for 18i»■^''j.'^:


1. The History of Civilization. Lectures
daily, at 8:00. Ancient Society, and the intel-
lectual development of Europe to the twelfth
century. Special attention is given to the influ-
ence of Greek ]jhilo.sophy and the Christian
church on European civilization, the relation of
learning to liberal go\'ernment. and lo the I'ise
of modern nationality.

2. French and German History. Dailx ,
at 9:30. Descrijjtive history. Text-book.

3. Historical Method and Criticism.
Tuesday and Tliursday, at !):)!(). Examination
and classification of sources and au,thorities.
Analysis of the works of the best historians.
Library W()r]<. with collection and use of mater-
ial, notes, and bibliography. Special attention
to current historical and economic literature.

4. The History of Education and the
Development of Methods of Instruction.
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at '.>:30. This
course may be taken with No. '.',. A course foi-

5. English History. Daily, at 11. Descrip-
tive history. Text-book'.

6. Journalism. iSlonday, Wednesday, and
Frida\, at VI. Lcc:t>n-es, laboraloi'x and librar\'

work. English: Twenty-fi\<' lectures by Prof-
essors Dunlap and Ho^jkins: l.l lectures on the
liistory and ethics of journalisn, by Professor
Adams. Newsi)aper bureau. The ])rincipal
object of the bureau is to enable students to
form liabits of sy.stematic reading, to keep in-
formed on the topics of the day, and to preserve
clippings properly filed and indexed. This
course will be found highly beneficial to stu-
dents who desire a special study in magazines
and newspapers as a general cvdture.

7. Statistics. , Tuesday and Thursday at
12. Supplementary to all studies in economics
and sociology. Tlie method of using statistics
is taught by actual investigation of political and
social problems, lectures, and class-room prac-
tice. The history and theory of statistics
receive due attention.

8. American History. From the earliest
discoNi'ry to ITGi!. Lectures. to])ical reading,
and recitations. Three hours a week at '2.

9. Local and Municipal Government.

Lectures and topical reading. Two hours a
a week at 2.

Courses 8 and 9 are intended to be taken to-
gether as a full study, but may be taken .sepa-

10. American History. Presidential ad-
ministrations from Washington to .lackson.
Daily, at o. Open to Seniors in fidl standing,
and to ofhi-r students u])on approval of the

1 1. International La-vs^ and Diplomacy.

Lectures and recitations. Two hovu's a week,
at 4.

12. Political Economy. Daily, at 4. The
fundamental principles are discussed, elaborated
and illustrated by exami)les from pre.sent eco-
nomic society. A l)rief history of Poiitical
Economy closes the coui'se.


13. Institutional History, Lectures
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 8:80, on
comparative politics and administration. Greek
Roman, and Germanic institutions compared.
Historical significance of Roman law in the
middli' eges. Short study in Prussian adminis-

14. Renaissance and Reformation.

Tuesday and Thursday, at 8:30. Lectures
The revival of learning with especial reference
to the Italian renaissance. ,V careful inquiry
into the cause, cour.se and results of the Refor-
mation. This cour.S(.' may be taken as a
continuation of number 1.



15. Political History of Modern Eu-
rope. Tuesday and Tliursday at 9:30. Toxt-

16. Federal Government and the
Frenchn Revolution. Lecturi's, Monday.
Wednesday, and Friday, at 9:30. on Switzer-
land. Tlie Italian republics and the States
General of France.

17. Constitutional History of England.
Tuesda}- and Thursday, at 9:30. This course
may be taken as a continuation of number .").
Text-book and lectures.

18. Elements of Sociology. Lectures,
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 11. Evo-
lution of social institutions. Laws and condi-
tions that tend to organize society. Modern
social institutions and social problems.

19. Charities and Correction. Tuesday
and Thursday, at 11. Treatment of the poor
from a historical standpoint. Modern scientific
charity. Tlie treatment of criminals. Prisons
and reformatories. Practical study of Kansas
institutions. Tliis course is supplementary to
number 18.

20. Land Tenures. Lectures, Tuesday
and Thursday, at 12. This course treats of
primitive property, the village .community,
feudal tenures, and modern land-holding in
Great Britain and the United States. This
course is mainly historical, and is an excellent
preparation for the study of the law of real

21. American History. Continuation of
course 8. First half-term: History of the Rev-
olution and the Confederation, 1763 to 1709.
Second half-term: Brief summary of the consti-
tutional period, with Johnston's "American
Politics" as a text-book. Three hours a week,
at 2.

22. Constitutional Law. History of the
adoption of the constitution, and a study (_)f its
provisions. Twice a week, at 2. Forms, with
course 21, a full study, but may be taken

23. American History. Continuation of
course 10. Presidential administrations fnnn
.lackson to Lincoln. Daily, at 3.

24. Mediaeval History. Two-fifths of
the second term of tiie Freshman .year. For all
students wjiose admission papers show that
they have had elementary physics, hygiene and
chemistry. Daily, at 3. Text-book.

25. Principles of Public Finance. Lec-
tures on public industries, budget Legislation,
taxation and [)ublic cji^bts. ()|)en to students
who have studied political economy one term.
Two hours a, wei'k, at I.

26. The Status of Woman. Confer-
ences. Tuesday and Thursday, at 4. Indus-
trial condition, including a study of labor,
wages, etc. Woman in the professions. Their
political and legal abilities and disabilities.
Propert.v rights. Condition of woman in Flurojie
and the Orient. Social questions.

27. Advanced Political Economy.
Monday, Wednesday, and Fridaj', at 4. (Con-
sisting of (rt) lectures on applied economics: (A)
l)ractical obser\'ation and investigation; and ('•)
methods of research, with papers by students
on si^ecial tojjics. This course is a continuation
of number 12.

General Seminary, on Friday, at 4. Stu-
dents in History and Sociology are required to
attend the Seminary unless excused by special
arrangement. Full credit will be allowed for
time spent in Seminar.y work. At the beginning
of tlie term, students ma.y elect other Avork in
place of the seminary, if they choose.


L Economics. Courses 7. 12, 18, 19, 20,
and 27.
n. European History. Courses, 2, 3. .i,

13, l.>, and l(i.

ni. American History.. Courses 8, 9, 10,
21, 22, and 23.

IV. Social Institutions. Coiu'ses, 1, 12,

14, 18, 19, and 4 (or 20).

V. Political Institutions. C\)urses .3. 7,
9, 1.3, 13, 1(), 17, 20, and 22.


Persons desiring to take the degree of A. M.
ma.N" do so bj' the completion of an}' one or all
of the following courses. The work is carried
on by the investigation of special topics under
the personal direction of the instructor. An
hour for conference will be arranged for each
student. The courses extend throughout the

I. American History. Oixm to graduates
and students Avho have studied American His-
tor.\' two .>ears.

II. Economics. Open to graduates and
students who have taken the undergraduate
work in political econoni.v. Courses 12, 27,
and 8.

Ill Political and Social Institutions.
Open to graduates and students who have taken
the undergraduate work in the histor.v of insti-
tutions and sociolog.v. Courses 12, 27, and 7.

The abox'c coiu'ses are for students who de-
sire proficiency in a special line. These courses
will not in i\.\\y \va,\- interfere with the general
rules of till' Kacull.\ i-especting graduate work.



(CatJilogiir, 18!)l-"S)-2. pp. VIO, Vl\.) I'.y these
rules, a gvadiiate student may take any of tlii'
27 courses mentioned alxive (I'xce'pt l.i and 24) as
a preparation for tlie degree of A. M.

Preparation for Entrance to the Uni-
versity. Tlie time spent in tlie liigli schools
in the study of history is necessarily limited.
For this reason it is essential that the greatest
care be exercised in preparing students for en-
trance to the University. At pres<'nt \ery
little history is recjuired in the Freshman and
Sophomore j-ears, and the students enter upon
the study of the Junior and Senior years Avitli-
out thorough preparation for the work. It
would seem that the aim should be for all those
who contemplate entering the University to
learn the story of nations pretty thoroughly. A
general outline of the world's history with a
special study of the United States History and
government represents the field. But this out-
line should be more than a mere skeleton of
facts and dates. It should be well rounded
with the political, social, and economic life
of the ])eople. Students will find a general
text-book, such as Myer's, Sheldon's, or Fisher's,
indispensible: but the work of ]ireparation
ought not to stop lier(-. Such works as Fyffe's
Greece, C'reighton's Home, Seebohm's Era of

Protestant Revolution, Cox's (ireece, and others
in the Primer, Epoch, and Stories of Nations
series ought to be read. The object of this
reading is to familiarize the student with the
political and social life of the principle nations
of the world. For this purpose everything-
should be as interesting as possible. Such an
interest should be aroused that the student
would not be puzzled over dates and threadbare
facts, but would seize and hold those things
that are useful on account of the interest his
mind has in them. That history which is
gained by a bare memory of events is soon lost.
It grows too dim for use and consequently leads
to confusion. With the story of the nations

Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 54 of 62)