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consequence, no voice in its administra-
tion, which rests entirely in the hands of
the workingmen. It must provide at least
as much assistance as the local associa-

7. The Commufial Association. Pro-
vides for all laborers not enrolled in any
other. This form furnishes the least sup-
port, that is a payment equal to half the
usual daily wages of the place. An exten-
sion of the period of payment beyond
thirteen weeks, or an increase in the ac-
count of payment, is not permitted. As
before, the expenses are borne, two-thirds
by the laborers and one-third by their
employers. Contributions of those con-
cerned must not exceed i)4 per cent, of
the usual daily wages. The fund is admin-
istered free of charge by the communal


The object of this law is to insure all
laborers engaged in dangerous occupations
against accident. The insurance covers all



accidents, excepting such injuries as the
laborer -may have intentionally brought
about. The assistance provided by this
law consists, first, of cost of medical at-
tendance from the fourteenth week after
the accident, and second, in a regular pay-
ment beginning at the same time and last-
ing during the inability to work. (During
the first fourteen weeks the association for
insurance against sickness must care for
the injured.) The payment is reckoned
upon the basis of the wages received by
the injured man during the year preceding
the accident. In case of complete disa-
bility, it amounts to two-thirds of his
wages; in case of partial disability, a cor-
responding portion. In case of death, as
a result of the accident, the following pay-
ments are made, first, twenty times the
daily wages for burial expenses, and
second, an allowance of twenty per cent,
of the daily wages to the widow until her
death or remarriage, and fifteen per cent,
for each child until its fifteenth year, pro-
vided the sum total dose not exceed sixty
per cent, of the said wages.

The expenses of this accident insurance
are borne by the employers, who are
organized into an association for the pur-
pose in each trade in which accident insur-
ance is required. These associations
divide each year the necessary expenses
upon the basis of the total wages paid by
each member. Each association may be
divided into classes, according to danger
involved, so that members whose portions
are more dangerous pay a larger share of
the expenses. The association may also
prescribe contrivances for protection
against accident.

In case of accident the directors of the
association fix the amount of compensa-
tion. If the injured man is not satisfied
he may appeal to a committee, consisting
of two officers of the employer's associa-
tion, two of his fellow workingmen and a
public official. The court of last resort in
matters arising under this law is the impe-
rial insurance office, consisting of eleven
rnembers, three of whom are appointed

for life by the Emperor upon nomination
by the Bundesrath. The remaining eight
are appointed for shorter terms, four by
the Bundesrath from among their own num-
ber, and two each from among the direc-
tors of the employer's association and the
representatives of the workingmen.

An act of 1885 extended accident insur-
ance to the postal and railway and the
marine and military services. Special act
of 1886, with more or less important vari-
ations, provided accident and illness insur-
ance to persons engaged in farming and in
the forests, and an act of 1887 covers
accident insurance in the building trades
and among sailors.

OF 1889. IN FORCE JAN! I," 189I.

This act provides an invalid and old age
annuity. The age allowance ceases when-
ever the invalid allowance is granted.
Payment on account of age is made, with-
out reference to disability, whenever the
laborer reaches his seventieth year. Inva-
lid allowance is granted, without reference
to age, whenever the laborer becomes dis-
abled. Not only those are counted dis-
abled who are, by reason of their physical
or mental condition entirely unable to earn
anything, but also those whose earnings
do not reach a certain minimum, deter-
mined by their former wages and the usual
wages of the place.

All laborers, apprentices and servants,
without distinction of sex, whose yearly
wages do not exceed 2,000 marks (a mark
equals 25 cents) are required to insure
themselves from their sixteenth year. The
same requirement may be extended by the
Bundesrath to smaller employers. If not
required, they may voluntarily insure.

For the purpose of grading the allow-
ances and the payments made on their
account, laborers are divided according to
the amount of their yearly wages into four
classes: (i) Those receiving less than 350
marks. (2) Those receiving from 350 to
550. (3) From 550 to 850. (4) Those
receiving more than 850 marks.

The annuities are provided as follows:


The Empire appropriates 50 marks for
each man insured. To this 60 marks must
be added by the insured, and a weekly-
payment of 2, 6, .9 or 13 pfennigs, accord-
ing to the class. For the age annuity, the
weekly payment is 4, 6, 8 or 10 pfennigs,
according to class. Whoever received an
annuity must have made the weekly pay-
ments for a certain time. The time of
payment required for the age annuity is

30 years (counting 47 weekly payments to
the year), and for the invalid insurance is
five years. A shorter time may be pro-
vided during the first years that the loss is
in operation. For payments of the insur-
ance, offices are provided throughout Ger-
many, in whose administration both labor-
ers and employers have a voice. Half of
the contributions are made by the laborers
and half by the employers.



*HE preparation of a paper in history
or sociology is primarily an edu-
cational process. However valuable his-
torical knowledge may be education is the
highest object to be attained by means of
historical research. So far as the student
is patient, earnest and thorough, to that
extent will he reap an adequate return for
his labor. (2) The preparation of a paper
may have for a secondary object, the in-
crease of individual knowledge and the
mastery of a special subject. Indeed, no
one can write a respectable paper who is
not interested in the acquirement of knowl-
edge as an individual possession;^ and the
full benefit will not be obtained until the
writer is an earnest seeker after the truth
for its own sake. (3) A third object to be
gained is the imparting of instruction to
others. To aim to present obscure mate-
rial in a thoughtful and intelligent manner
to others is a worthy object. To free a
subject from a cloud of learning and place
it in a clear light for the easy comprehen-
sion of others is a great saving of time,
for it introduces the principle of co-opera-
tion into education. As a rule the educa-
tional process is strengthened in proportion
as the person writing feels the responsi-
bility of what he is doing; consequently,
to know that the paper is to be read to
. others, that it is to be sifted, passed upon
as weak or strong, dull or interesting, in-

structive or otherwise, will have a tendency
to create thoroughness, and call out the
strong qualities of the writer's mind. (4)
As a fourth object may be mentioned the
desire on the part of the writer to advance
learning by adding something to the sum
of human knowledge, or at least to assist
in making history plainer, or to. gather
and classify the phenomena of society.
A person of fair education may do great
service in a limited field.


In order to secure one or all of the de-
sired ends, it is necessary to have a well
defined method of reading, preserving and
classifying material, as well as skill in
composing. It matters not how great the
genius of thought, or how fine the flow of
rhetoric, if a student lacks method in
work the great educational lesson is lost.
But the method chosen must depend some-
what upon the individual, and the only
question is whether he has a good method.
Some persons work best by one method
and some by another; consequently the
methods which I shall present are intended
to be suggestive, although I may say that
they are the ones approved by my own
experience and by the scholars with whom
I have had the pleasure of working.


The first step in the choice of a subject.
The subject should be selected with care,
although it is not at all necessary that the



student should know much about it before
he begins, provided that he is able to
master it before the completion of the
paper. There are about three classes of
subjects from which to choose, viz: (i)
A narrow subject, extending over a long
period of time, such as "The Origin and
Development of Jury Trial;" (2) a broad
subject covering a limited period, such as
"The Social Condition of England at the
time of Chaucer," and (3) a limited sub-
ject covering a limited period, such as
"The Silver Coinage Bill of 1890." The
first kind will yield the best educational
returns for a paper of some length. There
is a tendency for persons to choose the
second class, or even to take a broad sub-
ject extending over a long period, and
attempt to cover the whole field from
"Adam to Bismarck." Let the student
choose instead, a subject in which he is
interested, and upon which he is willing to
do the necessary work. Let him narrow
this question by a process of exclusion,
until it reaches logical proportions, and
state it so clearly that others, as well as
he, may not mistake its true bearing.


The next point to be observed by the
student is to ascertain what material he
has at command and where it is found.
To accomplish this a bibliography should
be commenced at once. The student
should consult catalogues and indexes —
Poole's Index — and such other material of
like nature at hand, not omitting that
which is of greatest importance, the library
books themselves. All references to the
subject should be kept on uniform slips of
card-board prepared for the purpose, one
reference being placed on each card.
These should be arranged alphabetically,
and should contain subject, sub-head,
author, volume, page, date and place of
publication, and note when necessary.
The note should give the characteristic of
the publication, indicating specifically for
what the book stands. It may be placed
on the back of the card if necessary. Thus:

Village Community, The English,

Seebohm, F.

London,— 1883.

Note— Special treatment of the " manorial"

In the arrangement of the cards alpha-
betically, small rubber bands are very
useful for separating the various divisions.
The cards may be placed in a box of suit-
able dimensions, according to the method
of the library card index. All material
collected should be duly classified accord-
ing to its true value. At least three classes
must be clearly recognized, viz: original
sources, standard authorities and second-
ary material. In the first class would fall
such works as Thorpe's Ancient Laws and
Institutes, Stubbs' Select Charters, etc. ;
in the second class will be found John
Stuart Mill's Political Economy, Stubbs'
Constitutional History of England, etc.,
while in the third class will be found the
majority of magazine articles, books poorly
written or written from consultation of
class two. This classification may be car-
ried to a great extent, but a limited classi-
fication will be of great service in general
work and will help to dispel any inordinate
reverence for print. The bibliography
will continue to grow throughout the devel-
opment of the subject.


At this juncture it is an excellent plan
to read a limited numfcer of magazine arti-
cles, and a general essay or treatise of the
subject, that the range of the work may be
obtained. The magazine articles will give
inspiration and stimulate thought on the
principal topics under consideration. But
the student will read standard authorities
and consult original sources as far as pos-
sible before he .essays to write much.


As soon as the writer thinks that he
knows the course of argument he wishes
to pursue, and comprehends the scope of
his subject, an outline of the subject should
be made, composed of the various heads
and sub-heads into which the essay will



naturally fall. Though systematic, this
should be arranged with reference to the
' possibility of enlargement and of subse-
quent changes. Such an outline will
enable the student to be specific in research,
note-taking, logical development and con-
tinuity of thought.


Although the memor}'' must be trusted
for the larger portions of the student's
reading, there are certain thoughts and
principles that may not be entrusted to the
memory alone if he would secure exact
scholarship. Consequently it is necessary
to have a systematic method of note-taking.
There are two kinds of notes to be taken;
one is an exact quotation and the other
the substance of a thought of an author in
which a paragraph or even a page or more
may be summed up in one general author-
itative statement. In each case reference
should be made to the book, volume and
page from which the quotation or thought
is taken. In the paper this reference
should be given in a foot-note. There is
a double advantage in the use of such
notes: first, there are many things stated
so aptly that the writer cannot afford to
dispense with the exact words, and secondly,
a reference to standard authorities is fre-
quently necessary to give credit to borrowed
material as well as to substantiate argu-
ments. Notes should be taken on cards
' or slips of paper of uniform size — heavy
ledger paper cut in ^ips the size of a me-
dium envelope is the best. But one note
should be taken on a single card, and the
cards should be carefully classified. Every
new note falls into its place, and all of the
notes on a single sub-head can be referred
to in a minute's time. Great care should
be exercised to record the exact reference
of the quotation with the date, in case of
historical writing.

The following example will illustrate a
note in the simplest form:

BimetaUism, Advautages of,

"But a bimetallic uiouey-unit will be less
changeful than a monometaUic, even if the
whole money metal volume is the same in the
two cases, as tiuctuatious in both metals at one
and the same time are less pi'obable than in
one alone." — E. B. Andrews, Institutes of
Economics, p. 1^5.

I have found it convenient to use rubber
bands in classification, and an envelope
box as a receptacle for the cards. Any
person who has ever tried to unravel the
mysteries of the ordinary note-book will
at once see the advantage of the system;
a note on any given subject can be found,
in an instant.


A person should know something about
his subject before commencing to write,
but if he wait to know all he will never
begin to write. After a thorough reading
of the subject in hand, the essay may be
taken up under each separate division in
order and written paragraph by paragraph.
This method has an advantage over that of
attempting to evolve spontaneously as it
were a whole essay, for it relieves the
mind from strain and concentrates it upon
a single point. It will assist in settling
the proportions of the paper, which is a
very necessary thing to be done. There
is a tendency in writing to make the intro-
duction half of the whole production, and
close with a meagre and weak ending.
This may be avoided by proper pare in
previous analysis. Writing by the para -
graph, or sub-head, has a tendency to
thoroughness and exactness, for all the
notes on the topic under consideration may
be spread out for comparison. The writer
should avoid going out of his course of
reasoning, as many do, in order to bring
in something which is interesting or sounds
well. Better use it next time; it will keep.
At the close of the paper a summary of
the points presented should bb made, and
it is not a bad plan to append a list of
authorities quoted. In making the first
draft of the essay it is an excellent plan to
draw a vertical line through the center of
the paper, fill the right side of the sheet
and leave the left side for corrections,
comments and additional material. This
will save copying at least once.

As to the rhetorical style, I must leave
that to the instructors of English, suffice
it to say that clear, forcible statements of
facts, in simple language, amply illustrated
and verified, are always essential in ac-
complishing the desired end.




-^npHE student of history probably knows
^^l that the scientific or German method
of study, of which so much is said in these
days, is of comparatively recent applica-
tion in the United States. He may not,
however, be aware of the .fact that to the
University of Michigan belongs the honor
of having introduced a system of study,
which has been gradually adopted by all
of the more prominent of our institutions
of learning.

In 1857 Prof. Andrew D. White, since
president of Cornell University, began a
new era in the study of history in the Uni-
versity of Michigan, by substituting for
the study of the time when, and of the
man, the study of the times and of the
men, in an attempt to inculcate the spirit
of investigation. The modern method
pursued in the study of history is familiar
to every reader, and it is not necessary to
repeat it here, but it may be of some in-
terest to note the manner in which this
study is conducted in that American insti-
tution, which first adopted the new system.

According to the announcement of the
University of Michigan, for the year
1889-90, the courses of study offered in
history are six in number, for the first
semester, and eight for the second semes-
ter, fourteen in all. But as the course in
English history, in the second semester,
is a repetition of that given in the first
semester — a repetition occasioned by the
large number of students desiring to pursue
this particular branch of study — the num-
ber of courses offered is reduced to thirteen.
Of these five are devoted exclusively to
United States history, four to general
European history, one to English history,
one to French history, and two to a study
of comparative constitutional law. Five
courses are given by text-book instruction,
six by means of lectures, and two as sem-
inaries. All courses are either two or
three hours per week — those in charge of

the instruction being of the opinion that
greater interest will be aroused in the study
of history if the student is permitted to be
a member of two or more non-conflicting
classes, where the period of time covered
by the studies pursued is nearly the same.

The theory upon which the work is
planned seems to be that, given a certain
well grounded knowledge in United States
and English history, the student should be
permitted to choose the particular branch
of history which he is to follow, or in case
he desires to do so, to so arrange his col-
lege course that before its close he can
have taken all of the work offered in his-
tory. The two bulwarks of required work
yet remaining are general United States
history, coming under the head of an en-
trance requirement, and English history,
required as a necessary study for nearly
every degree offered, and always required
before the student is permitted to take
more advanced work in history. All other
courses in history are optional; that is,
they may be taken or not just as the stu-
dent pleases, with the exception that in
some few courses which naturally follow
each other in point of time, the student is
expected to follow the logical order, e. g.
the course in eighteenth century history
must be proceeded by the course in six-
teenth and seventeenth century history.

The favorite method of giving instruc-
tion in the University of Michigan is by
means of lectures, and it is no fault of the
historical department that all of its courses
are not offered in this way, in fact the
attempt has been made for some time to
give, through lectures, each study which
is now offered as a text-book course. In
such studies as general English history,
however, it was soon evident that the great
amount of detail necessary in so distinct-
ively a foundation study could not be
satisfactorily covered by means of lectures
in the comparatively short time allotted to



it. Again the study of the constitutional
history of the United States has at least
twice been given as a lecture course, and
has twice been replaced among the list of
text-book studies, the text-book being Von
Hoist. It is very much to be doubted,
however, whether the average under-grad-
uate student obtains as much benefit from
the study of Von Hoist as he would be
likely to receive from a simple yet com-
prehensive series of- lectures covering the
same period of American constitutional

The popular courses are, however, the
lecture courses, and there can be no doubt
that their popularity arises mainly from
the fact that through them the student is
introduced to a new line of study, differing
from that mere routine lesson learning
which is so apt to attach itself to the study
of a text-book course, but which is by no
means necessary to it.

The student is taught to expand points
which can only be touched upon in the
lecture room, and in order to do this he
must, himself, search the authorities. If
he is a bright student it will not be long
before he will discover that authors whom
he had previously regarded as infallible,
may be a little, just a little, in the wrong,
or at least that some one else proclaims
them to be so, and to decide for himself
what the truth in the matter is he will, if
that is possible, consult original documents.
In a word, the student is taught to inves-

tigate, and there can be no doubt that in
so far as the lecture courses in the Univer-
sity of Michigan are concerned the scien-
tific method in history is faithfully pursued.

The spirit of investigation is still further
stimulated by means of the seminaries,
composed usually of ten or a dozen seniors
or post graduate students. In these sem-
inaries each member selects some particu-
lar phase of the. main subject for the study
of which the seminary has been formed,
and making that phase his special topic,
offers, from time to time, a report to the
other members of the seminary. There
are usually two reports at each weekly
meeting, and as the time of the meeting is-
two hours, this practically compels each
member reporting to present an hour's
lecture to his fellow members. The final
report is frequently put into the form of a
paper, to be presented before the Political
Science Association, an organization com-
posed of the students of the departments
of History and of Political Econemy,
although any student may become a mem-
ber upon the payment of a small entrance

This is in general the kind of historical
work which the under-graduate student
follows at the University of Michigan, and,
as is readily seen, it differs very little in
practical study, and not at all in the idea
of study, from the work offered in our own


^''TP HI'] subject of university extension is
'^X at present attracting great attention
on this side of the Atlantic. It is the last
wave of popular education to pass over
the country. , University extension has
been practiced with good success for many
years in England, and in a casual way in
America. At present it seems to be gain-
ing in strength and efficiency. Although

there is not so much need of university
extension in America as in England, it is
in strict accord with our principles of
democratic education, ^^'e have so many
colleges and institutions of learning
throughout the nation, available to all
classes, and each a center for the diffusion
of knowledge, that we do not feel the need
of special training in the democracy of



education to the extent that England does,
where a student must put on a full dress

Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 6 of 62)