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that they shall again be paid two months
in advance, and so from month to month
indefinitely.

Rent of rooms will be reasonable and
board will be finally settled for at its cost,
as near as may be ; but in computing it
for advance payment, it will be rated
rather above than below its expected cost,
to provide against contingencies. If too
much is advanced, the excess, when ascer-
tained will either be repaid or otherwise
accounted for.

Facilities for cheap boarding, and for
tables graduated to suit different taste?
and circumstances, will be limited at first,
and until associates become numerous
enough to form messes and board them-
selves.

Second: Each person as admitted will
be required to deposit, as may be direct-
ed, the sum of $100 for himself, and an
equal sum for every other person admitted
with him at his request, on which interest
will be allowed at the rate of 6 per cent,
per annum. This deposit is expected to
be kept unimpaired until the projectors
think it may safely be dispensed with, but
will be repaid, or so much thereof as is
subject to no charges or offsets, whenever
the person on whose account it was made
withdraws from the enterprise and ceases
to reside on the domain; as will also any
unexpended residue of the amount ad-
vanced for rooms and board.

This deposit, besides furnishing a guar-
antee against destitution of the party
making it, is recommended by another
consideration not less important, — it se-
cures him, in case he wishes to retire
from the enterprise, because he can find
no satisfactory position in it, or for any
other reason, against retiring empty-
handed or remaining longer than he
wishes, for want of means to go else-
where.



i66



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



In addition to these cash adva'nces,
each person admitted as an associate or
candidate will be required to provide
furniture for his room, and all other
Articles needed for his personal use, in-
eluding generally the hand-tools with
which he works. But some of these arti-
cles may, in certain cases, be rented or
sold on credit to persons of good indus-
trial capacity who have complied with
the other conditions.

We should esteem, as especially useful,
a class of residents who, having an income
independent of their earnings, adequate to
their frugal support at least, can devote
themselves freely as they please to attract-
ive occupations which are not remunera-
tive, it being such occupations probably
that will furnish the first good examples
of a true industrial organization. Next
to be preferred are those having an inde-
pendent income which, though not ade-
quate to their entire support, is sufficient
to relieve them from any considerable
anxiety concerning it; for they can, to a
greater or less extent, yield the impulses
of attraction with comparitive indifference
to the pecuniary results of their industry.
* It is hoped and expected that the style
of living, at least in the early stages of
the experiment, will be frugal and inex-
pensive. Neatness and good taste, and
even modest elegance, will be approved
and encouraged; but the projectors dis-
approve of superfluous personal decora-
tions, and all expense incurred for mere
show without utility, and in this sentiment
they hope to be sustained by the associ-
ates.

As a general rule, applicants who com-
ply with the pecuniary conditions will be
admitted on trial as candidates, to the
extent of our accommodations, without
formal inquisition of other particulars;
but each applicant should state his age
and occupation, and the ages and indus-
trial capacities of others, if any, whom he
desires to have admitted with him, and
whether any of them are permanently in-
firm. References are also requested and
photographs if possible.



The cardinal object of our enterprise
being, as has been said, to organize labor
on the basis of rewarding it according to
the value of its product, and in such mari-
ner as to divest it of the repugnance
inseparable from it as now prosecuted, the
policy to which recourse will first be had
to effect this object will be, to throw upon
the associates the chief responsibility of
selecting functions and devising processes,
as well as of marshaling themselves into
efficient industrial organizations. Free-
dom to select their preferred occupations
and modes of proceeding is proposed with
the expectation that a diversity of prefer-
ences will be developed in both, the re-
spective partisans of which will vie \^ith
each other to demonstrate the superior
excellencies of their chosen specialties.
Among the numerous merits which recom-
mend this policy, not the least important
is, that it will, as is believed, give full play
to all varieties of taste and capacity, and
secure a more perfect correspondence of
functions with aptitudes than exists in the
present system of labor. But we are not
so committed to any policy as to persist
in it, if, after being fairly tested, it fails
of its purpose. In that event new expedi-
ents will be resorted to, and others again,
if necessai'y, for we should not abandon
our enterprise, though our first efforts
should prove unsuccessful. The failure
of any particular policy, therefore, does
not involve a final failure, of which indeed
the danger, if any, is remote, inasmuch as
care will be taken not to exhaust the
means applicable to our main purpose in
a first trial, or in a second, or even any
number of trials. But we have great con-
fidence that not many trials will be neces-
sary to construct a system of industry and
of social life far in advance of any form
of either now prevailing in the world.

The lowest degree of success, we will
not say with which we shall be satisfied,
but to which we can be reconciled, is,
that the experiment shall be self-sustain-
ing. By this we mean that the associates,
aided b)' the facilities furnished them.



SEMINARY NOTES.



167



shall produce enough not only to supply
their own consumption, including educa-
tion for children and subsistence for all,
and to repair the waste, wear and decay of
tools, machines and other property Used ;
but enough also to reasonably compensate
those who furnish the capital for the use
of it. Less production than this implies a
waning experiment, which must, sooner or
later, terminate adversely. But even
though this low degree of success should
be delayed, the domain is indestructible,
and being dedicated forever to associative
purposes, must remain unimpaired for
repeated trials.

An ample sufficiency of land will be
conveyed to trustees in such manner as to
secure the perpetual use of it to the asso-
ciates and their successors. The land to
be thus appropriated has on it a .large
peach orchard now in full bearing, which
yielded last season a large crop of excel-
lent peaches ; 400 selected apple trees
which have four years' thrifty growth from
the nursery, and a considerable number
of other fruit trees ; and a vineyard of
about 1,200 young grape vines. A library
of 1,200 volumes in English, besides a
large number in French and other lan-
guages, is aow here, intended for the use
of future associates and residents.

No fund is set apart for the gratuitous
entertainment of visitors. Those not
guests of some one here who will be
chargeable for them, will be expected to
pay a reasonable price for such plain and
cheap accommodations as can be afforded
them.

For a more extended explanation of the
principles and aim of our enterprise, and
of some of the details of the mocTe of pro-
ceeding, persons interested are referred to
a treatise on Co-oporation and Attractive
Industry, published under the auspices of
the departed and lamented Horace Gree-
ley, for which send 50 cents to "The
Tribune, New York," or to either of the
subscribers.

[Note. — It should be understood that
the foregoing exposition of principles and



policy, though the best that our present
knowledge enables us to make, is provi-
sional only, and liable to be modified
from time to time as experience makes us
wiser.]

E. V. Boissiere.
E. P. Grant.

Williamsburg P. O.,
Franklin Co., Kansas.

For some reason this circular did not
have the desired effect and" the doctrine
of Fourier proved but little more popular,
as a guide for practical experiments in
x\merica than in France. The projectors
made the "repeated trials" but only suc-
ceeded in demonstrating that stock farm-
ing is more profitable in Kansas than silk
culture or co-operative manufactures.

The library gradually grew till it now
contains over 2,500 volumes, whose ap-
pearance indicates that the projectors
spent much of their time in study. Their
studies were not confined to social science,
although Fourier, Cabet, and Laboulaye
seem to have been favorite authors and
the publications of Icaria and Ouneida
were watched with interest. But the stand-
ard writers of French and English litera-
ture received their share of attention, as
did also the Bible, the Koran and works
of history, science and philosophy. Many
manuscript writings on a variety of topics
and in the handwriting of M. Boissiere
show how broad was his knowledge and
how thorough his method of study while
at the Farm.

Of Huguenot parentage, it is natural
for M. Boissiere to have a deep seated
hatred for Catholicism, but yet he does
not hold to the Protestant doctrine, being
a pure materialist. He has never been
married but has the highest regard for
woman and her position in his ideal soci-
ety is indeed enviable. Hailing every
effort at reform as a step in the right
direction, M. Boissiere was always found
at the polls, when in America, on election
day, using every effort for the reform
ticket. He was an enthusiastic Green-
backer and now has great sympathy with



i6S



SEMINARY NOTES.



the Farmers' Alliance. He voted with the
Peojjle's party when last in Kansas.

To devote his American fortune to the
iniprovement of the social life of a num-
ber of his fellow men, has ever been one
of the objects of the life of M. Boissiere.
As he grew older and found himself with-
out his old associates in communistic
study and experiment, he turned his atten-
tion to the more practical problem of in-



dustrial education. When about to start
for France, probably never to return, he
chose an organization one of whos6 first
principles is benevolence, and gave to it
the Silkville farm and all its belongings,
as an industrial home for orphan children.
It is his desire that the property shall pro-
vide a home for a number of children and
give each such an education as will make
him an independent and useful citizen.

W. M. Raymond,



SEMINARY NOTES.



169



SEMINARY REPORTS.



Law and Lawyers.

£]2)R<-»fessor Willis Gleed delivered a
(^f" lecture before the Historical Semi-
nary, Friday, April 14, on "Law and
Lawyers." • He began his lecture with a
quotation from one of Plato's dialogues
in order to be sure, as he said, of saying
at least one good thing. Plato said, "A
philosopher may have his talk out in
peace, wandering at will from one subject
to another, but the lawyer is always in a
hurry. He is a servant and is disputing
with a fellow servant before his master;
the ■ trial is never about an indifferent
matter, but is often a race for his life.
The consequence is that he has become
shrewd and learned how to flatter his
master, but his soul is small and unright-
eous. His slavish condition has deprived
him of growth and uprightness. From the
first he has practiced deception and retali-
ation. He thinks he is a martyr of wis-
dom." Prof, deed's lecture was in
substance as follows: When I Avas a stu-
dent we often solved to our own satisfac-
tion such insolvable problems as "The
True Aim of Government," "What is the
Convenience," etc., but that has all passed
and this afternoon I will tell you some-
thing about law and lawyers. I shall say
something about them and the profession
they follow and the duties of the people
toward that profession. The first duty of
the people towards the lawyer's profession
is to understand it; understanding it, they
will honor and protect it. Wrong public
opinion of the lawyer's profession and
indiscriminate denunciations of it is im-
mensely hurtful. No other calling is so
intimately engaged in the matters which
now occupy the largest place in the minds
and lives of other men. The lawyer is in
the center of the mass. He is always at
the frictional point. His labors are with
the most central and selfish portion of



the social anatomy, consequently he is the
most closely watched of all mankind.
The bar has not been the controlling
force in any moral change or revolution.
Lawyers are always a highly refined, in-
fluential and powerful class of men.
Where force reigns the soldier is most
powerful; where law reigns the lawyer
is most powerful. Decline of litigation
means decline of national health. The
study of law has a very marked intellect-
ual and moral influence. No other pur-
suit drives men to such thoroughness and
exactness, accuracy and carefulness. No
one detects a lack of it quicker than he.
clergymen, I believe, state as much un-
truth as lawyers do; not willfully of
course, but carelessly and because no one
questions the truth of what he says. The
lawyer cannot pursue truth for truth's sake
any more than the clergyman can, the
aim of both being to produce conviction
of a given proportion, not to ascertain or
reveal pure truth. I think the lawyers as
a class are the broadest, fairest and most
reasonable of men. Their reputation is
worse than the reality. A lawyer seldom
supports a bad case. The attorney never
knows all about his case until it is tried.
Every case should have a hearing, often a
case is good morally, but according to
law it is bad. The law is but a rough
and faulty thing, only approximating jus-
tice. It must often be arbitrary. Practice
of law cultivates sympathy, generosity,
courage and charity to an unusual degree.
When a boy displays any special conscien-
tiousness and religious spirit all his friends
wish to put him into the pulpit. On the
other hand, if a boy displays a disposition
for trickery or traits of special intellectual
keenness you wish him to study law. Now
why not try to crowd a little more con-
science into the law and a little more
intellectual brightness into the pulpit ?



lyo



SEMIXAI^ Y NO TES.



Our people should knoAV the laws. Perfect
laws are for perfect people. Law cannot
get above us. Law is a growing' tiling.
In the beginning of civilization the law
recognizer! but one or two crimes. Law
is always creating some new crimes and
misdemeanors. Law cannot always be
according to morality but must often
arbitrarily ignore moral distinctions and
do the greatest good to the greatest num-
ber. A law which will enforce itself will
be made without any regard to morals.
People should not depend on law to teach
them what is right. Law is a compromise
between perfection of morals and im]jer-
fections of humanity.

A. F. Sherman, Reporter.



A Glance at New Spain.

■^^■^jw^f R. Woodward in the introduction to
:T4#i^ his paper, April 7th, gave a brief
discussion of the philosophy of history and
its value. He said, "no philosophy ■ of
history results. in almost no history."

The relation of England, France and
Spain to the early history of America, fur-
nishes an especially good opportunity for
the study of the philosophy of history,
and also illustrates the theory of the sur-
vival of the fittest. First, the Gaul, pecu-
liarly fitted for the work, explores three-
fourths of i\merica, obtains a large amount
of land, and then drops out. Next the
Visigoth, the Spaniard, lazy and shiftless,
occupies the soil, mingles his blood with
the native races, becomes degraded and
loses all pretense to higher civilization.
Lastly the Anglo-Saxon, possessing in a
large measure the best qualities of the oth-
er two, with his endurance, steadfastness
of purpose and the strict preservation of
his nationality, which prevents him from
mingling wdth native tribes and becoming
degraded, is the actor on the scene who
stays the longest and is the greatest factor
in civilization.

However, the Spanish civilization still
endures and is our next door neighbor.
The history of the early Spanish civiliza-
tion car; best be studied in the original



manuscripts and official documents. One
of the first stej^s of Cortez after the Con-
cjuestwas to take immediate.actiou toward
tlie civilizing of the countr}'. He rebuilt
the cai)ital, organized the country, intro-
duced wlieat and rice, high grades of
horses, cattle antl sheep, also water wheels
and other machinery, and all the arts of
Ohl S|)ain. He also endeavored to marry
his soldiers to the natives and make colo-
nists of them, — even brought his own wife
from Cuba. Restrictions were ]jlaced on
gambling and other extravagances.

The Spaniard found Mexico much the
same as his own Spain. He could bask
in the sunshine and live at ease; but he
had to live as a strong master. Cortez's,
soldiers had, a large part of them, equipped
themselves and still owed for their equip-
ments; the expected gold not being found,
thev were in a bad state, so were given
lands to reward them. These lands they
would not work themselves, so pressed the-
natives into tlie service. This was the be-
ginning of the peon system. There were
no slaves in name, but a man might give
himself into the service of another during
his life, or gamble himself away, etc.
There were two parties in the Spanish
government ; the one in America favored
the holding of the natives as . slaves, the
other in Spain opposed it and passed laws
against it, but the}' were not enforced.
The settlers were offered lands to release
their slaves but they would not do it, for
land was useless without somebody to
work it. Later, African slaves were intro-
duced, which somewhat ameliorated the
condition of the natives. The governor
who succeeded Cortez took further meas-
ures to better the condition of the natives,
granting them privileges to nni shojjs and
engage in trades.

Now a new trouble arose. Tlie' newly
rich Spaniards entered into lavish expend-
itures and soon found themseb'cs in debt,
with all its attendant evils, upon tliem.
Mexict) was also sending ship loads of
gold to Spain, draining the country of
almost all its wealth except what the



SEMINA R Y N O TES. r 7 1

priests got. The Church, at the close of president at any time within six months,

the 1 6th century, had absorbed almost all Prices of land will vary with the location:

of the best lands of the country; still their all land east of meridian 97/4 degrees

influence was good, for they were about west longitude is to be sold at ^2.50 per

all that stood between the grandees and .acre, between 97^ degrees and 98 degrees

the natives. But the Pope sent f)ver the $1.50, and land west of 98 degrees ^i.

Inquisition and within thirty years aljout The secretary of the interior is to have

2,000 perished. All this time the Indians the country divided into counties, and

were gratlually losing their lands till they the sixteenth and thirty-second sections

had almost none left. The negroes had of each township are reserved as school

become so intermingled with the natives lands. It is reported that the manner of

that there was haidly any pure stock left. opening the strip will be different from

Bad laws were passed, taxes were enor- that employed in Oklahoma. There will

mous, sale of offices common, every right be no headlong rush for claims,

of "the weak abused, until b)- the end of "National Methods of Indian Admin-

the 17th century Mexico was in a dreadful istration " were described by Miss C. E.

condition. Becker. Indian affairs are under -the

James Owkn, Reporter. control of the commissioner of Indian

— affairs, although the secretary of the in-

^nPHE Seminary met in regular session, terior, who appoints the commissioner, is

oJb Auril 21, 180-;, Professor Hodder the nominal head. There is a general



d-^o



presiding. The lirst paper on ''Institu- belief that the Indian appropriation of

tions of the Cherokee Nation," by Mr. A. $5,000,000 per annum is larger than nec-

A. Bessey, is printed in full m this issue essary, but this is not the case. That

of the Notes, and therefore will not be the provision for the Indian is none too

reported here. ample is shown by the fact that, as late as

Mr. A. S. Foulks followed Mr. Bessey 1891, Indians perished from starvation.

with a paper entitled ''The Opening of Only forty thousand, out of the two hun-

the (Cherokee Strip." The ojjening of dred and fifty thousand Indians in this

the Cherokee outlet is a result of the country, are supported by the government.

agitation begun by Payne and Couch, an Hunger was the cause of the late Indian

agitation likely to continue until all vacant outbreak, anil of that made by the Sioux

Indian lands are thrown open to settle- in 1876. The Indians were starxing, and

ment. The outlet is situated in the north- tried to leave the reservation and get

western part of Indian Territory, and something t(j eat,, but were (lri\en back

contains 8,166,682 acres of land, a con- by the troops. The judicial department

siderable i)art of which is already oc- is too lax, especially in its treatment of

cupied. The land is claimed by both violations of the li(pior law. Courts con-

the Tonkawa and Cherokee Indians and ducted by Indians are now being intro-

both tribes are to be paid for it. The duced, and give great satisfaction. Tlvey

Tonkawas are sixty-seven in number and try infractions of rules drawn up by the

each indix-idual is to get a farm and $500. commissioner of Indian alfairs and serve

The Cherokees are also to be paid for without pay. There are now in Nebraska

their claim, and all Cherokees that made seven thousand Indians wlio have been

improvements on land in the strip prior to admitted to citi/enshi|). Tlie enfranchise-

i8yi, are to receive alhjtments of not ment of all the Indians, as fast as they

more than eighty acres. Tiie Cherokee become civilized enough, is the probable

nation is to have jurisdiction over civil solution of the Indian problem.

and criminal cases against Cherokee citi- ' !''• M- Moore, Reporler.

/ens. T.he strij) is to be opened' by the



172



SEMINAR Y NO TES.



- SEMINARY - NOTES. -

PUBLISHED ON THE FIRST DAY OF OCTOBER,

NOVEMBER, DECEMBER, FEBRUARY,

MARCH, APRIL AND MAY,

BY

the seminary of
Historical and Political Science.

State University, Lawrence, Kansas.
Frank W. Blackmar, \

r V- - _



to in this number, is reserved for future
publication in the Notes.



Frank H. Hodder, .
Epliraim D. Adams, )



Editors.



Terms, Ten Cents a Number, - Fifty Cents a Year

*T?n^ HE purpose of this publication is to increase the
(q) interest in the study of historical science in the
^^ ■ University and throughout the State, to afford
means of regailar communication with corresponding
members of the Seminary and with the general pub-
lic—especially with the Alumni of the University, and
to preserve at least the outlines ol carefully prepared
papers and addresses. The number of pages in each
issue will be increased as rapidly as the subscription
list will warrant. The entire revenue of the publi-
cation will be applied to its maintenance.
Address all subscriptions and communications to
F. W. BLACKMAR,

Lawrence, Kansas.



With the exception of the editorial
pages this number of Seminary Notes is
the practical work of the students in His-
tory and Sociology. Every article is the
result of especial observation and investi-
gation. It is the future plan of the in-
\ structors of the historical departments to
greatly enlarge the practical work of stu-
dents. Kansas does not present such
great opportunities for this kind of work
as do our large cities, but there are many
interesting features of past history and
present institutions that are worthy the
attention of students. There ought to be
an appropriation by the regents for histori-
cal research respecting Kansas institutions.
Other departments have provisions made
for laboratory work and why should not
the historical departments. Work of this
nature represents an important part of a
university student's education.



The excellent paper, entitled "A Glance
at New Spain," read by Mr. WoodVard
before the Seminary and elsewhere referred



One of the most interesting Seminaries
of the year was held Friday, May 5, when



Online LibraryKansas. UniversitySeminary notes published by the Seminary of historical and political science → online text (page 61 of 62)