Karl Alois Kneller.

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works of Von Fuchs, Kajetan Georg Von Kaiser (f 1871), Professor
of Chemistry at the Polytechnic at Munich, says: "Er ertrug die ihm
auferlegten Leiden (in seiner Todeskrankheit) mit der freudigen Ge-
duld , wie sie einem vom wahren Christentum erfiillten Gemiite ge-
wahrt wird. Sein katholischer Glaube war dep gefeite Platz seines
Herzens, an welchem er unter alien Priifungen sein eigenstes Selbst
wiederfand." His life-long belief is mirrored in the short remark in
one of his diaries, where he says referring to a serious misfortune,
which happened to him : "Gott hat noch andere Priifungen mit mir
vor" (Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft IV, Berlin 1871,
897 899)=

2 Ringseis, Nekrolog auf Fuchs, reprinted in Wiener Kirchen-
zeitung, 18. Juli 1856, 459.

16*



244 VII. MINERALOGY.

Institut Catholique, an institution founded for the
defence of religion 1 .

J. F. L. Hausmann (f 1859) was an orthodox Pro-
testant. Wappaus writes of him 2 :

"His philosophic principles were in perfect harmony with
his religious belief. Although he was never in the mid-
current of the more strenuous religious movement of his later
years he was always, like so many other scientists of his
period, a man of genuine piety, and in every vicissitude of
life he showed himself firm and steadfast in his religion.
His researches in his special branches of science never led
him beyond the frontiers of religious belief; he was unable
to understand the supposed conflict between science and
faith, and treated it as ridiculous rather than terrible. He
was an enquirer not only with his head but also with his
heart, and it was with good warrant that his old and in-
timate friend Karl Ritter said of him: His writings were a
hymn of praise to God/'

u On July 6*' 1 1894, there died at Paris suddenly and
prematurely, a scientist who was the pride of the De-
partment of Mines and one of the glories of French
science. What Fresnel was in the history of Physical
Optics, Maxwell in that of Magnetism and Electricity,
Edward Suess in that of Geology, this man had in less
that twenty years come to be in Crystallography and
Mineralogy. He had renewed the face of these two
allied sciences, and added to their domain vast pro-
vinces hitherto unknown or but dimly guessed at. When
on the morrow of his death the French Mineralogical
Society had engraved in letters of gold on its ceiling



1 V a 1 s o n , La vie et les travaux du baron Cauchy , Paris
1868, 205.

2 Sitzungsberichte der k. bayr. Akademie der Wissenschaften,
Miinchen 1860, 61.



J. F. L. HAUSMANN. E. MALLARD. 245

the name of Ernest Mallard, in company with the
ever-famous names of Haiiy, of Rome-de-1'Isle and of
Bravais, no one thought the honour too great for him,
nor could anybody think of a savant worthier to be
associated with the three illustrious founders of Crystallo-
graphy." *

Other French Reviews spoke in the same strain, and
to their praise was added that of the leaders of science
in every other country of Europe 2 . Lord Kelvin had
described Mallard as "one of the ablest minds of the
century" ; Fletcher declared at the Oxford meeting of
the British Association after his death that Mineralogy
had to lament "its greatest Philosopher" 3 . In Germany
he was characterised as "one of the finest mineralogists
of France whose works have done more than anything
else to raise Crystallography to its present undisputed
position among the exact sciences" 4 .

Much of Mallard's work was devoted to an attempt
to determine the constitution of the molecule of the
crystal, and it is unique for the penetration with which
he deduces the inner structure of crystalline bodies from
their external properties.

Mallard wrote on Geology as well as on Mineralogy,
and also did good service to miners by his investi-



1 P. T e r m i e r in Bulletin de la Societe geologique de France,
3 me serie, XXIII, Paris 1895, 1 79-

2 De Lapparentin Annales des mines, 9 me serie, Memoires VII,
Paris 1895, 2 <>7 303. Wyrouboff in Bulletin de la Societe franc,,
de mineralogie, Paris 1894, 248 f.

3 Cf. Lapparent ante 297. Lord Kelvin himself at Lapparent's
request confirmed the genuineness of the utterance.

4 Wildermann's Jahrbuch der Naturwissenschaften , Freiburg
1895, 438.



246 VII. MINERALOGY.

gations concerning safety-lamps and the use of blasting
materials in mines.

In 1872 Mallard delivered a discourse at Rive-de-Gier
on the "History of the Earth". The manuscript of the
lecture, published after his death, contains the follow-
ing passage:

"Man should not be too exalted; he should continually
remind himself that he is a little flickering light of ephemeral
duration, which the least breath may extinguish. Still less
should he hold too low an opinion of himself. He is truly
a creature made in the image of God, and, on this account,
he is permitted by means of his reason to enter into the
plans and thought of the Creator of all things. This ought
to be his highest ambition here below, and it is this ambi-
tion that science helps him to realize. . . .

"In my eyes, our true greatness, our real superiority con-
sists not in the fact that we possess better heating apparatus,
better clothes and better vehicles than our forefathers, but
in the fact that we know more than they did. We are not
in this world merely to enjoy ourselves, and to find here
the final purpose for which we were created. That would
be a sad goal if it were the end of man. No, we are here,
religion tells us, to love and serve God ; we are here, science
tells us, to try to understand and to admire the Will and
the Ideas of God; properly understood these two answers
are but one." *



1 II ne faut pas que 1'homme s' exalte trop ; il faut qu'il se rap-
pelle sans cesse qu'il est une petite lumiere vacillante, d'une ephe-
mere duree, que le moindre souffle eteint. Mais il faut encore bien
moins qu'il arrive a se trop mepriser. II est vraiment une creature
faite a 1'image de Dieu, et, a ce titre, il lui est permis d'entrer par
sa raison dans les desseins et la pensee du Createur de toutes
choses. Ce doit etre ici-bas sa plus haute ambition, et c'est cette
ambition que la science lui permet de realiser. . . . Nous ne sommes
point ici-bas pour jouir et pour consommer. Triste fin que celle-la,
si c'etait la fin de 1'homme. Non, nous sommes ici-bas, nous dit la



VIII. GEOLOGY. 247

Other scientists, who distinguished themselves in Mine-
ralogy, will be mentioned in another chapter.

VIII. GEOLOGY.

When the discussion turns on the relations between
Geology and Christianity we must first of all consider
the Mosaic account of the Creation, and its relation to
modern researches concerning the history of the earth.
If we wished to enter on the question we could name
a series of honoured geologists of the ig ih century who
sought to show the agreement between science and the
Holy Writ in this connection. For example, De Luc
(f 1817), G. Cuvier (f 1813), Mac Culloch (f 1835),
Von Fuchs (f 1856), Buckland (f 1856), Hugh Miller
(f 1856), De Serres (f 1862), Hitchcock (f 1864),
F. Pfaff (t 1886), Dana (f 1895), Dawson (f 1899),
W. Waagen (f 1900).

We here disclaim any intention of seeking to strengthen
the agreement between the Bible and Nature by the
testimony of naturalists. It is not necessary to lay any
weight on the proof of the agreement under conside-
ration .

A thousand years before the dawn of geological re-
search, St. Augustine put forward the view that the whole
world was made at one time and in the same instant,
and that the six days of the Mosaic account of Creation
were only a narration of the different classes and orders



religion, pour aimer et servir Dieu ; nous sommes ici-bas, nous dit la
science, pour tacher de comprendre et pour admirer la volonte et la
pensee divines: a bien les prendre , ces reponses n'en font qu'une.
Quoted from T e r m i e r ante 1 90.



248 VIII. GEOLOGY.

of creatures so that each and every thing created might
be pointed out with greater clearness as the work of
the Almighty power J . This interpretation has never
been condemned by the Church. Hence if Geology could
prove that the literal interpretation of the Biblical account
of creation is untenable, it would only be proved thereby
that the correct explanation of that part of Holy Writ
in terms of natural history was to be sought for on the
lines pointed out by St. Augustine. Of course there
can be no contradiction between the trustworthy results
of science, and the properly interpreted word of God.
But what are the trustworthy results of Geology, and
what is the correct interpretation of the revealed word
of God looked at from the point of view of natural
history? Holy Writ usually speaks of natural processes
in popular terms, derived from the external appearance
of things, which make no attempt to explain their
essence. From the trustworthy results of science we
must find out how the realities which underlie these
terms are to be understood. Accordingly, there can be
no question of any contradiction between Biblical ex-
pressions and scientific knowledge. On the other hand
it is extremely difficult, when treating of Geology, to
separate trustworthy results from hypotheses more or
less probable. What is the accepted view to-day may
in twenty years time be recognised as an error. Therefore
caution is necessary in investigating the agreement be-
tween the Bible and Nature. Scholars have often read
their favourite geological opinions into Holy Writ, and

1 Deum ab exordio saeculi primum omnia creavisse , quaedam
conditis iam ipsis naturis, quaedam praeconditis causis (Aug., De
Genesi ad litt. 7, 28). Concerning the history of the work of the
six days v. F. de Hummelauer, In Genesim, Parish's 1895, 49 ff-



BIBLE AND NATURE. 249

then defended them as revealed dogmas. Some have
tried to bring the text of Holy Writ into harmony with
what were apparently results of science, but which in
reality were not scientific results 1 .

So, when we draw attention below to investigators
who believed in the Bible, or bring forward statements
made by them concerning the Mosaic account of Crea-
tion, it is not because of those statements themselves,
nor is it in order to recommend in detail the methods
by which these scholars sought to reconcile science and
Holy Writ. Such statements, or the mere fact that a
famous geologist accepted the Biblical account, are valu-
able to us merely in so far as they are proof that the
scholars referred to found nothing in the trustworthy
results of their science which stood in clear contradiction
with Holy Writ, or with the other essential foundations
of Christianity. In this way we shall of course bring
forward as proof the belief in the Bible entertained
by famous geologists. As an instance we shall take
the first of the scientists mentioned above, as he was
the first of the investigators whose activity falls at
least partly into the 19 th century. Jean Andre De
Luc, born at Geneva in 1727, died at Windsor in
1817, a highly respected geologist in his day, was a
zealous defender of Christianity. "Is it not touching",
writes Abbe Emery to Cardinal Fesch 2 in 1803, "to find
in a Protestant such zeal for the defence of Revelation.
He said to Barruel that he would be grieved if there
were a single quarter of an hour in his life which was



1 Cf. J. Knabenbauer in Stimmen aus Maria - Laach XLVI
(1894) I40I43-

2 Vie de M. Emery II, Paris 1862, 31.



250 VIII. GEOLOGY.

not utilised in defence of the Christian Revelation." It
is perhaps still more surprising that De Luc saw in the
Catholic Church the only bulwark against unbelief. "I
am convinced", said De Luc 1 , "that Revelation can be
guarded only by the Catholic Church, that all Protestant
churches lead to Deism. Should I meet anyone who
was unhappy I would advise him to enter the Catholic
Church."

To-day De Luc's writings are out of date, but his
scientific works certainly show a marked superiority
to those of the Encyclopaedists. For this we have the
testimony of a witness of whose competence there can
be no question.

G. Cuvier ranks him several times with the first geo-
logists of his day 2 ; in one passage with Pallas, Saussure,
and the school of Werner, in another with the same
and with Dolomieu, and Ramond.

In other places, too, he speaks of his w r orks with
marked respect 3 . In K. C. Von Leonhard's eyes De Luc
was "one of the acutest minds amongst the geologists
of his time - whose services to our science stand in
need of no exposition" 4 .

George Cuvier (f 1832), the great zoologist and
geologist, was, as is well-known, a believing Christian and
often expressed himself to that effect.

1 Vie de M. Emery II 32. Cf. El i e Her i c , Hist, de M. mery
II, Paris 1885, 217 219.

2 Rapport hist, sur les progres des sciences naturelles et physi-
ques depuis 1789 et sur leur etat actuel, presente au gouvernement
le 6 fevr. 1808, Paris 1827, 161 166.

3 Ib. 168 169 171 173.

4 Aus unserer Zeit in meinem Leben I, Stuttgart 1854, 138.
Leonhard censures (ante) De Luc's excessive predilection for certain
daring opinions.



GEORGE CUVIER.



"Our sacred books", he says in one place in recom-
mending the study of natural history, "bring before our
eyes at the very outset the Creator bidding his creatures
pass under the gaze of the first man and commanding
him to give them names." Cuvier discerns in this a
deep allegorical meaning. "It teaches us clearly that
one of our first duties is to cultivate a sense of the good-
ness and wisdom of the Author of Nature by a conti-
nuous study of the works of His power." l Pasquier,
who was chosen to deliver the eulogy on him in the
Chamber of Peers on 17 th December 1833, says of
Cuvier's famous Treatise on Fossils: "These researches
rest on a deeply moral and religious foundation. Cuvier,
like all masters of thought, believed in a first cause,
which directs the destinies of all creatures, and which
has foreseen and ordered all. From this point of view
there could be no doubt that the existence of organised
beings proceeds from a supreme intelligence which has
fitted them all with organs suited for the purpose for
which they were created. This necessary interdepen-
dence put into his hands the means of determining with
certainty the remaining undiscovered parts of an or-
ganism from parts already known." 2

Cuvier was a Protestant, but in the Education De-
partment and in the Council of State of which he was a



1 Nos livres saints, a leur debut, nous representent le Createur
faisant passer ses ouvrages sous les yeux du premier homme , et lui
ordonnant de leur imposer des noms : heureuse allegoric qui nous en-
seigne assez clairement que 1'un de nos premiers devoirs est de nous
penetrer de la bonte et de la sagesse de 1'auteur de la nature, par
une etude suivie des oeuvres de sa puissance (Cuvier, Rapport sur
1'etat de 1'hist. nat. : Eloges III 450).

2 Reprinted in the Ami de la religion 74, Paris 1833, 622.



252 VIII. GEOLOGY.

member, "he never showed himself hostile to the Catholic
religion or to the Catholic clergy. On the contrary he was
more favourable to them than many of his fellow mem-
bers who were supposed to be Catholics. We have
several times heard this testimony given by a prelate
and ecclesiastic who had experience of him in numerous
connections and who praised his judgment,, his justice
and his moderation" 1 .

Cuvier was unable to discover any contradiction
between geological facts and the Biblical account of
Creation.

At a later date Marcel De Serres (f 1862) dealt
in many works with the agreement of the Biblical cos-
mogony with the facts of Geology 2 . He was a first
rate expert in his 'special branch. The "extraordinarily
active and productive" De Serres, says Von Zittel 3 , has
done a giant's work in many departments of Geology.
In France, especially, he, with his two assistants Dubreuil
and Jeanjean, "was one of the great pioneers of cave
research".

For the theory of the formation of mountains modern
science is deeply indebted to the "epoch-making works
of a French geologist", Leo nee Elie De Beaumont
(f I8/4) 4 . Born in 1798 of an old and noble family



1 Ami de la religion 72 (1832), 160.

2 La cosmographie de Mo'ise comparee aux faits geologiques I,
Paris 1838; II, Paris 1841, deutsch von Steck, Tubingen 1841;
Les connaissances consignees dans la Bible mises en rapport avec
les decouvertes modernes, Paris 1844.

3 Geschichte der Geologic und Palaontologie bis Ende des 19. Jahr-
hunderts, Mtinchen und Leipzig 1899, 311.

4 Cf. for him Jos. Bertrand, Eloges academiques, Paris 1890,
77103.



M. DE SERRES. L. E. DE BEAUMONT. 253

of Normandy, Elie De Beaumont, after a highly distin-
guished course of study at the Paris Polytechnic School,
devoted himself to Mining Engineering, and by inde-
fatigable observations and surveys in the Cantal and
Mont d'Or Mountains, hr the Alps, on Etna, in the
Vosges , in the Ardennes , in Dauphine , on Mont-
blanc, and by the exhaustive work in which he recorded
his observations, rose to be the leader of his science in
France. His masterpiece is a geological map of France
which was begun by him in conjunction with Dufrenoy
in 1825, and which occupied eighteen years in completion.
"This great work exercised a powerful influence on the
entire development of French Geology, and gave both
authors a well-earned place amongst the leading scientists
of France." De Beaumont filled positions of the first
importance. He became Professor in the Ecole des
Mines and in the College de France, and was Chief
Inspector of Mines from 1835. "In this capacity, and
further as Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour, as
Senator of the Empire, Permanent Secretary of the In-
stitut de France, and from 1861 Vice-President of the
Council General of Mines, Elie De Beaumont exercised
a wide and weighty influence which was employed with
great unselfishness and impartiality in the interests of his
colleagues. After the conclusion of his general survey,
De Beaumont conducted many special surveys in France.
He died on September 2i 8t 1874. He gained for himself
an imperishable name by his brilliant and indeed epoch-
making works on the age and origin of mountain systems."
After this glowing eulogy of the great scientist by the
German geologist Von Zittel \ it is hardly necessary to



1 Gesch. der Geologic 451 ff.



254 VIII. GEOLOGY.

set down the opinions of his own compatriots. Still
a few extracts from the funeral oration pronounced over
him may be quoted. Laboulaye declared:

"For more than twenty years there has not been in all Europe
a geologist or mineralogist but betook himself to filie De
Beaumont to learn his science from him. He was the head
of a school. His ideas, his methods, were carried over the
whole world by his pupils, and they bore with them also
the renown of his great name." l

Even more enthusiastic was the praise which J. B. Dumas
lavished on his dead friend. We may quote it here
because the orator dwelt among other things on the
religious beliefs of De Beaumont:

"The great scientist whom we have accompanied to his
last resting-place, one of the most learned men of the cen-
tury, belonged not only to our association (The Academy
of Science), not only to France. His glorious name was in
every civilised country and in every nation, the personifica-
tion of Geology itself, taking the word in its most scientific
and its highest meaning." 2

Then follows a short characteristic passage from the first
notable work of the deceased (published in 1829), which
closes with the words of the ii3 th Psalm "The earth trembled
before the countenance of the Lord, the sea saw it and
fled, the mountains leapt like the rams and the hills like
the lambs."

"filie De Beaumont's method of work, and the turn of
his genius stand completely revealed in these three circum-
stances. The materials on which his theory is founded were
collected with endless patience, and tested with rigorous ac-
curacy. His piercing imagination drew from them sublime
conclusions. His piety interwove them without effort into
one texture with the sacred writings. An indefatigable ob-
server, persevering and precise; a poet after his fashion, a



1 Comptes rendus LXXIX, Paris 1874, 722. 2 Ib. 710.



L. E. DE BEAUMONT. 255

poet inspired with all the passion of lofty ideas ; a Christian
always, and a convinced Christian ; such does lie de Beau-
mont show himself in this admirable work of his youth;
such he remained all his life." l

The great scientist was snatched away by a sudden but
not unexpected death. "Elie De Beaumont understood all
his duties and neglected none of them : he was ever ready,
and if the angel of death touched him with his wing without
warning he did not surprise him. He was one of those
men whose debts are always paid. His pure and immortal
spirit, was able without anguish or dismay to take its leave
of the world, the splendours and harmonies of which he had
wrought so nobly to reveal. It was able to ascend in peace
to those regions of light, the fixed object of the aspirations
of our venerated comrade, and to appear with confidence
before that sovereign judge in whom he had always placed
his hopes and his faith." 2



1 La maniere de travailler de M. Elie de Beaumont et le tour de
son genie se revelent tout entiers dans ces trois circonstances. Les
materiaux sur lesquels va se fonder sa doctrine, sont recueillis avec
patience et controles avec une rigoureuse exactitude. Sa vive imagi-
nation en tire des consequences sublimes. Sa piete les rattache, sans
effort, aux textes sacres. Observateur infatigable, perseverant et sur ;
poete a sa maniere, et poete passionne pour toutes les idees elevees ;
chretien toujours , et chretien convaincu : tel se montrait M. Elie
de Beaumont dans cette oeuvre admirable de sa jeunesse ; tel il est
reste" toute sa vie (Comptes rendus LXXIX, Paris 1874, 712).

2 Mais M. Elie de Beaumont comprenait tous ses devoirs; il n'en
negligeait aucun : il e"tait toujours pret, et si 1'ange de la mort 1'a
touche de son aile sans 1'avertir, il ne 1'a point surpris. II etait de
ceux dont les dettes sont toujours payees. Son ame immortelle et
pure a du quitter sans trouble et sans effroi cette terre, dont il a
tant contribue a reveler les splendeurs ou a faire admirer les har-
monies. Elie pouvait remonter calme vers les regions sereines, objet
constant des aspirations de notre venere confrere , et se presenter
confiante devant le souverain Juge en qui il avait toujours place
ses esperances et sa foi (ib. 714). Also Jos. Bertrand (Eloges
academiques 102) says: Pieusement fidele aux enseignements de son



256 VIII. GEOLOGY.

Another speaker praised in particular De Beaumont's
benevolence to the poor: -

"What a chorus of praise and gratitude would arise here,
if I could assemble around this grave all whom your bene-
volent hand succoured in their distress. You yourself were
the first to forget the innumerable instances of generosity
of which we have heard only from those whom you helped.
I will respect, even at this final moment, your noble reti-
cence. It is not we on this earth who can give you the
reward of such deeds. They have already found their worthy
and true reward in a better world, in the bosom of Him
Who gave you your inspiration, to the teachings of Whom
you ever lent a submissive ear." 1

The speaker of these words was himself a famous
scholar, and had behind him an active life, rich in scientific
achievements, Ch. Sainte-Claire Deville (f 1876)2.
He chose as the object of his studies the Southern
Antilles, more especially Guadeloupe, a district the geo-
logy of which had scarcely been investigated at all.



enfance , la foi eclairee d'Elie de Beaumont les conciliait avec la
hardiesse de ses etudes. Les pratiques commandees etaient accomplies
avec 1'assiduite tranquille qu'il apportait a tous ses devoirs. . . .

1 Mais quel serait le concours d'eloges et de reconnaissance qu'on
entendrait ici , si je pouvais rassembler autour de cette lombe tous
ceux que votre main bienveillante a secourus dans la detresse. Vous
oubliiez vous-meme le premier ces traits innombrables de generosite,
dont la connaissance ne nous est parvenue que par ceux que vous
aviez obliges. Je veux respecter, encore d ces derniers moments,
votre noble susceptibilite. Ce n'est pas nous, d'ailleurs, sur cette
terre, qui pouvions vous donner le prix de telles oeuvres. Elles ont
deja trouve dans un monde meilleur leur digne et veritable recom-
pense dans le sein de celui qui vous les a inspirees, et dont vous



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