ben Brmeen jc. getotffe ofonomifdje 93er$altnif|e toie £o$n*
arbett, SRafdjinerie *c. fritter enttmdfelt [toerben] ate im
$nneren ber bfirgerlidjen ©efeUfdjaft. Sfad) bad 83er$altm3
bon ^robuliibfraft unb SerfeljrSberljaltmffen toirb befonber£
anfdjaulid) in ber Wratee.
2. $er$5Itni£ ber bteljerigen tbealen ©efdjidjtSfdjtetbung
3ur realen. SlamentRdj bie fogenannte Jhilhtr$efd)td)te, bie
atte SteligimtS* unb ©taatengefdjidjte.
Set ber ©elegenljeit fann audj ctmaS gefagt toerben fiber
bie berfdjiebenen Wrten ber bteljerigen ®ef($t<$tsfd)reibung.
(Sogenannte objeftibe. ©ubjeftibe. (3JtoraItfc§e unb anbere.)
3. ©e!unbare§ unb XertiareS. VUhttfyxupt
abgeleitete, fibertragene, ntdjt urfbrungltdje
gfrobuftumSberljaltniffe. #ter [tft ba3] ©nfoielen ber
tntemarionalen SSer^altntffe [gu beljonbeln].
4. SSortofirfe fiber aWoterialiSmuS biefer Sfuffaffung.
SBer^altniS gum naturalifttfdjen SKateriallStnuS.
5. Stfalefiif ber SSegriffe ^robuftibfraft ($robuftion§*
— 308 —
tnittel) unb ^hcobulttongpetljaltmS, etne SHaletftf. beren
©ren^en 311 befttmmen fhtb unb bie reolen Untetfateb nidjt
6. Sad unegale Qerljaltnid ber Sntouftung bet mote*
rieflen $robu!tion aunt Seifpiel jut funftlcrifdjen. Ue&er*
Ijaupt ift ber Segriff bed gortfdjrittd nid)t in bee gemote
lichen Slbftraftton au faffen. Set ber flunft k. ift biefe 3>td>
proportion nod) nicfy fo toidjtig unb fdjnncrig au faffen ate
innerljalb praftifdHojialer SJerfcaltniffe felbft. aunt Setfptel
ba& 83ilbungdDerf)altntd ber $ereinigten ©taatcn 311 Suropa
Ser eigent(id) fdjioierige $unft, ber fcier au erdrtem ift
abfr ber, tote bie $robuftiou$oerl)altmffe ate SRedjtSoertytlt*
niffe in unglcidje (?) Cnttoicttung trcten. Wfo aunt 93cn
fptel ba$ 93crftd(tm^ bed romtfdjen ^rioatr*d)td (tm flrimi-
nalredjt unb offentlidjen ift ba$ meniger ber gall) 3111:
7 ©iefe fcuffaffung erfcfeint~q(6 nottymenbtge Gntnricf*
lung. Hbcr 93ered)rigung bed 3ufalld. Varia 1 ($ie grei*
t)eit unb anbered nod).) (Sinmtrfung ber ftomtminifationd*
mittcl.) 2Beltgefd)id)te eigentlidf mdjt immer in ber
«efd>td)te aid meltgef*te*>t[lid>ed] JRefuItat.
8. 2>er Sludgangdpunft [ift] natur(id) Don ber ftatur*
beftinuntfcit [au netymen] ; fubjcftio unb objeftib, ©tamme,
3. Secondary and tertiary. Conditions of production
which have been taken over or transplanted ; in general,
those that are not original. Here [is to be treated] the
effect of international relations.
4. Objections to the materialistic character of this
view. Its relation to naturalistic materialism.
* 3» Origivot ft l« UU*' Va
* 3w OrttlMt III f k kfoi tall.
— 309 —
5. The dialectics of the conceptions productive
force (means of production) and relation of produc-
tion, dialectics whose limits are to be determined
and which does not do away with the concrete dif-
6. The unequal relation between the development
of material production and art, for instance. In
general, the conception of progress is not to be
taken in the sense of the usual abstraction. In the
case of art, etc., it is not so important and difficult
to understand this disproportion as in that of practi-
cal social relations, e. g. the relation between edu-
cation in the United States and Europe. The really
difficult point, however, that is to be discussed here
is that of the unequal ( ?) development of relations
of production as legal relations. As, e. g., the con-
nection between Roman civil law (this is less true
of criminal and public law) and modern production.
7. This conception of development appears to
imply necessity. On the other hand, justification of
accident. Varia. (Freedom and other points). (The
effect of means of communication). World history
does not always appear in history as the result of
8. The starting point [is to be found] in certain
facts of nature embodied subjectively and objective-
ly in clans, races, etc.
It is well known that certain periods of highest
development of art stand in no direct connection
with the general development of society, nor with
— 310 —
the material basis and the skeleton structure of its
organization. Witness the example of the Greeks
as compared with the modern nations or even
Shakespeare. As regards certain forms of art, as
g. the epos, it is admitted that they can never
be produced in the world-epoch making form as soon
as art as such comes into existence ; i n other words,
that in the domain of art certain important forms of
it are possi ble only at a low stage of its develop -
ment: If that be true of the mutual relations of
different forms of art within the domain of art
itself, it is far less surprising that the same is true
)f the relation of art as a whole to the general de-
velopment of society. The difficulty lies only in the
general formulation of these contradictions. No
sooner are they specified than they are explained.
Let us take for instance the relation of Greek art
and of that of Shakespeare's time to our own. It is
a well known fact that Greek mythology was not
only the arsenal of Greek art, but also the very
ground from which it had sprung. Is the view of
nature and of social relations which shaped Greek
imagination and Greek [art] possible in the age of
automatic machinery, and railways, and locomotives,
Jand electric telegraphs? Where does Vulcan come
in as against Roberts & Co. ; Jupiter, as against the
lightning rod; and Hermes, as against the Credit
j Mobilier? All^ mythology masters^ an^ dpmini^ea^
: and shapes the forces of nature in and through the
j imagination; hence it disappears as soon as man
— 311 —
ga ins mastery over the forces of nature. What be-
comes of the Goddess Fame side by side with Print-
ing House Square? 1 Greek art presupposes the exis-
tence of Greek mythology, i. e. that nature and even
the form of society are wrought up in popular fancy
in an unconsciously artistic fashion. That is its '
material. Not, however, any mythology taken at
random, nor any accidental unconsciously artistic
elaboration of nature (including under the latter all
objects, hence [also] society). Egyptian mythology
could never be the soil or womb which would give
birth to Greek art. But in any event [there had to
be] a mythology. In no event [could Greek art
originate] in a society which excludes any mytho-
logical explanation of nature, any mythological at-
titude towards it and which requires from the artist
an imagination free from mythology.
\ Looking at it from another side : is Achilles pos-
sible side by side with powder and lead? Or is the
Iliad at all compatible with the printing press and
steam press? Does not singing ahd reciting and the
muses necessarily go out of existence with the ap-
pearance of the printer's bar, and do not, therefore,
disappear the prerequisites of epic poetry?
But the difficulty is not in grasping the idea that
Greek art and epos are bound up with certain forms
of social development. It rather lies in understand-
ing why they still constitute with us a source of
aesthetic enjoyment and in certain respects pre*
1 The site ef the "Times" building in London. K. K.
— 312 —
vail as the standard and model beyond attainment
A man can not become a child again unless he
becomes childish. But does he not enjoy the artless
ways of the child and must he not strive to repro-
duce its truth on a higher plane? Is not the charac-
ter of every epoch revived perfectly true to nature
in child nature? Why should the social childhood
of mankind, where it had obtained its most beauti-
ful development, not exert an eternal charm as an
age that will never return? There are ill-bred chil-
dren and precocious children. Many of the ancient
nations belong to the latter class. The Greeks were
normal children. The charm their art has for us
does not conflict with the primitive character of the
social order from which it had sprung. It is rather
the product of the latter, and is rather due to the fact
that the unripe social conditions under which the
art arose and under which alone it could appear
can never return.
(End of Manuscript)
— 313 —
AUTHORS QUOTED IN ZUR KRITIK
Aristotle, 19, 41, 53, 78-79,
153, 154, 184.
Berkeley, Bischop, 32, 95-96,
Blake, 133. 250.
Blanc, Louis, 231.
Boisguillebert, 56, 59, 121,
133, 166, 168, 198.
Bosanquet, 124, 235, 242.
Castlereagh, Lord, 100.
Chevalier, 154, 215.
Franklin, 62-3, 155, 226.
Galiani, 30, 65, 85, 111, 134.
Garnier, 87, 141.
Genovesi, 51, 164.
Hume, D., 219, 221sq, 231.
Hume, J. D., 249.
Jakob, 141, 181.
Law, 226, 231.
Locke, 91, 93sq., 199, 219, 226,
Luther, 174-5, 190.
Mac Culloch, 31, 57.
Maclaren, 82, 231, 233.
Macleod, 71, 193.
— 314 —
Mandcvillc, Sir J., 164.
Mill, James, 123-4, 250 sqq.
Misselden, 165, 171, 174-5.
Montesquieu, 219, 227.
Oyerstone, Lord, 241, 258.
Peel, Sir R., 73, 100, 241, 258.
Peter Martyr, 210.
Petty, Sir W., 32, 56sq., 165.
Proudhon, 61. 72, 103, 107.
Ricardo, 56, 69sq., 71, 217,
231, 235. 250, 259.
Say, 34, 71, 123, 153, 233.
Senior, 178, 194.
Sismondi, 56, 77.
Smith, 34, 57, 61, 67-68, 80,
Stein, 21, 31-2.
Steuart, Sir James, 65sq., 94sq. ;
222, 227sq., 260.
Storch, 152-3, 179.
Tooke, 124, 247, 249, 260sq.
Xenophon, 181, 184.
ix riAV TTSE
6EHRAL LIBRARY -I
• • • : .1 £?*