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LIMITE D

MMERCIALSTATIONEI
EDMONTON
ALBERTA '



FATHER LACOMBE

THE BLACK-ROBE VOYAGEUR



FATHER LACOMBE



The Black-Robe Voyageur



BY
KATHERINE HUGHES



MCCLELLAND & STEWART

PUBLISHERS - - TORONTO



Copyright Canada, 1920

By MCCLELLAND & STEWART, Limited



TO

THE FAITH AND GRIT

OF THE UNWRITTEN HEROES

IN THE OLD GUARD OF OBLATE8

IN WESTERN CANADA



" Send me men girt for the combat,

Men who are grit to the core. . c
Send me the best of your breeding,

Lend me your chosen ones;
Them will I take to my bosom,

Them will I call my sons. . .
And I will not be won by weaklings,

Subtile, suave and mild,
But by men with the hearts of Vikings,

And the simple faith of a child/'

Service.



lizo



PREFACE

the Lake of the Woods at sunrise one morn-
ing in 1882 I saw a priest standing on a flat rock, his
crucifix in his right hand and his broad hat in the
other, silhouetted against the rising sun, which made
a golden halo about him, talking to a group of In-
dians men, women and pappooses who were listen-
ing with reverent attention. It was a scene never
to be forgotten, and the noble and saintly countenance
of the priest brought it to me that this must be Father
Lacombe of whom I had heard so much; and it was.

My acquaintance with him, begun that morning,
has been full of charm to me, and my only regret is
that in these later years the pleasure of meeting him
has come at lengthening intervals. His life, devoted
and self-sacrificing, has been like peaceful moonlight
commonplace to some, but to others full of quiet
splendour, serenity, mystery and of much more for
which there are no words.

We who know him love him because of his goodness
and we feel that he is great; but we may not say he
is great because of this or of that. His life has been
hidden from the world in far-away Indian encamp-
ments and it is there we must look for accounts of his
good works and great deeds.

The noble and elevating example of devotion and

vii



M525317



viii PREFACE

self-sacrifice that has been given us by Father La-
combe in his more than sixty years of work among the
Indians of Western Canada should not be lost, for
he would be stony-hearted indeed who would not be
softened and humanized by such an example, which
must bring even to the irreligious a feeling of pro-
found respect for the faith which inspired and sus-
tained this good man.

It is fortunate, therefore, that Miss Hughes who
is so well fitted in every way and especially by her
intimate knowledge of the country in which Father
Lacombe has laboured so long and with the conditions
surrounding him, should have undertaken a record
of his life, with a reverent love of her subject to guide
her pen; and I regard it as a very great honour that
she has asked me to write a Preface for her book.

W. C. VAN HOENE.
Montreal, 21st April, 1910.



FOREWORD

FATHER LACOMBE'S peculiarly vivid intellect
which even yet seizes upon every detail in events
and people that touch on his life holds the Past
as in a mirror. To avail myself of this knowledge
in securing quite accurate pictures of early West-
ern periods and incidents I have for some years
submitted this venerable man month after month
to what he laughingly termed " inquisitions."

Some others of the few real Old-Timers remain-
ing have likewise submitted to my " inquisitions,"
and generously contributed to my knowledge of
details. Their names occur in the narrative; I
desire to thank them here for their valuable
assistance.

I would also acknowledge my indebtedness to
my mends Bishop Legal, who opened to me the
Archives of St. Albert and his letters from Father
Lacombe, the Hon. Alexander Rutherford, who
gave me access to his library of rare Canadiana, and
others.

K. H.



CONTENTS



PART ONE

I
IN OLD QUEBEC

1839-1849

PAGE

Cha9e-Gdlerie Saint-Sulpice The Home Feast of the
New Year Childhood Remote Ancestor an Ojibway
Chief L' Assumption College Bishop's Palace, Mon-
treal Rev. Georges Belcourt Call of Western Mis-
sions Ordination. . . . ... ... . 3

II

THE WEST BECKONS
1849

Dramatic Scene in Palace Chapel Departure from Lachine
Bishop Loras and Dubuque A Missouri Flat-boat
One Month at St. Paul Father Ravoux A Coffin-bed
By Carts to Pembina Saulteux Indians Pillage
Travellers 14

III
HIS WANDERJAHR AT PEMBINA

1849-1850

Bishop Provencher and Red River Summer on the Plains
with Metis The Wild Glory of the Buffalo Hunt The
Manna of the Prairies Triumphal Procession of the

Primitive Man 22

xi



xii CONTENTS

IV

ON TO THE SASKATCHEWAN
1850-1852

PAGE

Returns to Montreal Meets Bishop Tache Volunteers for
Western Missions The Red River in Flood Replaces
Father Thibault at Fort Edmonton Voyage up Sas-
katchewan in York Boats Hardships of "Tracking
Crew" Chief Factor John Rowand Welcome to Old
Fort Edmonton 34



V
FORT EDMONTON IN ROWAND'S DAY

1852-1853

Headquarters of Hudson's Bay Company in Far West
Primitive Stronghold Rowand's Folly Lac la Biche
Studies Cree with Governor Simpson's Piper The
Bully Paulet Paul Defies His Friend Rowand, the
Napoleon of the Saskatchewan The Company's As-
sistance to Pioneer Missionaries . . . . . . .46



VI

EXPLORING A NEW FIELD
1853-1857

Blackfeet Trading at Fort Edmonton When Rum was Ex-
changed for Peltry Lac Ste. Anne T ache's First
Pastoral Visit Father Lacombe Journeys to Peace
River, 500 Miles Distant Novitiate Trip to Jasper
House Caught by Forest Fire Into the Country of
Warlike Blackfeet Three Mangled Bodies ... 59



CONTENTS xiii

VII

PALLISER AND SOUTHESK
1857-1861

PAGE

First Mission to the Blackfeet Distress in Epidemic Col-
ony at Lake Grows Palliser Expedition Dr. Hector
and Invalid Frain The fameux Alexis and Dog-train
Lord Southesk's Tribute to Father Lacombe An Un-
expected Visit and Gladness in the Forest Blackfeet
want Father Lacombe as their Praying-Man ... 70



VIII

AN ORGANIZING GENIUS AT PLAY
1861-1862

Tache Selects Site of St. Albert Father Lacombe Estab-
lishes Colony The Golden Age Builds First Bridge
West of Red River Initiates Transport of Freight
Across Prairies in Red River Carts Establishes First
School West of Red River Starvation on Plains
Plenty in Colony Father Lacombe Builds a Grist-

' . . . V ; ... 82



IX
VISITS FROM THE OUTSIDE WORLD

1862-1865

Governor Dallas Visits St. Albert Angered at Bridge
Lord Milton and Cheadle Arrive Out to the Plains
Encounter with Medicine-Man, White Eagle Murder
of Sarcee by Little Pine War-Party of Blackfeet
Threaten Fort Edmonton Dr. Rae Visits Father La-
combe Gaspard Lacombe American Miners Appear
on Saskatchewan Visit of Father Vanderburghe . . Q2



xiv CONTENTS

X

A CRUSADER OF THE PLAINS

1865

PAGE

Father Lacombe Assigned to Free-Lance Mission on Plains
Journeys by Dog-Train with Alexis Head-Chief
Sweet-Grass Establishment of St. Paul des Cris A
New Moses in a Camp of Israel Hunting Buffalo,
and Souls 107

XI
BATTLE BETWEEN BLACKFEET AND CREES

1865

Midnight Attack of Crees on Band of Chief Natous Father
Lacombe in Tent of Natous Amid Clamour of Battle
He Calls on Crees to Withdraw Crowfoot to the Res-
cue Father Lacombe Advances Alone Upon Firing-
Line Struck by Bullet Richard Hardisty's Welcome
to Rocky Mountain House 116

XII

COURSING THE WIDE PLAINS
1865-1867

Christmas at Fort Edmonton The Mess- Room of the
Gentlemen Adventurers Peace to Men of Good- Will
Jimmy-from-Cork Gibbons and Livingstone, Miners
Father Lacombe Rescues Abandoned Squaw Hard
Trip to Fort Carlton Bishop Grandin 124

XIII
A HUNTING GROUND FOR SOULS

1867-1868

On to St. Boniface The Company Brings in Its First Bri-
gade of Carts Sarcee Maiden Captive The House-
Tent Off to the Plains Band of Starving Indians . 136



CONTENTS xv

XIV
SOWING IN TEARS

1868

PAGE

Starving on the Winter Plains Bouillon of Moccasins and
Sinews Carcass of Dying Buffalo Camp of Chief
Sweet-Grass The Innocent Prodigals Welcomed to the
Camp-Fires Midnight-Mass on the Plains Tribute
of Sweet-Grass to the Pontiff 146

XV

IN PARTIBUS INFIDELIUM
1868-1869

Wins Sarcees by Coup d'EtatOn the Plains with Crees
Prevents Blackfoot Attack Welcomes Bishop Grandin
Quaint Notes of Episcopal Surroundings in partibus
infidelium A Successful Surgical Operation . . .157

XVI

ACROSS THE BORDER
1869-1870

Possibilities of Southern Transportation Father Lacombe
Departs for St. Louis Fort Benton Hunting Buffalo
from Deck of Flat-boat A Hurried Visit to Canada
Return West With Sister A Hard Winter on the
Plains Blackfeet March on Fort Edmonton . 168



XVII
RAVAGES OF SMALLPOX

1870

Fort Edmonton in State of Defence Narrow Escape of
Father Lacombe Journey to Fort Dunvegan on the
Peace Ravages of Smallpox Battles with the Disease
on the Plains A Year of Sad Memories . . . .178



xvi CONTENTS

XVIII

"I will tell you when my time has come!"
1870-1871

PAGE

Many Pagans Converted Head-Chief Sweet-Grass and His
Past Winter at Rocky Mountain House Compiles
Two Books in Cree Author of Great Lone Land
Another Summer on the Plains The Marriage of Wil-
liam Quaint Ante-nuptial Declaration . . . . .187



XIX

FRESH MARCHING ORDERS
1871-1872

With the Blackfeet A New Mission Along the Bow In-
vents an Illustrated Catechism The Beginning of the
End Rumours of a Transcontinental Railway Neces-
sity of Indian Schools Father Lacombe Receives Fresh
Marching-Orders Finds Winnipeg Rising Out of Fort
Garry A New Life Beckons 201



PART TWO

I

THE PLAINSMAN ABROAD

1872-1873

Archbishop Tascherau Father Lacombe Learns the Hard
Metier of a Beggar Government Grant to Cree Dic-
tionary Sails for Europe Ploughing London Arch-
bishop Manning Experiences in Paris Louis Veuillot
Tours France and Germany Homesick for the
Plains ..215



CONTENTS xvii

II

OTTAWA POLITICS AND RED RIVER
COLONIZING

1873-1876

PAGE

Archbishop Tache and Sir John Macdonald The Trouble-
some Amnesty Sir Aime Dorion Appeals to Father
Lacombe St. Mary's, Winnipeg Years of Coloniza-
tion Ungrateful Nature of the Work James J. Hill
Donald Smith W. F. Luxton Execution of the
Metis Angus V. ' ^ 1 . . ' . 227

III
THE PLAINS INDIANS ARE CORALLED

1876-1880

Plains Indians are Brought Into Treaty Relations North-
West Mounted Police Buffalo Disappear Famine
Stalks over Plains Father Lacombe Journeys to Rome
Echo of the Fifties The Canadian Pacific Ap-
proaches the West Father Lacombe Appointed Chap-
lain to Construction Camps 241



IV
CHAPLAIN ON FIRST TRANSCONTINENTAL

1880-1882

A Tourney with Disorder Deplorable Conditions of Camps
Visit of Marquis of Lome Father Lacombe Longs
for Indian Missions Released 251

V
THE VANISHING WILDERNESS

1882-1883

Twelve Hundred Miles in a Buckboard Pioneers in Prairie-
Schooners and Red River Carts Old Fort Edmonton



xviii CONTENTS

PAGE

Slipped Into the Past Returning to Wilderness, Finds
It a Frontier Mounted Police Posts Letter from His
Mother . .261



CANADIAN PACIFIC MARKS EPOCH

1883 ?

The Canadian Pacific Invades the Far West Father Lacombe
Quiets Blackfeet The Frontier Town of Calgary
First Train to the Bow Luncheon in the President's
Car Father Lacombe President of the C. P. R. for
One Hour Ex-officio Arbiter in Horse-thefts The
New Order . 272



VII
FOUNDATION OF INDIAN SCHOOLS

1883-1884-

A Picturesque Western Invasion Growth of Calgary Plan
of Indian Industrial Schools Sir John's Views
"Learning and Piety Are not All-sufficient" Father
Lacombe Establishes Dunbow School Remarkable
Progress in His Mission Field 282



VIII

METIS REBELLION OF 1885
1885

Misunderstandings Between Government and Western Na-
tives A Government's Fatuity Half-breeds' Impa-
tience Riel Brought Back To Arms! Father La-
combe Aids in Quieting Blackfeet Visit to Northern
Crees The Watchword, "Lacombe" 292



CONTENTS xix

IX
TOURS THE EAST WITH CROWFOOT

1885-1888

PAGE

Pleads for Release of Indian Warriors Tours East with
Blackfoot Chiefs, as Guests of Government Indians
Impressed with Military Force Crowfoot's Chivalry
Trip to Vancouver Murder of Archbishop Seghers
Campaign of Begging in East Opposition to Metis
Colony 808



, X

A NEW WEST EMERGES
1882-1892

The "chateau" at Lcthbridge First Council of Western
Catholic Clergy Visit of Lord Stanley Courtesy of
Van Home Death of Crowfoot Trip to Sechelt
Meets the Aberdeens Demoralization of Metis Hos-
pital for Indians S19



XI

MANITOBA SCHOOL QUESTION LOOMS UP
1892-1894

Bishops from the West Indian Passion Play Burning His
Ships Father Lacombe as Lieutenant of Archbishop
Tache Brief Respite in Hermitage The Joys of the
Open Road 333



XII
KEEPING STEP WITH PROGRESS

1894-1896

School Question Lingers Father Lacombe Secures Co-
operations of Hierarchy Tour with Rev. Father Soul-



CONTENTS

PAGE

lier Death of Archbishop Tache Assigned to Edmon-
ton Plans a New Work to Aid Metis Secures Bridge
Over Saskatchewan for City of Edmonton . . . . 345



XIII

SCHOOL QUESTION OVERTHROWS
GOVERNMENT

1894-1896

Thrust Into Political Arena Letter to Wilfrid Laurier In- .
tense Interest in Campaign Which Rouses Dominion
Remedial Bill Rejected General Elections Crushing
Defeat of Government 359



XIV

OPENING UP OF NORTH COUNTRY
1896-1899

Returns to South Bishop Legal Illness and Financial
Cares Gift from Queen Victoria Abbe de Bie Klon-
dyke Rush Opens Up North Treaty Commissioners
for North Appointed Father Lacombe Adviser
Unique Celebration of Jubilee in Forest 372



XV

DATUR-OMNIBUS
1899-1900

Historical Fort Chipewyan Disconsolate Gold-seekers
Homeward Bound Fort McMurray Murder of
Witigo Golden Jubilee at St. Albert Bishop Gran-
din's Toast Why Father Lacombe Was Never Made
'a Bishop To Europe in Interest of Ruthenians . .387



CONTENTS xxi

XVI

AT THE AUSTRIAN COURT
1900-1902

PAGE

Audience with Emperor Francis Joseph The Oblate's Only
Decoration Renews Friendships in London Poverty
of Diocese A Fresh Campaign of Begging in the East 402

XVII

RETIREMENT TO HERMITAGE
1902-1904

Death of Bishop Grandin A Financial Success One of the
Old Guard Lord Mountstephen's Generosity Retires
to Hermitage Disaster at Frank To the East with
Hands Outstretched Again 417

XVIII

A HERMIT WHO WOULD NOT STAY AT HOME
1904-1908

Journey to Rome and the Holy Land "Le meux Papa" as-
tonishes Pilgrims Rumoured Passing to Greek Rite
Meeting of Pius X and Father Lacombe "M'sieu
I'Empereur" Loss of Noted Cross Destruction of Col-
ony School New Plan for Memoirs 429

XIX
THE PARTING OF THE WAYS

1908-19

Abandonment of Metis Colony Home for Destitute In-
dian School System First Catholic Congress in New
World Political Views of Father Lacombe Attends
First Plenary Council Diamond Jubilee Gaspard La-
combe Meets Strathcona Again Opening of Lacombe
Home . 442



PART I



FATHER LACOMBE

THE ENTRANCE

"All the world's a stage. . . i '
And one man in his time plays many parts,
His Acts being seven Ages"

THE first half of the nineteenth century was draw-
ing to a close: Canada was in the throes of national
birth. Montreal having looked on at its Parlia-
ment Buildings destroyed by fire, and authority's
symbol, the Mace, tossed about on the shoulders of a
mob lay in the grim shadow of a cholera epidemic.

Meanwhile out over the beckoning trails of the
green West a stripling of twenty was making his way
into the wonderland of the voyageurs the mysteri-
ous and little-known Pays dfen Haul. He brought
with him little more than the staff and scrip of the
medieval pilgrim this Monias, but he was of the type
that trader and dusky trapper alike welcomed.

They found him at first moulded in the courtliness
and restraint of mariner characteristic of the men who
tutored him in the quiet old Palace at Montreal, but
there soon sprang up in him what the eagle-eyes of
the boy had always denoted a fearlessness, a force
and a primitive dignity that more than matched the
best material of the strong new country before him.

1



2 FATHER LACOMBE 1839

It is sixty years since then at this time of writing
and through all that formative period of the West
the figure of this stripling rounding into maturity,
or bending to a venerable old age stands silhouetted,
in imperious lines or again with tender charm, against
the pages of western history.

At the outset he appears as a knight-errant on
the western Plains a picturesque figure with the
Red Cross of his flag floating above him, here, there
and everywhere along the prairies between the Red
River and the Mountains of the Setting Sun . . .
now sharing the tepees of the nomad tribes; now
making a stand at some mission-place with axe and
plough guiding the Metis and Indian to the ways of
the white man . . . leading them out from the
blanket and tepee to the school and homestead.

As time passes, on some of his endless journey ings
to and fro across the Continent he appears on the
plains again a peaceful Clovis leading his country-
men from a land outgrown to new fields of promise.
And when a young civilization of many needs, spirit-
ual and material, emerges from the prairies the
knight -errant of Western priesthood is found again
and again measuring the gray corridors of Canada's
Parliament Buildings or suppliant for others in the

cold magnificence of European courts.



Then fell the evening of Life. The vigorous form
grew bent and the erstwhile shoulders narrowed.
. . . Now there remains in his Hermitage among



1839 FATHER LACOMBE 3

the foothills an old Christian medicine-man with only
the warmth and light of his wonderful eyes undimmed
by Time: relit perhaps with the radiance of the light
that shines across the Great Divide.



THE character of the race from which Albert La-
combe sprang is most subtly revealed in Quebec's old
legend of the Chasse-Galerie.

It is an exquisite mosaic of racial and domestic
feeling, instinct with the warmth and daring and in-
souciance of the Canadien habitant misty with the
pathos of the Canadien errant.

It grew up imperceptibly in the days of the Old
Regime, when the reckless voyageurs pushed farther
and farther west in the wake of Le Verandrye's canoe,
and the hearts of their womenfolk followed after.

It mirrored the dare-devil hearts of the coureurs de
bois drawn home on New Year's Eve from far-off
Athabasca and Saskatchewan to the glowing hearths
of their kinsfolk on the banks of the St. Lawrence.

On that one night their souls sickened of the stern,
coarse life in far-off trading posts, of stag dances in
the Bachelors' Hall and the ungraceful shuffle of
blanketed squaws. Their ghostly canoes so the
legend runs rode down the winter storm with spirit-
cargoes.

Their wraiths, invading the cheery homes of Que-
bec, embraced the old people and stole kisses from the



4 FATHER LACOMBE 1839

girls in the dances then, man Dieu, were whisked
up again into the canoes; and pallid with regrets
borne back to the wilderness.

In this legend of the Chasse Galerie there is em-
bodied the spiritual essence of French-Canada and its
people the tinge of mysticism that hints of the poet-
heart, the fine daring, the warm sympathies, the quick
forgetfulness, the love of home, the joy of life. And
this is the land and these the people that produced
Father Lacombe.

Whether or not the Chasse Galerie came home for
the fireside feast in 1839, the chimes in the gray tower
of Saint Sulpice rang out a heartening welcome to
the New Year. Twenty miles across the snow the
gay carillon was answered with peals from the
churches of Montreal; and in the home of Albert
Lacombe, worthy habitant of Saint Sulpice, there
was a glad confusion.

The household was making ready for the ancient
ceremony of paternal blessing that ushers in the New
Year in a French-Canadian home. The father, con-
sciously fine in his best suit of homespun and his finest
linen woven by the deft hands of his goodwife, seated
himself in the old fauteuil that had belonged to his
father.

His wife carrying herself with loving pride
"like the queen of the home, doing its hon-
ours," her son recalls stood near him, watching ten-
derly the mobile trusting faces of their seven little



1839 FATHER LACOMBE 5

ones as they knelt about their father's knees, resting
their baby hands on his strong limbs.

Albert the eldest voiced prettily, as his mother
had taught him, their New Year's wishes for their
father, closing with a request for a blessing upon
themselves. Then suddenly, prompted by his own
exceedingly warm heart, he broke through the usual
forms of ceremony to cry to his mother:

"And, Maman, you know how we love you!"

In the raftered kitchen, whose brown wooden walls
and primitive furnishings were mellowed by the early
morning firelight this vivid tableau of habitant life
defined the starting-place of history in the life of
Father Lacombe, who was born in this "gentille pa-
roisse" of St. Sulpice on February 28, 1827.

Albert Lacombe was a quietly genial, industrious
man neither rich nor poor, attached to his home and
farmwork, with a desire to see his sons follow in his
own footsteps. He and his wife had never received
any adequate education as books go, but they were
versed in all the arts that made up the round of their
simple pleasant life in the leisurely parish.

Albert, pere f and Albert, fils, each spring went back
into a cabin in the maple woods and made sugar and
syrup to supply the household for the entire year.
The father enjoyed his pipe, his jokes and tricks
for he was full of a quaint humour his old camarades
and his occasional coup of boisson blanc the mint-
julep of the north. But he was not a hunter: he did



6 FATHER LACOMBE 1839

not even keep a gun in his house, and during the
Papineau Rising of 1837 he remained unexcited,
placidly loyal.

Like the majority of the Quebec habitants he drew
an exceeding delight from his pipe and home-grown
tobacco ; yet each year before midnight of Mardi Gras,
the eve of Lent, he would place his pipe with all the
solemnity of a rite upon the mantel, * 'where it re-
mained sleeping," says his son, "without tobacco,
smoke or fire until the feast of Easter. The pipe,
too, kept the fast."

Madame Agathe Lacombe, like her husband, was
of a cheerful domestic nature, pious, thrifty and in-
dustrious. She was a brunette of trim, strong phy-
sique and very active. Her son, however, resembled
his father in face and form rather than her.

Albert when not at school was kept closely at work
on the farm, and his boyish spirit chafed at the
monotonous round. Picking stones on new land,
feeding the pigs, driving the plough 1 This, when the
boy's heart in him was burning to leave the farm, to
go to college to be a great man, a priest maybe like
the old cure, Monsieur de Viau; or perhaps to leave
books altogether and like his grand-uncle, Joseph La-
combe, to go far into the Pays d'en Haul with the
fur-company and be the most daring voyageur of
them all. Either career seemed blissful to the boy,
for these two men were the heroes of his childhood.

The kindly old cure grew attached to the boy.
"Mon petit sauvage" (my little Indian), he used to



1840 FATHER LACOMBE 7!

call him not only because his skin and eyes were
flashing dark, but because his mother, Agathe Du-
hamel dite Sans-Facon, was the descendant of that
Duhamel maiden carried into captivity over a hun-
dred years earlier by an Ojibway chief. The French
girl bore him two sons before her voyageur uncle
stole her and the boys from a camp at Sault Ste.
Marie, and restored her to the Duhamels of Saint
Sulpice. One of these boys was an ancestor of
Madame Lacombe.

One Sunday afternoon in the summer of 1840 Al-
bert Lacombe with his wife and children sat sunning
themselves by the doorway of their home, when the
cure drove up to them in an old vehicle drawn by
a fat old horse. He seated himself for a short inti-
mate chat as a father might with his son.

He enquired about the crops, the farmwork, all
the good habitant's plans; then turning suddenly to-
ward the boy Albert he said:

"My little Indian, what are you going to do?"

The child's brain throbbed in confusion. He
knew; but how could he tell Monsieur le cure? He
looked desperately up to his father.

"Monsieur le cure'' the father said, "Albert would
go to the big college ; but I have no means to send
him. And besides I need him here to help me."

"My lad," said the old cure directing all his atten-
tion to the boy, "do you want very much to go to
college?"

Albert, always emotional, could make no reply in



8 FATHER LACOMBE 1847



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